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1542    TO    1908 






To  the  memory  of  the  late 
Foremost   pioneer   citizen   in   promoting 
the  civic,  industrial  and   moral  welfare 
of   Santa    Monica,   and   whose    life   was 
an   inspiration  to  noble  deeds,  this  vol 
ume  of  local   history   is  dedicated   by 
The    Author. 



HE  publication  of  this  book  is  in  no  degree  an  accident,  but  rather  the 
partial  fulfillment  of  a  long-cherished  plan  to  sometime  put  in  permanent 
and  fitting  form  the  annals  of  some  of  the  more  historic  and  romantic 
cities  and  towns  of  Southern  California.  This  ambition  dates  back  to  the  winter 
season  of  1888-9,  when  the  writer  arrived  in  the  "  Golden  State  ",  became  im 
pressed  with  the  transcendent  richness  of  its  past  history  and  its  abundant  promise 
of  future  growth  and  history-making.  What  might  have  been  regarded,  at  the 
time,  a  fancy,  or  inspiration,  has,  with  the  rapid  passing  of  two  decades,  devel 
oped  into  a  vivid  reality.  Obscure  hamlets  have  become  prosperous  cities ; 
where  then  were  open  stock  ranges  and  broad  fields  of  grain,  have  sprung  up 
marts  of  trade  and  commerce,  environed  by  progressive  and  prosperous  com 
munities.  Enough  time  has  elapsed  for  these  cities  and  communities  to  have 
acquired  a  history,  still  not  enough  for  any  considerable  portion  of  that  history 
to  be  lost.  A  few  years  hence,  conditions  in  this  latter  respect  will  have  entirely 

The  region  of  country  of  which  this  story  treats  lies  within  the  original 
confines  of  four  Spanish-Mexican  land  grants  bordering  the  bay  of  Santa  Monica 
and  has  hitherto  received  scant  attention  from  historical  writers.  When  the  good 
works  of  Hubert  Howe  Bancroft  and  Judge  Theodore  H.  Hittell  were  written 
the  wonderful  developments  of  the  past  twenty  years  had  not  transpired  and  the 
work  of  n:ore  recent  writers  has  been  of  so  superficial  a  nature  as  not  to  be  of 
special  historical  value. 

The  writing  of  history  is  not  the  thought  or  work  of  a  day,  but  rather  the 
diligent  pursuance  of  a  fixed  and  determined  purpose.  The  writer  of  fiction 
may  work  from  an  inspiration  based  upon  fertile  imagination ;  the  newspaper 
writer  is  the  chronicler  of  current  events ;  the  descriptive  writer  of  travel  pictures 
that  which  he  then  and  there  observes ;  but  the  historian  makes  a  truthful  record 
of  the  past,  stating  only  that  which  has  actually  transpired.  He  indulges  in 
no  ideals,  must  be  keen  in  discrimination,  never  self-opinionated  or  self-assertive, 
must  be  untiring  in  research,  a  faithful,  patient,  plodding  gleaner  of  facts  and 
an  inherent  lover  of  the  truth.  Lacking  these  virtues  he  is  without  his  calling. 

The  brief  history  of  California  and  Los  Angeles  county  is  herewith  given 
as  a  preface  to  the  local  history  in  order  that  the  reader  may  have  a  connected 
story  from  the  date  of  the  discovery  of  the  country.  The  state  chapters  are, 
with  the  exception  of  some  changes  and  additions,  reprinted  from  my  "  Century 
Annals  of  San  Bernardino  County,  California  (1904.)"  The  sketches  of  each 
of  the  twenty-one  Franciscan  missions  of  Alta  California  are  adapted  from 


•'  Missions  and  Landmarks  ",  a  meritorious  booklet  written  and  in  1903  published 
by  Mrs.  Armitage  S.  C.  Forbes,  a  zealous  student  and  authoritative  writer  upon 
California  missions  and  kindred  subjects. 

The  information  utilized  in  the  production  of  the  history  of  Los  Angeles 
county  and  the  Santa  Monica  Bay  Cities  has  been  gleaned  from  numerous  sources, 
prolific  of  which  have  been  the  works  of  Hubert  Howe  Bancroft,  Theodore  H. 
Hittell,  History  of  Los  Angeles  County,  Lewis  Publishing  Co.,  Chicago,  1890, 
Resources  of  California,  by  the  lamented  Charles  Nordhoff ;  Reminiscences  of 
A.  Ranger,  by  Major  Horace  Bell ;  California  Blue  Books,  old  maps  and  numerous 
old  legal  documents.  Acknowledgments  are  due  Editor  D.  G.  Holt  for  the 
loan  of  complete  files  of  his  Santa  Monica  Outlook.  Old  files  of  the  Los 
Angeles  Times,  the  Los  Angeles  Herald  and  the  Evening  Express  have  all 
reflected  light  upon  scenes  and  events  of  earlier  days.  Archives  of  the  city  of 
Santa  Monica,  of  the  city  and  the  countv  of  Los  Angeles,  have  been  freely  drawn 
upon.  Files  of  old  legal  documents  and  old  court  records  have  been  a  great 
aid  in  shaping  and  verifying  the  histories  of  land  grants. 

Uniform  courtesy  and  kindness  have  been  accorded  me  by  many  people  in 
my  quest  for  historical  data,  for  which  I  am  under  special  and  lasting  obligations 
to  Judge  J.  J.  Carrillo,  E.  J.  Vawter,  Hon.  John  P.  Jones,  W.  S.  Vawter,  R. 
R.  Tanner,  Esq..  Judge  Geo.  H.  Hutton,  Abbot  Kinney,  Robert  F.  Jones,  L. 
T.  Fisher,  Miss  Jennie  C.  Vawter,  Miss  Emma  Vawter,  Dr.  John  A.  Stanwood, 
Miss  Elfie  Moss'e,  Col.  G.  Wiley  Wells.  Mrs.  E.  K.  Chapin,  Rev.  J.  D.  H. 
Browne,  Mrs.  Laura  E.  Hubbell,  W.  I.  Hull,  Mrs.  May  K.  Rindge,  J.  B.  Procter, 
S.  W.  Odell,  Rev.  Stephen  H.  Taft,  Mrs.  Sarah  L.  Shively  and  W.  B.  B.  Taylor. 
It  affords  me  pleasure  to  here  make  due  acknowledgment  of  the  valuable  literary 
service  rendered  me  almost  from  the  inception  of  this  work  by  Miss  Rose  L. 
Ellerbe.  Her  mental  training  and  already  wide  experience  in  the  field  of  letters 
have  eminently  qualified  her  for  historical  labors  and  I  deem  it  fortunate  that, 
in  this  work,  I  have  been  able  to  command  her  splendid  abilities. 

The  biographical  matter  with  which  the  general  historical  chapters  are  sup 
plemented  will  prove  a  valuable  feature  of  this  work.  It  permanently  records 
so  much  of  the  personal  experience  of  those  who  have  contributed  to  the  devel 
opment  of  this  country  and  have  borne  an  honorable  part  in  the  direction  of  its 
public  affairs  as  to  constitute  a  fairly  comprehensive  encyclopedia  of  local  bio 
graphical  reference.  Much  careful  labor  has  been  bestowed  upon  the  com 
piling  of  these  sketches.  The  information  has  been  gathered  from  published 
books,  magazines  and  newspapers,  by  personal  interviews  with  the  subjects 
thereof,  and  relatives  of  those  who  have  passed  away. 

A  somewhat  rigid  system  of  submitting  these  articles  to  persons  from  whom 
original  information  was  obtained,  has  been  pursued,  for  the  purpose  of  assuring 
accuracy.  In  doing  this,  use  was  made  of  the  U.  S.  mail.  In  some  instances 
these  sketches  have  not  been  returned  to  me  corrected  and  in  such  cases  errors 
may  appear,  for  which  I  must  disclaim  responsibility.  The  printing  of  these 


sketches  has  not  in  any  instance  been  made  contingent  upon  the  payment  .of 
money  or  in  any  other  form,  the  support  of  my  enterprise.  Neither  have  they 
been  written  for  the  purpose  of  gratifying  a  desire  of  any  person  to  appear  con 
spicuously  in  print.  I  have  studiously  refrained  from  writing  eulogies  upon 
the  lives  of  living  people.  Such  form  of  alleged  biography  invades  the  field 
of  commercialism  to  such  an  extent  as  to  render  it  worthless  as  history.  The 
histories  of  churches  and  fraternal  organizations  is  by  no  means  as  complete  as 
I  desire,  because  the  necessary  data  was  not  obtainable.  It  would  have  been 
impossible  to  illustrate  this  volume  so  liberally  only  for  the  public  spirit  of  people 
who  have  in  many  instances  shared  with  me  the  burden  of  expense.  The  labor 
and  money  expended  in  the  production  of  this  book  has  been  a  secondary  con 
sideration,  and  to  place  in  the  hands  of  a  reading  public  a  reliable  and  dignified 
historical  story  has  been  paramount  in  the  author's  mind. 

Santa  Monica,  California.  Dec.  1st,  1908. 

Ingersoll's  Century  Series  of  California 



Century  Annals  of  San  Bernardino  Co.,  Calif. 

Century  History  of  Santa  Monica  Bay  Cities,  Calif. 
Century  Annals  City  of  Monrovia  and  its  Environs. 

L.    A.     INGERSOLL 

Los      Angeles 

"No  community  can  claim  to  be  highly  en- 
lig'itened  which  is  content  to  remain  ignorant  of 
its  antecedents,  or,  in  other  words,  ignorant  of 
the  prime  causes  that  have  made  it  what  it  is." 
—  H.  D.  Barrows. 




I.     Discovery    3-7 

II.     Colonization.     Presidios  and  Pueblos 8-13 

ITT.     The    Mission    Establishments 14-45 

IV.     From  Monarchy  to  Republicanism 46-49 

V.     Revolutions  and  Secularization  of  Missions 49~54 

VI.     Free  State  of  Alta  California 54'57 

VII.     Closing  Years  of  Mexican  Era 58-66 

VIII.     Conquest   of   California 66-77 

IX.     Transition  from  Territory  to  State 77-82 

X.     Vigilance  Committees,  Growth  and  Prosperity 82-90 

Governors  of  California 91 

Land  Grants  in  Los  Angeles  County 92-93 


I.  Organization 95~99 

II.  Stock  Raising  and  Agriculture 101-104 

III.  Mining  and   Manufacturing 104-107 

IV.  Transportation    and    Commerce 107-1 1 1 

V.  The  Day  of  the  Trolley 112-114 

VI.     Cities  and  Towns 114-119 


I.  Santa    Monica    Bay    Region 121-139 

II.  Laying  the  Foundations.     1870-1880 141-165 

III.  From  Town  to  City.     1880-1890 167-183 

IV.  Growth.  .    1890-1900 185-209 

V.  Expansion.      1900-1908    211-243 

VI.  South  Santa  Monica  and  Ocean  Park 244-263 

VII.  Public   Institutions    265-287 

VIII.  Churches  and   Societies 288-303 

IX.  Miscellaneous    3°5-3I5 

X.  The  City  of  Ocean  Park 317-325 

XI.  Venice  of  America  and  Its  Founder 327-337 

XII.  Pacific  Branch  National  Home  for  Disabled  Veterans 338-343 

XIII.  Sawtelle.      Palms 345-355 

General  Index. 

Academy  of  the  Holy  Names 219 

Admission   of   California 81,  82 

Alarcon,    Hernando    de 4 

Alfalfa    104 

Alvarado,    Pedro   de 5 

Alvarado,  Juan  B 53,  55,  56,  57 

Anaheim,  settled    102 

Anzu's    route    to    California 10,  u 

Arcadia  Hotel   168 

Arguello.   Luis   A.,  governor 46 

Artesian   Water   Co 226,  228 

Artesian   well,   first 103 

A.  &  P.  Ry 89.  no,  187,  223 

Atlantic  squadron  243 

Annual   Assessments   Santa   Monica...  243 

Ballona  Junction    310 

Ballona   Port    168 

Ballona  Harbor  Co 335,  336 

Ballona  &  S.  M.  Ry 171 

Baker,    Robert    S 142 

Bandini.  Juan    101 

Bank,  First  National  of  S.  M..I73,  175,  188 

Banning,  Phineas 107,  109,  1 18 

Baptist  Church    297 

Barrett  Villa   347 

Battle,    of    Plains,    74 1    of    Dominguez 
rancho,  69;   San  Juan,  71;   San  Pas- 

qual,  72 ;  El  Paso  de  Bartola 73 

Beach   front   dispute 152 

Beach  Land  Co 336,  337 

Bean  culture    233 

"Bear  Flag"    64,  66 

Board  of  Trade 175,  202,  283 

Boca  de  Santa  Monica,  grant 136,  170 

Boom no,   in,  169,  246 

Bouchard,   privateer    13 

Brentwood   Park   240 

Bulletin,   S.   F 83 

Cable  line   112 

Cabrillo,  Juan  Roderiguez 5,  6,  7,  122 

Cahuenga,  treaty  of 61,  75 

California,  name   4 

Capitals,  state   86,  87 

Carrillo,  A.  Carlos 55,  56,  181 

Carrillo,  Jose  A 54,  61,  62 

Carrillo.  Juan  J 174.  180,  186,  191 

Carrillo,  Pedro  C 181 

Carriage,  first  in  California 106 

Casino    306 

Castro,  General.  .54,  56,  59,  61,  62,  65,'  67,  68 
Catalina   Island    5,  7 

Catholic  Church  292 

Cattle  Raising,  in  California,  88;  in 

Los  Angeles  County 101 

Chamber  of  Commerce,  Palms,  355 ; 

Santa  Monica.  283 ;  Venice 334 

Census,  Los  Angeles  County,  98,  99 : 

Santa  Monica  287 

Chapman,  Joseph  13,  47 

Charter,  Santa  Monica.  ...216,  220,  238,  239 

Chico,  Mariano,  governor 52,  53 

Chinese  massacre  99 

City  hall.  Santa  Monica.. 215.  217,  219,  225 

City  Officials  286,  287 

City  Water  Co 251 

Civil  War,  in  California 87 

Clay  products,  Los  Angeles  County.  105,  106 

Colton  Hall  79 

Constitutional  Convention 79-  80 

Coronado  4,  5 

Coronel,  Antonio 96,  98 

Cortes  3,  4 

Court  house,  Los  Angeles 98 

Crespi,  Father  Juan 18 

Cricket  Club 307 

Discovery      and      Exploration,      Santa 

Monica  region  122 

Division   of   town,    Santa    Monica 

213,   227,  255 

Dolgeville    107 

Downey,  John  G 96,   101,  118 

Downey,   settled    101 

Drake,    Sir  Francis 6 

Drought,   '57.    101 ;   '62-3 lot 

Dudley,  T.  H 253.  257 

Earthquake,    1812 29,   33 

Echandia,  J.  M.,  governor 49,  50,  132 

Eckert,    (Bob.)    216 

Education,    in    California,    89;    in    Los 

Angeles  County 98 

Election,  first  state,  80;   first  county..     96 

Electric  lines   113,  114 

El    Monte,    settled 101 

Episcopal    Church,    Santa    Monica 295 

Expedition,  first  to  California 8,  9 

Ferrelo.  Bartolome 6,  7 

Filibustering    85 

Figueroa.  Jose,  50 ;  death 52 

First  Baptist  Church,  Sawtelle 352 

First   N.   Y.   Infantry 76 

Fisher,  L.  T 169,  201,  281.  315 


Floral   Festival    291 

Flour  mills    106 

Foreigners,    arrival,    47.    48;     fighting, 

54;  exiled,  56;  residents 62 

Franciscan  order    7 

Freighting    109 

Fremont.  John  C..  entry  into  Califor 
nia.  62.  63 ;  dispatches.  63 ;  at  So 
noma,  64,  65;  raises  flag.  66;  major, 
67;  lieutenant-colone!,  71;  in  south, 
74,  75 ;  governor 76 

Galvez.  Jose   8 

Carey.  T.   A   103.   1 16 

Oillispie.   Captain 68,  69 

Gilroy.  John   47 

Gold,'  discovery  77-  78.  97 

Good  Government  League 216.  220 

Government,  territorial   78,  79 

Governors,  list  of,  94;   from   Southern 

California     97 

Grand  Army  of  Republic 302 

Gulf  of  California 4,  5.  8 

Gwin,  Wm.  M 79,  80 

Harbor  question   190.  201 

Hartnell.  W.   E.  P 48,  79 

Hawe.  Father  Patrick 292 

Herald.  S.  F 83 

Hijar  and  Padres  party 50.  51 

Holt.    D.    G 282 

"Hook"  franchise  223,  224 

Horse  Racing  134,  135 

Horticultural  production,  Los   Angeles 

County    104 

Hotchkiss.  A.  B 245 

Hull,  W.  1 225 

Incorporated  towns    115.   119 

Incorporation.  Ocean  Park,  318;  Santa 

Monica,  169;   Sawtelle 350 

Indians   .122,  123,  125 

Irrigation  systems,  Los  Angeles  County  102 
Investment  Co.,  Santa  Monica 232 

Jaynie,    Father   Luis 16 

Jimenez  Fortuna  3.  4 

Jesuits    8 

Jones.  J.  P 144.  152,  157,  173,  175 

Juez  de  Campo 96 

Kearney.  Stephen  W 72,  73.  75,  76 

Keller.  Mathew  102,  128 

Kinney,   A 

170,  173.  197,  248,  257,  259,  273,  327 

King,   James    83 

La  Ballona.  grant 137,  139 

Land  grants,  list  of 92,  93 

Land  grants.  Los  Angeles  County 96 

Larkin,   Thomas   O 71 

Lasuen,  Father  Francisco 19 

Lawn   Tennis   Club 305 

Library   186,  271 

Library   Site  Fund,  Contributors  to...  276 

Long  Beach   1 16 

Los     Angeles     County,     created,     96 ; 

boundaries   96 

Los  Angeles,  pueblo,  u,  12;  the  cap 
ital,  61 ;  capture 68 

L.  A.  Co.  Ry 174,  175,  187.  307 

Los  Angeles  &  Independence  Ry..  or 
ganized,  144;  built,  151;  sold,  153; 

history    308 

L.  A.-R  Ry 

113,    114,    192,   193,   194,   197,  221,  255 

Lucas,  Nancy  A 244,  248 

Machado,  Augustin.  137;  Ygnacio,  137, 

138 ;   Antonio    138,   139 

Mails,  in  Los  Angeles  County 108 

Malibu  rancho 124,  129,  130 

Manufactured    products,    Los    Angeles 

County    107 

Marquez,  Francisco 132,  136,  137 

Martinez.   Father  Luis 27 

Mason,    Gov 78 

Mendocino,  Cape   6 

Methodist  Church.   Santa   Monica 288 

Militia   Company.    Santa    Monica 196 

Military  camps,  Ballona,  139;  Wilming 
ton  118 

Mining,  in  California,  88;  in  Los  An 
geles  County  104 

Mission  establishments,   description. .  14,  6t 

Moncada.  Rivera  y 9,  10 

Monrovia   117 

Monterey  Bay  5,  6,  7,  9 

Monterey,  capture  of 57 

Mormon  Battalion   76 

Mooney  Mansion    244 

Neve,  Felipe  de 10,  n,   12 

Newspapers    279 

North  Beach  Bath  house 190,  210 

Ocean   Park   254 

Ocean  Park  District,  1898,  252;  1899. 
253;  1900,  254;  1901,  255;  1902,  257; 

1903    259 

Ocean  Park 227,  236.  249,  250.  252,  317 

Ocean  Park,  incorporation.  318;  census, 
318;  election,  319;  Improvement  Co., 
319;  growth,  321;  sewage,  321;  li 
censes.  322 ;  values,  323 ;  bonds,  324 ; 

postoffice.  324 ;   City  hall 325 

Oi'ed  Streets   240 

Orange  County  96 

Orange  growing  103 

Ostrich   Farm,   Santa   Monica 246 

Outdoor  pastimes 305 

Outlook,  Santa  Monica 147,  280 

Pacific     Branch     National     Home     for 

Disabled  Veterans   338 

Pacific  Electric  113,  114 


Pacific  Land  Co 347 

Palisades   tract    231 

Palms    171,  352 

Pasadena    1 1 5 

Pentecostal   Church  of  Nazarene 299 

Peyri.  Father  42.  43 

Petroleum,  in  Los  Angeles  County. .  .104-5 

Petroleum    production    105 

Philippines,  trade  with 5-  7 

Pico,  Andres 72.  75,  135 

Pico.  Pio,  governor 60.  61,  67,  68.  117 

Pious  Fund    51 

Playa    del    Rev 334 

Police  department    193 

Point  Dume  121 

Polo    Club    307 

Pomona  101,  103,  116 

Population,  state,  82,  83;  Los  Ange'es 
County,  112,  114;  city,  115;  Santa 
Monica,  167,  185,  220.  287;  Ocean 

Park    3'8 

Port  Los  Angeles 198 

Port,  of  San  Pedro 107.  108 

Portala,   Caspar   de,   first   governor   of 

California 9,   10,   123 

Postoffice.  186;  Ocean   Park 263,  282 

Presbyterian  Church,  Santa  Monica...   290 

Presidio,  description    10 

Prudhomme,  Leon  V 126,  127 

Pueblo,  Spanish   10,  1 1 

Purisima  Concepcion,  mission 34 

Quivera     5 

Railroads,  in  California 88.  89 

Rate  war no,  168,  169,  170 

Raymond   Hotel    115 

Reminiscences    . 312 

Redondo    119 

Reyes.  Ysidro 132,   136,   137 

Rindge.  F.  H 128,  21 1,  216,  231 

Rowland.  Col.  J.  G 341 

Rose,  L.  J 102,  103,  ii  5 

Russians,   in   California 47 

Ryan,  Francis  G 248,  253 

Salt  Lake  line Hi 

Saloon    question 195.  211,  216 

San  Antonio  de  Padua 19 

San  Bernardino  County,  96;  settle 
ment  no 

San   Buenaventura,   mission 31 

San   Carlos,   mission 9,  17 

Sanchez,   Padre  Jose  B 24 

San  Diego  Bay 5.  7,  9 

San  Diego,  Mission 9,   15 

San  Fernando  Rev  de  Espana 40 

San  Francisco  Bay 9 

San   Francisco   de  Asis 27 

San  Francisco  de   Solano 45 

San    Francisco,    presidio 1 1 

San  Gabriel  Arcangel 20 

San   Jose,  mission 36 

San  Jose,  pueb'o n 

San  Juan  Bautista 37 

San  Juan  Capistrano 28 

San  Miguel  Arcangel 39 

San  Luis  Obispo  de  Toloso 26 

San  Luis  Rev  de  Francia 42 

San   Pedro,   bay,   5,   7;   port,    107,    108; 

town    iicS 

San   Rafael,   mission 45 

San    Vicente    y    Santa    Monica,    grant. 

132;  sale   142 

Santa  Barbara,  presidio  and  mission.. 

n,   12.  32 

Santa  Clara,  mission 29 

Santa  Cruz,  mission,  34;  town 35 

Santa  Fe  RV....IIO.  168,  187,  223,  248,  309 

Santa  Monica  Bay 121 

Santa  Monica  Canyon 141,  143 

Santa    Monica   Fire   Dept.. 278 

Santa  Monica.  History,  1885,  167; 
1886,  168;  1887.  169;  1888.  173;  1889. 
175;  1890.  185;  1891.  187;  1892,  187; 
1893,  188;  1894.  189;  1895.  190;  1896, 
193;  1897.  194;  1898,  195;  1899,  197; 
1900,  21 1 ;  1901,  216;  1902,  230;  1903, 
224;  1904,  226;  1905,  229;  1906,  240; 

1907 241 

Santa  Monica  Hotel 175 

Santa  Monica  Incorporation 169 

Santa    Monica    Lodge    No.   906,    B.    P. 

O.  E 303 

Santa  Monica,  name.  123;  legend,  123; 

settlement    124 

Santa   Monica,   street   cars 

171,  176,  185,  194,  197,  309 

Santa  Monica,  townsite,  145 ;  first  sale, 
145,  146;  first  building,  146;  first 

train    149 

Santa  Monica  Water  Co 194 

Santa  Monica  Wharf  &  Ry.  Terminal 

Co ". 179,  180 

Santa  Ynez,  Virgin  y  Martyr 44 

Sawtelle,  history   345 

Sawtelle,   W.   E 349 

School,  first  in  state,  90;  in  Los  Ange 
les  County  98 

Schools,    Ocean    Park,    322;    Sawtelle, 

346,  348;   South   Santa  Monica 247 

Schools,  Santa  Monica,  bonds.  237 ; 
enrollment,  270;  history,  265;  prin 
cipals,  270;  trustees 263 

Seal,    state    tb 

Sewer  bonds 

189,  192,  195,  196,  221,  235,  236.  241 

Secularization,  decree,  51;  plan,  51,  52; 

result    61 

Sepulveda,    Francisco,    132;   Jose,    133; 

Fernando    135 

Serra.  Junipero 8,    15 

Serra  Vista 231 

Serria,   Father  Vicente   de 47 

Sisters  of  Holy  Name 198,  219 

Slaverv    in  California 81,   79,  80 


Sloat.  John  D.,  raises  flag 65,  66 

Smuggling    127 

Sola,  Governor   46 

Soldiers   in  Los  Angeles  County 99 

Soldiers'    Home    171 

Sutton,  Florence   306 

Solcdad,  mission   3<5 

South  Santa  Monica 219.  245 

South  Santa  Monica,  history,  1874, 
244;  1875.  245;  1876.  245;  1887-8, 
246;  1889,  247;  1890.  248;  1892,  248; 
1893.  249;  1895.  250;  1896,  250;  1897, 

251;    1904-7    261 

So.    Pac.    R 

...88,  89,  109,  144,  154,  187,  197,  203.  309 

Stage  routes  108,  109 

State   division    97 

State  Forestry  Station 311 

Steamer,   first   107 

Stearns,  Abel    96 

Street  car  line,  first  in  Los  Angeles...   112 
Stockton,  R.  F..  arrives,  67;  at  San  Pe 
dro.   70;    San    Diego,   70;    Battle   of 

Plains,  74 ;  superseded 75 

Sugar  beets    104 

Sutler,  John  A 60,  61 

Taft,  Rev.  S.  H 345 

Tapia,  Jose  B.,  126;  Tiburcio 126-7,  128 

Tell's  Lookout   334 

Tennis  Tournaments 3o5 

Territorial  government   78,  79 

Terry,  David  S 84,  85 

Topanga  Malibu   125 

Topography.   Santa   Monica   region....    121 
Trade,  with  Boston,  48;  Philippines.  .  .5,  7 

Traction   Co 223 

Transportation    308 

Treaty.  Cahuenga.  61,  75;  Guadalupe 
Hidalgo  76 

Treichel,   Col.   Charles 339 

Truxton    "scheme"    143 

Ulloa.    Francisco   de 4 

U.   S.   Senators 07 

Upham,  Major  F.  K 342 

Vallejo,  M.  G 58 

Values,  Santa  Monica,  1880,  167;  1890, 

185,  228,  234,  239,  258 

Vawter  family 146,  159,  245 

Vawter,  Edwin  James 164.  250,  254 

Vawter,   Williamson   Dunn...  159,    188,   292 

Vawter,  William  S 162,  188,  221,  250 

Venice    229 

Venice  of  America,  330;  plans,  331; 
growth,  332;  Assembly.  332;  break 
water,  332;  Chamber  of  Commerce..  334 

Victoria,   Manuel,   governor 49 

Viglantes,  Los  Angeles,  53;  San  Fran 
cisco 82,  83,  84,  85 

Viscaino,  Sebastian  7,  123 

Warner,  J.  J 96,  97 

Water  Co.,  Sawtelle 349 

Wells  Fargo  108 

Westgate    229 

Wharf,     first.     145:     abandoned.     155; 

Bernard,  156;  fight 177,  196,  248 

Wheat  raising,  Los  Angeles  County. .  .    102 

Whittier    117 

Wilson,  B.  D 96,  102,  103,  115,  118,  119 

Wilmington    107,  1 18 

Wine  making  102,  128 

Wolfskill.  William    103 

W.  C.  T.  U 186,  243,  272,  299 

Woman's  Club,  Santa  Monica 301 

Y.   M.  C.  A.  of   Southern  California..  249 
Zalvidea,  Father  Jose  M 21 


Admission  of  California  into  Union.  ...  82 

Arch  Rock   122 

Brentwood    232 

Brentwood  Park   240 

Brice.  J.  L.,  Residence 320 

Church  of  Our  Lady  of  the  Angels. ...  95 

City  Hall,  Ocean  Park  323 

City  Hall.  Santa  Monica 217 

Creating  Venice   330 

Colton     Hall,     Monterey,     First     State 

Capitol   ". 79 

Court  House,  Los  Angeles  Co 94 

First    Methodist   Church    288 

Fire  House,  Dept.  No.  i 278 

Hotel.  Santa  Monica  176 

La  Purisima  Concepcion,  Mission  of .  .  .  34 

La  Soledad,  Mission  of 36 

Library,  Carnegie  Public  271 

Mexican  Custom  House S? 

North  Third  Street.  Santa  Monica....   188 
"Old"  Court  House,  Los  Angeles  County    98 

Port  Los  Angeles 207 

Saddle,  military,  Don  Andres  Pico.  .  .  .   108 
San  Antonio  de   Padua.  Mission  of.  .  .     19 

San  Buenaventura.  Mission  of 31 

San    Carlos     Borromeo    de    Monterey, 

Mission  of   18 

San  Diego  de  Alcala,   Mission  of 16 

San    Fernando    Rey    de    Espana,    Mis 
sion    of    41 

San  Francisco  de  Asis,  Mission  of.  ...     28 
San  Francisco  de  Solano.  Mission  of..     45 


San  Gabriel  Arcangel,  Mission  of 21 

San  Jose,  Mission  of 36 

San  Juan  Bautista,  Mission  of 37 

San  Juan  Capistrano,  Mission  of 29 

San  Luis  Obispo  de  Toloso,  Mission  of  27 

San  Luis  Rey  de  Francia,  Mission  of..  43 

San  Miguel  Arcangel.  Mission  of 40 

San   Rafa"el,    Mission   of 45 

San  Vicente  Ranch  House 133 

Santa  Barbara,  Mission  of 32 

Santa   Clara,   Mission  of 30 

Santa  Cruz,  Mission  of 35 

Santa  Monica  Beach,   1878 143 

Santa  Monica,   First  Church 151 

Santa  Monica,  First  House 136 

Santa   Ynez,   Mission  of 44 

Sawtelle,  First  House 346 

Sawtelle   Public  School 348 

Sixth   Street   School 268 

Soldiers'    Home    342 

State   Capitol.   Benicia    86 

State  Capitol,   Sacramento    87 

Timm's  Landing  1 18 

Topanga   Canyon    126 

Venice  Lake  333 


Armstrong,  R.  W 210 

Archer.  A.  N 399 

Bane,  Ralph   238 

Banning,  Gen.  Phineas  107 

Barrows,   Henry   D 391 

Blanchard,  J.  D 264 

Browne,  J.   D.   H.    296 

Burnett,  Peter  H 81 

Carpenter,   Stephen    477 

Carrillo,  Jose  Antonio 54 

Carrillo,  J.  J 166 

Chapman.  W.  R 472 

Clark.  J.  H 274 

Coffman.  H.  L 210 

Corey.  G.   W.,   M.D 465 

Coronel.   Antonio    F 99 

Council.   City   S.   M 210 

Crum,  Rev.  J.   D 148 

Dales,   E.   V 264 

Davis,   Orin    39=; 

Dike.   E.   W 356 

Dobbings.  J.    H 452 

Dollard,  Robert   302 

Dow,  Roscoe  H 210 

Downey,   John   G 97 

Eakins,"  II.  B 316 

Engelbrecht.  H.  J 264 

Foster,  G.  W 316 

Fremont.  John   C 2  and     62 

Gillis,  W.  T 234 

Gird.   E.   C 420 

Goetz,    H.    X 225 

Griffith.    Hester   T 423 

Griffith,   E 316 

Gwin,  Wm.   M 80 

Hamilton.  N.  H.,  M.D 218 

Hawe,  Rev.  Patrick 294 

Hemingway,  J.   C 222 

Holt,  D.  G 264  and  280 

Hull,  W.  1 172 

Hutton,    Geo.    H 214 

Ingersoll,  L.  A Frontispiece 

Jewett,  O.  W 354 

Johnston.   A.   F 242 

Jones,  Hon.  John  P 120 

Keller,   Don  Mateo   128 

Kimball,  Myron  H 371 

Kinney,   Abbot    ._ 326 

Larkin,  Thomas  0 71 

Lawton,  Frank  D 304 

Machado.  J.   D 494 

Mackinnon,   J.   D 316 

Mayer,  H.   C 316 

Miles,  J.  Euclid    210 

Mil'er,  R.  M 264 

Mitchell,  H.  L 488 

Morris,  Alf 210 

Nellis,   Clarence  J 431 

Odell,  S.  W 381 

Palmer,  W.  M 447 

Petsch,  Adolph   457 

Pico,  Andres   75 

Pico,   Pio    100 

Pierce,   Grace  Adele 439 

Putnam,  R.  G 482 

Quinn.    Bernard    407 

Rebok,  H.  M 264 

Reel,  Abe  S 210 

Rile,   H.   F 443 

Rindge,  Frederick  H 129 

Sepulveda,  Jose  Dolores 132 

Serra,  Junipero   15 

Shive'y.    Daniel    414 

Shively.   Sarah  L 415 

Sloat,  John  D 65 

Smith,   N.   R.,   D.D.S 433 

Smith,  P.  H 495 

Snyder,  Gco.   D 210 

Snyder,  W.  P 264 

Stearns,   Don   Abel    106 

Stockton.   Robert   F 67 

Taft,  Fred  H 376 

Taft,  Stephen  H 344 

Tanner,  R.  R 230 

Taylor,  Rev.  and  Mrs.  George 411 

Taylor,   W.   B.    B 404 


Towner,   Charles   E 154 

Trustees,  City  of  Ocean  Park 316 

Tullis,  O.  G 385 

Turner,   Daniel    492 

Vallejo.   Gen.   M.   G 58 

Vawter,  E.  J -  •   160 

Vawter,   E.  J.,  Jr 262 

Vawter,  W.  D 140 

Vawter,   W.    S 184 

Wells,  G.  Wiley  134 

Wyant.  A.  H 351 


Alton,   Daniel    397 

Archer.  A.  N 399 

Armstrong.   R.    W 481 

Badillo.  P.  M 509 

Baida.   N.   G 462 

Raker.  Robert  S 142 

Baker,  E.  H 481 

Bandini,  Juan    463 

Bane.  Ralph   441 

Barrows,   H.   D 391 

Berkley.  S.  L. 408 

Bishop.    B.   R 481 

Blanchard.   J.    D 412 

Boehme,   Geo.   C 455 

Boehme,   Geo 402 

Bontty,  E.  F 441 

Bouck,  C.  A 432 

Brice,   J.   L 428 

Brickner.   John    462 

Brooks,   F.   W 442 

Browne,   J.   D.    H 434 

Bundy,    F.    E 383 

Bundy.    Nathan    431 

Busier,    A 382 

Calkins.  A.    H 419 

Carrillo,  J.   J 180 

Carpenter,   Stephen    477 

Case,   L.   H.,   M.D 437 

Chapin,  E.  K 495 

Chapman.   W.   R 472 

Cheney,    C.    C 512 

Clark.  Joseph  H 359 

Collins,  Mrs.  Catharine 461 

Connelly,  T.  J 454 

Corey,  Geo.  W.,  M.D 465 

Crane,   H.    M 489 

Dales,   C.   S 453 

Dales,  E.   V 470 

1  )ales,   John    B 454 

Davis.   J.   J 450 

Davis.  Orin,  M.D 395 

Devore,  W.   E 471 

Dike,   E.   W 357 

Dobbings.  J.   H 453 

Dobson.  R.  C 460 

Dollard.  Robert   417 

Dow,  R.  H 429 

Dudley,  T.   H 427 

Kakins,   H.   B 430 

Edinger,  C.  L 491 

Finch,  F.  J 492 

Foster,  G.  W 448 

French.  J.  G 509 

Gillis,  W.  T 381 

Gird.  E.  C 421 

Griffith,   Elijah    423 

Griffith,  Hester  T 423 

Grigsby.   Tas.   H 475 

Grimes,  R.  R 413 

Goodrich,  L.  B 493 

Goetz,  H.  X 401 

Gtiidinger.  A.  M 471 

Guntrup.   John    455 

Hamilton,  N.  H..  M.D 369 

Hammond,   'H.    N 421 

Hancock.    A.    K 473 

Hawe,   Rev.    P 362 

Hemingway,  J.  C 394 

Hodgson.  J.   0 418 

Ho'lwedel.  H.  C 49O 

Holt,  D.  G 479 

Hudson.  M.  L 425 

Hull,  W.  1 367 

Hunt,  J.  S.,  M.D 476 

Hunter,   Benj.   S 4'6 

Houston,  H.  E 467 

Hntton.  George  H 361 

Tngersoll.   L.    G 468 

Ingersoll.    L.  .  A 446 

Jackson,  Arthur  E 459 

Jackson,  William   365 

Jewett,  O.  W 385 

Jones.  John   Percival    157 

Tohnston.   A.   F 360 

Keener,  J.   P 487 

Kendall.  W.   M.,  M.D 510 

Kennedy.  J.   W 510 

Kimball,   Mvron  H 37' 

Kinney,  Abbott  327 

Kirkelie.  O.  A 490 

Langdon,    F.    C 389 

Lawton,  Frank   435 

Le  Bas,  Charles   375 

Limit.  J 478 

London,  J.  A 486 

Lowe,  Thomas  R 435 

Machado.   J.    D 494 

Mayer,   H.    C 469 

McClellan,   R.   F 409 

Meloy,  Daniel   400 


Meloy,  H.  T 461 

Metcalf,  John    403 

Miles,  Elam  C 438 

Miles,  J.   Euclid 374 

Mitchell,  H.  L 4^8 

Montgomery,  A.   M 384 

Morris,  Alf 451 

Mundell,    Walter    449 

Nellis,  C.  J 431 

O'Callasrhan,   Rev.  J.   A 456 

Odell,  S.  W 381 

Palmer,   W.   M 447 

Parrish,   I.   E 413 

Parrish,  W.   F 410 

Petsch,    Ado'ph    457 

Pevcler,  J.  J 511 

Phillips.   R.   A 511 

Pierce,   Grace   A 439 

Procter.   J.    B 483 

Pruess,   E.   A 443 

Putnam,   R.   G 482 

Qninn.    Bernard    407 

Rile.  H.  F 443 

Rindge.  Frederick  Hastings 128 

Rogers.  C.  W 445 

Sawtelle,  W.  E 364 

Sepnlveda.  Jose  Dolores 512 

Seymour,  J.  J 387 

Schofield.  Tom   440 

Schnltz,  Henry   488 

Sclnitte.  G.  W 464 

Sibley,  Mrs.  Geo 474 

Simpson,  J.  D 458 

Shiveley,    Daniel    414 

Smale,  J.   B.   E 456 

Smith,  W.   S.,   M.D 511 

Smith,   J.    L 466 

Smith.  N.  R.,  D.D.S 433 

Smith,  P.  H 495 

Snyder,   W.    P 467 

Snyder,  Geo.  D 366 

Sonnesyn,  P.  H 485 

Stanwood,  John  A 377 

Smnmerfield,  K.  B 390 

Taft.  Fred  H 376 

Taft,   S.   H 496 

Talkington,    S.    N 438 

Talkington,  J.   S 406 

Tanner,  R.  R 373 

Taylor,  W.  B.  B 405 

Taylor.  Rev.  George 411 

Todd,  J.  W 388 

Towner,   C.    C 493 

Towner,  C.  E 363 

Tttllis,  O.  G 385 

Turner,   Daniel    492 

Vache,  A 475 

Valenzuela,  Jose  478 

Van  Tress,  B.  F 422 

Vawter,  Aramatha  Charlotte.  162; 
Charles  Knowlton,  .165;  Edwin 
James,  164;  Edwin  James,  Jr.,  165; 
Emma  Knowlton.  164;  Jane  Cra 
ven,  162;  May,  162;  Mary  Ellen, 
161 ;  Williamson  Dunn,  169;  Wil 
liam  S 162 

Watkeys,  L.  C 482 

Wells,  G.  Wiley 378 

Westover,  O.  S 484 

Wilber,  H.   P 48s 

Woodruff,   W.  W 476 

Wyant,  A.  H 426 


Ahadcsa.     Abbess. 

Abajenos.     Inhabitants    of     Southern     Cali 

Acequia.     Ditch,   canal. 
A.'Dois.     Good  bye,     (God  be  with  you). 
Adobe.     Black  adhesive  soil. 
Adobes.     Suhdried  bricks  of  adobe. 
Agua.     Water. 
Aguardiente.     Brandy. 
Alameda.     Walk  under  trees. 
Alabado.     Hymn  in  praise  of  the  sacrament. 
Alcalde  mayor.     Magistrate  of  a  district. 
Aliso.     Alder  tree. 
Alta.     Upper,  above. 
Amo.     Master,  owner. 
Arroyo.     A  small  stream. 
Ayuntamiento.     Municipal   council. 
Rahia.     Bay. 
Rando.     Edict. 
Baja.     Below,  lower. 
Ridarka.     Skin   boat. 
Bienes.     Property. 
Blanco.     White. 
Boca.     Mouth. 
Bonita.     Pretty. 

Rrazo  de  mar.     Arm  of  the  sea. 
Rrea.     Pitch. 

Rronco.     Unbroken   horse. 
Bin-no.     Good. 

Buenos  dias.     Good  morning. 
Caba'lo.     Horse. 
Cabo.     Cape. 
Caion.     Box.  chest. 
Calle.     Street. 
Camino.     Way. 
Campana.     Bell. 
Campanula.     Small  bell. 
Campo.     Field. 

Canada.     Glen    or   dale    between    mountains. 
Campo    santo.     Graveyard. 
Canon.     A  tube,  deep  ravine. 
Capilla.     Chapel. 
Carreta.     Cart. 
C'arta.     Letter,  chart. 
Casa  Grande.     Large  house. 
Castillo.     Castle,  fort. 
Catalina.     Catherine. 
Cienega.     A  marsh. 
Cigarritos.     Cigarets. 
Ciiulad.     City. 
Comandante.     Commander. 
Compadre.     Friend,  comrade,  godfather. 
Comisario.     Commisary,    a    treasury    official. 
Concepcion.     Conception. 

Coyote.     A  small  California  wolf. 

Corbata.     Cravat. 

Corral.     A  pen  for  live  stock,  or  for  poultry. 

Cuero.     Hide  of  cattle  or  horses. 

Dehesas.     Pasture  lands. 

Dias.     Days. 

Diablo.     Devil. 

Dinero.     Money. 

Diego.     James. 

Diputacion.     Deputy,    committee. 

Dolores.     Sorrows. 

Don.     Mr. 

Dona.     Mistress. 

Embarcadero.     Place  of  embarkation. 

Enchiladas.     Cornmeal   cakes   in  chile  sauce. 

Enfermo.     Sick. 

Encino.     Oak. 

Engano.     Deceit,  mistake,  fraud. 

Ensenada.     Creek,   small   bay. 

Espanol.     Spanish. 

Entrada.     Entrance,    invasion,    incursion. 

Escoltas.     Mission  guard. 

Escondido.     Hidden. 

Escrito.     Writing  or  written. 

Estado.     State. 

Fandango.     Dance. 

Fierro.     Branding  iron. 

Fiesta.     Feast  Day. 

Frey.     Father  of  a   religious  order. 

Frijoles.     Beans. 

Fuego.     Fire. 

F'imos.     Smoky. 

Galeria.     Galley. 

Canado.     Live  stock,  cattle. 

Gefepolitico.     Political    chief. 

Gente  de  Razon.     Spaniards  and  Mexicans — 

distinguished  from   Indians. 
Gobenador.     Governor. 
Gracias.     Favors,  thanks,  eraces. 
Hacienda.     Country  home. 
Hambre.     Hunger. 
Hermano.     Brother. 
Hermoso.     Handsome. 
Herrar.     To  brand. 
Hidalgo.     One  of  gentle  birth. 
Hija.     Daughter. 
Hijos   del   pais.     Native   sons.     Sons   of  the 

Hombre.     Man 
Isla.     Isle. 

Juez  del  campo.     Judge  of  the  plains. 
Tugador.     Gambler. 
Junta.     Assembly. 


Juramento.     Oath. 

Lagnna.     Small   lake. 

Legua.     League. 

Libros.     Books. 

Llano.     Plain. 

Llavero.     Keeper  of  the  keys.     In   the  mis 
sions,  the  store  keeper. 

Lomeras.     Ridges   of   hills,   or   mountains. 

Maclre.     Mother. 

Maestro.     Master. 

Mai.     Evil,  complaint. 

Mariana.     Morning,   tomorrow. 

Manteca.     Tallow. 

Mantilla.     Head   cover   for   women. 

Mariposa.     Butterfly. 

Maromeros.     Rope  dancers. 

Matanza.     Slaughter-yard. 

Major-domo.     Steward,  overseer. 

Mecate.     Mexican  for  rope. 

Medio  real.     Half  a  real,  or  6}/j  cents. 

Memorias.     Memoranda. 

Metate.     A   curved   grinding   stone. 

Mejicano.     Mexican. 

Mezcal.     A    liquor   made    from    the    maguey 

Molino.     Mi'l. 

Morro.     Steep   cliff. 

Mesa.     Table  land. 

Milpas.     Indian  corn-fields. 

Muchacho.     Boy. 

Negro.     Black. 

Xeolita.     A  converted  Indian. 

Xoclie.     Night. 

Nuestra  Senor.     Our  Lord. 

Xnestra   Sefiora.     Our  Lady. 

Nuestra  Senora    d"  Los  Angeles.     Our  Lady 
of  the  Angels. 

Nuevo.     New. 

Ojo.     Eye. 

Oleo.     The  sacred  oil. 

Olla.     A   round  earthen  pot. 

Orden.     Order,   command. 

Ordenanza.     Ordinances. 

Orejano.      Wild.      Res     orejano     de     fierro. 
Cattle  marked  on  the  ears. 

Oso.     Bear. 

Oro.     Gold. 

Padre.     Father. 

Pais.     Country. 

Palacio.     Palace. 

Pasajes.     Valleys. 

Patio.     Court. 

Peon.     A   game   at   dice. 

Pinole.     Drink  of  cornmeal,  water  and  sugar. 

Pinos.     Pine. 

Playa.     Sea  beach. 
Plaza.     Square,  market  place. 
Pobladores.     Settlers,  founders  of  a  town. 
Poco.     Little. 

"Pozole.     Beans  boiled  with  corn  or  wheat. 
Potrero.     Pasture. 
Pozo.     Spring. 

Presidio.     Garrison. 

Primo.     First. 

Pronunciamento.     Proclamation. 

Propriedad.     Proprietorship,  etc. 

Pueb'o.     City. 

Publica.     Public. 

Puerto.     Port,   harbor. 

Rnmada.     A  bush  house,  or  shed. 

Rancheria.     An  Indian  village. 

R-Michita.     Small   ranch. 

Rancho.     Farm,   range. 

Realistas.     Royalists. 

Real.     Spanish   coin   worth    T2'/>   cents. 

Reata.      A    rope    of    rawhide     for    lassoing 


Rebosa.     Shawl.     Worn  over  the  head. 
Rcglemento.     Regulation. 
Realengo.     Royal,  kingly. 
Rcgidor.     Alderman.  Director. 
Revolucionario.     Revolutionist. 
Roble.     Oak  tree. 
Rio.     River. 

Rodeo.     Rounding  up  of  cattle. 
Salinas.     Salt  marshes. 
Seco.     Dry. 

Scguridad.     Safety,   securely. 
Sierra  Nevada.     Ridge  of  mountains  covered 

with  snow. 

Sierra.     Ridge  of  mountains. 
Silla.     Chair,  or  saddle. 
Silla  vaquera.     Saddle  used  by  vaquero. 
Sitio.     Small   stock  range. 
Soherano.     Sovereign,  supreme. 
Sobrante.     Residue,  left  over. 
Soldado.     Soldier. 
Sombrero.     Hat. 
Suertes.     Fields. 
Surefios.     Southerners. 
Tamale.     Indian  meal  dumpling  stuffed  with 

minced  meat,  chicken,  etc. 
Tasajo.     Jerked  beef. 

Tecolcro.     Master   of   ceremonies   at   a   ball. 
Tecolotc.     Species  of  owl. 
Temblor.     Shake. 
Temblor  de   tierra.     Earthquake. 
Terreno.     Ground. 
Testigo.     Witness. 
Tonto.     Stupid,   foolish. 
Tortillas.     Little  cakes,  pancakes. 
Trabaj  adores.     Laborers. 
Tule.     Reed,  native  grown. 
Tuna.     Cactus  plant. 
Vaquero.     Cow   herder. 
Vara.     Rod,  staff,  yard  measure. 
Venta.     Sale  mark  of  cattle. 
Violincito.     A   small    fiddle. 
Vinero.     One  who  cares  for  vines. 
Vocal.     Voting  member  of  a   corporation. 
Vino.     Wine. 

Visitador.     Visiter,   surveyor. 
Yerba.     Herb. 
Zanja.     Irrigating  ditch. 
Zanjero.     One  in  charge  of  a  zanja. 


Brief  History  of  California. 




OMANCE  enters  into  the  story  of 
California  with  its  very  beginning. 
When  Gondalez  de  Sandoval,  in  1 524, 
gave  to  Cortes  an  account  of  a  wonderful 
island  ten  days  to  the  westward  from  the 
Pacific  Coast  of  Mexico,  inhabited  by  women 
only  and  exceedingly  rich  in  pearls  and  gold, 
he  no  doubt  derived  his  information  from 
Montalvo's  romance,  "  Sergas  de  Esplandian." 
Cortes  seems  to  have  given  credence  to  his 
lieutenant's  story  and  to  have  kept  in  view 
the  discovery  of  this  wonderful  island,  Cali 
fornia.  The  discovery  of  what  is  now  known  as  the  peninsula  of  Lower 
California,  but  which  was  then  supposed  to  be  an  island,  by  Fortuna  Jiminez, 
in  153-1,  no  doubt  confirmed  in  Cortes'  mind  the  truth  of  Sandoval's  story, 
told  him  a  decade  before.  For  did  not  the  island  of  Jiminez,  like  the  island 
of  Montalvo's  fiction,  lie  on  the  right  hand  of  the  Indies,  or  where  the  Indies 
were  then  supposed  to  be  ?  Pearls .  were  found  on  it  and  gold  and  the 
Amazons  must  be  there,  too. 

Fortuna  Jiminez,  the  discoverer  of  Lower  California,  was  chief  pilot  on 
one  of  the  ships  which  Cortes,  in  1533,  fitted  out  to  explore  the  northwest  coast 
of  Mexico.  A  mutiny  broke  out  on  the  ship  commanded  by  Becerro  de  Men- 
doza.  He  was  killed  and  his  friends  forced  to  go  on  shore  at  Jalisco.  The  muti 
neers,  commanded  by  Jiminez,  sailed  westerly  away  from  the  coast  of  the  main 
land.  After  several  days  of  sailing  out  of  sight  of  the  main  land,  they  discov 
ered  what  they  supposed  to  be  an  island  and  landed  at  what  is  now  known  as 
La  Paz.  in  Lower  California.  There  Jiminez  and  twenty  of  his  followers  were 
killed  by  the  Indians ;  the  few  survivors  of  the  ill-fated  crew  managed  to  navi 
gate  the  vessel  back  to  Jalisco,  where  they  reported  the  discovery  of  an  island 
rich  in  pearls. 


Cortes,  hearing  the  report  and  probably  believing  the  island  to  be  the  Cali 
fornia  of  the  story,  fitted  out  an  expedition  to  colonize  it.  With  three  ships  and 
a  number  of  soldiers  and  settlers,  he  landed  in  May,  1535,  at  the  place  where 
Jiminez  was  killed,  which  he  named  Santa  Cruz ;  but  instead  of  an  island  peo 
pled  with  women  who  lived  after  the  manner  of  Amazons  and  whose  arms  and 
trappings  were  made  of  gold,  he  found  a  sterile  country  inhabited  by  the  most 
abject  and  degraded  of  beings.  Disaster  after  disaster  fell  upon  the  unfortu 
nate  colony.  Some  of  the  ships  sent  to  bring  supplies  were  wrecked  and  others 
driven  out  of  their  course.  Some  of  the  colonists  died  from  starvation  before 
the  supplies  reached  them  and  others  from  over-eating  afterwards.  After  two 
•"ears  of  struggling  against  misfortune,  Cortes  abandoned  the  attempt  and  the 
wretched  colonists  were  brought  back  to  Mexico.  Thus  ended  the  first  effort 
to  colonize  California. 

Some  time  between  1535  and  1537  the  name  California  was  applied  to  the 
land  still  supposed  to  be  an  island ;  but  whether  Cortes  applied  it  in  the  hope  of 
encouraging  his  colonists  or  whether  the  country  was  so  named  in  derision,  is 
not  known.  The  name  was  subsequently  applied  to  all  the  land  along  the  Pa 
cific  Coast  northward  to  42  degrees,  the  limit  of  the  Spanish  possessions. 

The  vast  unexplored  regions  to  the  northward  of  that  portion  of  Mexico 
which  he  had  conquered  had  a  fascination  for  Cortes.  He  dreamed  of  finding 
in  them  empires  vaster  and  richer  than  those  he  had  already  subdued.  For 
years  he  fitted  out  expeditions  by  sea  and  by  land  to  explore  this  terra  incognita ; 
but  failure  after  failure  wrecked  his  hopes  and  impoverished  his  purse.  The 
last  of  the  parties  was  the  one  commanded  by  Francisco  de  Ulloa,  who  in  1539 
sailed  up  the  Gulf  of  California  on  the  Sonora  side  to  its  head,  and  then  down 
the  inner  coast  of  Lower  California  to  the  cape  at  its  extremity,  which  he  doubled 
and  sailed  thence  northward  to  Cabo  de  Engano  (Cape  of  Deceit.)  Here  the 
two  vessels  of  the  expedition,  after  being  tossed  and  buffeted  by  head  winds, 
parted  company  in  a  storm.  The  smaller  returned  to  Santiago.  Of  the  other 
which  was  directly  under  Ulloa's  command,  nothing  is  definitely  known — nor 
of  Ulloa's  fate.  The  only  thing  accomplished  by  this  voyage  was  to  demon 
strate  that  California  was  a  peninsula,  although  even  this  fact  was  not  fully 
accepted  for  two  centuries  after  this.  Cortes  returned  to  Spain  in  1540,  where 
after  vainly  trying  to  obtain  from  the  King  some  recognition  of  his  services  and 
some  recompense  for  his  outlay,  he  died — a  disappointed  and  impoverished  man. 

The  next  voyage  which  had  anything  to  do  with  the  discovery  and  explora 
tion  of  California  was  that  of  Hernando  de  Alarcon.  With  two  ships  he  sailed 
from  Acapulco,  May  9,  1540,  up  the  Gulf  of  California.  His  object  was  to  co 
operate  with  Coronado.  The  latter,  with  an  army  of  400  men,  had  marched 
from  Culiscan,  April  22,  1540,  to  discover  and  conquer  the  "Seven  Cities  of 
Cibola,"  which  the  romancing  friar,  Marcos  de  Niza,  "led  by  the  Holy  Ghost" 


and  blessed  with  a  fertile  imagination,  claimed  to  have  seen  somewhere  in  the 
wilds  of  what  is  now  Arizona.  Alarcon,  at  the  head  of  the  gulf,  discovered 
the  mouth  of  a  great  river.  Up  this  stream,  which  he  named  Buena  Guia — 
now  the  Colorado — he  claimed  to  have  sailed  eighty-five  leagues.  He  was 
probably  the  first  white  man  to  set  foot  in  the  territory  now  included  in  the  State 
of  California. 

While  Coronado  was  still  absent  in  search  of  the  Seven  Cities,  and  of 
Quivera,  a  country  rich  in  gold,  lying  somewhere  in  the  interior  of  the  continent, 
the  successor  of  Cortes  entered  into  a  compact  with  Pedro  de  Alvarado,  Gov 
ernor  of  Guatemala,  who  had  a  fleet  of  ships  lying  at  anchor  in  the  harbor  of 
Natividad,  Mexico,  to  unite  their  forces  in  an  extensive  scheme  of  exploration 
and  conquest.  An  insurrection  broke  out  among  the  Indians  of  Jalisco  and  in 
trying  to  suppress  it  Alvarado  was  killed.  The  return  of  Coronado  dispelled 
the  myths  of  Cibola  and  Quivera  and  put  an  end,  for  the  time,  to  further  ex 
ploration  of  the  interior  regions  to  the  north  of  Mexico. 

On  the  death  of  Alvarado,  his  successor,  Mendoza,  placed  five  ships  under 
the  command  of  Ruy  Lopez  de  Villalobas  and  sent  them  to  the  Islas  de  Poniente 
(Isles  of  the  Setting  Sun — now  Philippines)  to  establish  trade.  Two  ships  of 
the  fleet,  under  the  command  of  Juan  Roderiguez  Cabrillo,  were  sent  to  explore 
the  northwest  coast  of  the  Pacific.  He  sailed  from  Natividad  June  27,  1542; 
on  August  3ofh  they  reached  Cabo  de  Engano,  the  most  northern  point  of  Ulloa's 
exploration.  Continuing  his  voyage  along  the  coast,  he  discovered  a  number 
of  bays  and  islands.  On  Sept.  23,  1542,  Cabrillo  entered  a  fine  bay  called  by 
him  San  Miguel,  now  San  Diego  Bay.  After  three  days  further  sailing  he 
sighted  the  islands  which  he  named  San  Salvador  and  Vitoria,  after  his  vessels, 
now  Catalina  and  San  Clemente.  From  these  islands  he  crossed  to  the  main 
land  on  Oct.  8th  and  entered  a  bay  which  he  named  Bahia  de  los  Fumos  (Bay 
of  Smokes),  now  San  Pedro  Bay.  After  entering  a  bight,  supposed  to  have 
been  Santa  Monica,  he  continued  northwestward,  passed  through  the  Santa  Bar 
bara  channel  and  discovered  the  islands  of  Santa  Cruz,  Santa  Rosa  and  San 
Miguel.  Going  on  up  the  coast,  he  found  a  long  narrow  point  of  land  extend 
ing  into  the  sea,  which  from  its  resemblance  to  a  galley  boat,  he  called  Cabo  de 
la  Galeria,  now  Point  Conception.  November  i7th  he  doubled  Point  of  Pines 
and  entered  Monterey  Bay,  which  he  called  Bahia  de  los  Pinos  (Bay  of  Pines.) 
Finding  it  impossible  to  land  on  account  of  the  heavy  seas,  he  proceeded  north 
ward  until  he  reached  40  degrees,  north  latitude,  as  he  estimated.  On  account 
of  cold  weather  and  storms  he  turned  back  and  ran  down  to  San  Miguel,  where 
he  decided  to  winter.  Here,  from  the  effects  of  a  fall,  he  died  Jan.  3,  1543,  and 
was  buried  on  the  island.  His  companions  renamed  the  island  Juan  Roderiguez, 
after  their  brave  commander;  but  he  did  not  retain  even  this  small  honor.  The 
discoverer  of  California  sleeps  in  an  unknown  grave. 


The  command  devolved  on  the  chief  pilot,  Bartolome  Ferrelo,  who  prose 
cuted  the  voyage  with  a  courage  and  daring  equal  to  that  shown  by  Cabrillo. 
On  Feb.  28th  he  discovered  a  point  of  land  which  he  named  Cape  Mendocino 
in  honor  of  the  Viceroy.  Passing  this  cape,  he  encountered  a  furious  storm, 
which  drove  him  violently  to  the  northeast  and  greatly  endangered  his  ships. 
On  March  1st  the  fogs  lifted  and  he  saw  Cape  Blanco  in  the  southern  part  of 
what  is  now  Oregon.  The  weather  continuing  stormy  and  the  cold  increasing, 
Ferrelo  was  compelled  to  turn. back.  Off  the  coast  of  San  Clemente  the  ships 
were  driven  apart  and  did  not  come  together  again  until  they  reached  the  Cerros 
Islands.  In  sore  distress  for  provisions  they  arrived  at  Natividad,  April  18,  1543. 

The  next  navigator  who  visited  California  was  Sir  Francis  Drake,  an  Eng 
lishman.  He  was  not  so  much  seeking  new  lands  as  trying  to  find  a  way  of 
escape  from  capture  by  the  Spanish.  Francis  Drake,  the  sea-king  of  Devon 
and  one  of  the  bravest  of  men,  sailed  from  Plymouth  Dec.  13,  1577,  in  com 
mand  of  a  fleet  of  five  small  vessels  on  a  privateering  expedition  against  the 
Spanish  settlements  of  the  Pacific  Coast.  When  he  sailed  out  of  the  Straits  of 
Magellan  into  the  South  Sea,  he  had  but  one  ship  left,  all  the  others  had  been 
lost  or  had  turned  back.  With  this  small  vessel  he  began  a  career  of  plunder 
ing  among  the  Spanish  settlements  that  for  boldness,  daring  and  success  has 
had  no  equal  in  the  world's  history.  The  quaint  chronicler  of  the  voyage  sums 
up  the  proceeds  of  his  raids  at  "eight  hundred  and  sixty-five  thousand  pesos  of 
silver,  a  hundred  thousand  pounds  of  gold  and  other  things  of  great  worth." 
Plundering  as  he  moved,  he  reached  the  port  of  Guatulco  on  the  coast  of 
Oaxaca.  Surfeited  with  spoils  and  with  his  ship  laden  to  her  fullest  capacity, 
it  became  a  necessity  for  him  to  find  a  new  way  home.  In  the  language  of  the 
chronicler,  "He  thought  it  was  not  good  to  return  by  the  straits,  lest  the  Span 
iards  should  attend  for  him  in  great  numbers."  So  he  sailed  away  to  the  north 
ward  to  find  the  Straits  of  Anian,  which  were  supposed  to  connect  the  North 
Pacific  with  the  Atlantic.  For  two  hundred  years  after  the  discovery  of  Amer 
ica,  navigators  searched  for  that  mythical  passage.  Drake,  keeping  well  out  to 
sea,  sailed  northward  for  two  months.  The  cold,  the  head  winds  and  the  leaky 
condition  of  his  craft  compelled  him  to  turn  back  and  he  sailed  clown  the  coast 
until  he  found  a  safe  harbor  under  the  lee  of  a  promontory,  now  Point  Reyes. 
Here  he  repaired  his  ship,  took  formal  possession  of  the  country  in  the  name  of 
his  sovereign,  Queen  Elizabeth,  and  named  it  New  Albion,  from  a  fancied  re 
semblance  to  his  homeland.  He  had  his  chaplain,  Parson  Fletcher,  preach  a 
sermon  to  the  natives ;  this  did  not  greatly  impress  them,  we  are  told,  but  they 
took  delight  in  the  psalm  singing.  After  a  stay  of  thirty-six  days,  on  July  23d, 
1579,  Drake  sailed  for  England  and  after  nearly  three  years  of  absence,  during 
which  he  had  circumnavigated  the  globe,  he  reached  home  safely  and  was  knighted 
bv  Elizabeth. 


Sixty  years  passed  after  Cabrillo's  voyage  before  another  Spanish  explorer 
visited  California.     The  chief  object  of  Sebastian  Viscaino's  voyage  was  to  find  a 
harbor  of  refuge  for  the  Philippine  galleons.     These  vessels  on  their  return  voy 
age  sailed  northward  until  they  struck  the  Japan  current,  which  they  followed 
across  the  ocean  until  they  reached  the  vicinity  of  Cape  Mendocino,  then  sailed 
along  the  coast  to  Acapulco.     Viscaino   started   from   Acapulco   May   5,    1602, 
with  three  ships  and  160  men.     Following  substantially  the  course  that  Cabrillo 
had  taken,  he  anchored  in  Cabrillo's  Bay  of  San  Miguel,  which  he  called  San 
Diego,  in  honor  of  his  flagship.     He  remained  there  ten  days,  then  proceeded 
up  the  coast  and  on  the  26th  anchored  in  a  bay  which  he  called  Ensenada  de  San 
Andreas,  now  San  Pedro.     He  visited  Cabrillo's  San  Salvador,  to  which  he  gave 
the  present  name  of  Santa  Catalina  and  changed  the  name  of  Vitoria  to  San 
Clemente.     He  gave  the  name  of  Santa  Barbara  to  that  channel  and  visited  the 
channel  islands.     He  saw  many  towns  on  the  mainland  and  the  natives  came 
off  in   their  canoes  and  visited   the  vessels.     On  Dec.    i6th  Viscaino   entered 
Monterey  Bay,  as  he  named  it  in  honor  of  the  Viceroy  who  had  fitted  out-  the 
expedition.     The  scurvy  had  broken  out  on  ship  and  sixteen  men  were  already 
dead.     The  San  Tomas  was  sent  back  to  Acapulco  with  the  sick;  with  his  two 
remaining    vessels    Viscaino    continued    his    voyage    northward,    reaching    Cape 
Blanco.     But  at  this  point  he,  too,  was  compelled  to  turn  backward.     The  scurvy 
had  made  fearful  inroads  on  his  crews  and  after  eleven  months'  absence,  Vis 
caino  reached  Mazlatan,  having  lost  nearly  half  of  his  crew.     He  wrote  the  King 
a  glowing  account  of  the  Bay  of  Monterey  and  the  surrounding  country,  which 
he  pictured  as  almost  a  terrestrial  paradise.     His  object  was  to  induce  the  King 
to  establish  a  settlement  on  Monterey  Bay.     In  this  he  was  doomed  to  disap 
pointment ;  delay  followed  delay  until  hope  vanished.     Finally,  in   1606,  orders 
came  from  Philip  III  to  the  Viceroy  to  fit  out  immediately  an  expedition  for  the 
occupation  and  settlement  of  Monterey,  of  which  Viscaino  was  to  be  the  com 
mander.     In  the  midst  of  his  preparations  for  carrying  out  the  dearest  object 
of  his  life,  Viscaino  died  and  the  expedition  was  abandoned.     Had  it  not  been 
for  the  untimely  death  of  this  explorer,  a  colonv  would  have  been  planted  upon 
the  Pacific  coast  of  California,  a  year  before  the  first  settlement  was  made  on 
the  Atlantic  coast  of  North  America. 

Two  hundred  and  twenty-seven  years  had  passed  since  the  ships  of  Cabrillo 
had  first  cut  the  waters  that  lap  the  shores  of  Alta  California  and  yet  through 
all  these  years  the  interior  of  the  vast  country  whose  seacoast  he  had  visited 
remained  unknown.  For  more  than  two  centuries  the  Manila  galleons  had 
sailed  down  the  coast  on  their  return  voyage  from  the  islands;  yet  after  the 
death  of  Viscaino  no  other  attempt  had  been  made  to  find  a  refuge  on  the  Cali 
fornia  coast  for  the  storm  tossed  and  scurvy  afflicted  mariners  of  the  Philippine 



THE  Jesuits  began  their  work  among  the  degraded  inhabitants  of  Lower 
California  in  1697.  Under  their  devoted  leaders,  Salvatierra,  Kino, 
Ugarte,  Piccolo,  and  their  successors,  they  had  founded  sixteen  missions 
upon  the  peninsula.  Father  Kino,  besides  his  missionary  labors,  had  made,  be 
tween  1697  and  1702,  explorations  around  the  head  of  the  Gulf  of  California  and 
up  the  Colorado  to  the  mouth  of  the  Gila,  which  had  clearly  demonstrated  that 
the  peninsula  was  a  part  of  the  mainland  instead  of  an  island  as  at  first  believed. 
Father  Kino  formed  the  design  of  establishing  a  chain  of  missions  around  the 
head  of  the  gulf  and  down  the  inner  coast  to  Cape  San  Lucas;  but  did  not  live 
to  complete  his  ambitious  project.  The  Jesuit  missions  of  Raja  California  never 
grew  rich  in  flocks  and  herds.  The  country  was  barren  and  the  few  fertile  val 
leys  around  the  missions  gave  the  padres  and  neophytes,  at  best,  but  a  frugal 
return  for  their  labors. 

For  years  there  had  been  growing  up  in  Spain  a  strong  hostility  to  the 
Jesuits  which  finally  resulted  in  the  issuance  of  a  decree  by  Carlos  III,  in  1767, 
banishing  the  order  from  that  country  and  from  its  American  possessions.  With 
out  previous  warning,  the  monks  in  Lower  California  were  compelled  to  aban 
don  their  missions  and  were  hurried  from  the  country.  At  the  head  of  the  Fran 
ciscan  order,  to  whom  the  abandoned  missions  were  turned  over,  came  Father 
Junipero  Serra,  a  man  of  indomitable  will  and  energy.  Don  Jose  Galvez,  vis- 
itaclor-general  of  New  Spain,  had  been  sent  to  the  peninsula  to  regulate  affairs — 
both  secular  and  ecclesiastical,  which  had  been  thrown  into  disorder  by  the  sud 
den  expulsion  of  the  Jesuits.  He  also  received  orders  to  advance  the  scheme  for 
the  occupation  of  San  Diego  and  Monterey  harbors  and  the  colonization  of 
"Nueva  California."  Galvez,  as  soon  as  he  had  somewhat  systematized  matters 
on  the  peninsula,  set  vigorously  to  work  to  further  the  project  of  occupying  the 
northern  territory.  Father  Serra  entered  heartily  into  his  plans  and  church  and 
state  worked  together  harmoniously. 

Galvez  decided  to  fit  out  four  expeditions — two  by  sea  and  two  by  land. 
These  were  to  start  at  different  dates,  but  were  all  to  unite  at  San  Diego  Bay  and 
after  occupying  that  territory,  pass  on  to  the  harbor  of  Monterey.  On  Jan.  9, 
1769,  the  San  Carlos  sailed  from  La  Paz  with  sixty-five  persons  on  board,  twenty- 
five  of  whom  were  soldiers  under  Lieutenant  Pages.  She  carried  supplies  for 
eight  months.  On  the  I5th  of  February,  the  San  Antonio  sailed  from  Cape  S. 
Lucas,  with  two  friars  and  a  few  mechanics  on  board.  The  first  land  expedition 



started  from  Yelicata,  the  most  northern  settlement  in  Lower  California,  March 
24th.  It  was  commanded  by  Rivera  y  Moncada  and  consisted  of  twenty-five  sol 
diers,  forty-two  natives,  with  Padres  Crespi  and  Canizar^s.  The  last  expedi 
tion,  which  was  under  the  immediate  command  of  Caspar  ue  Portala,  Governor 
of  the  Californias,  left  Velicata  May  I5th.  It  consisted  of  ten  soldiers,  with  a 
band  of  Lower  Californians,  and  was  accompanied  by  Father  Serra. 

The  San  Antonio,  although  the  last  to  sail,  was  the  first  to  arrive  at  its  des 
tination,  casting  anchor  in  San  Diego  Bay,  April  11,  1769.  The  San  Carlos, 
after  a  most  disastrous  voyage,  drifted  into  the  bay  on  April  29th.  The  crew 
were  prostrated  with  scurvy  and  it  was  with  difficulty  that  a  boat  was  manned 
to  go  ashore.  The  sick  were  landed,  but  when  the  scourge  had  run  its  course, 
few  were  left.  Moncada's  land  expedition,  after  an  uneventful  march,  reached 
San  Diego  May  I4th.  On  the  first  day  of  July  Portala's  command  arrived  and 
the  four  divisions,  aggregating  126  persons  who  were  expected  to  remain  in  the 
country,  were  united.  The  ravages  of  scurvy  had  so  depleted  the  crews  of  the 
two  vessels  that  only  enough  men  remained  to  man  one  vessel.  The  San  Antonio 
was  sent  back  to  San  Bias  for  supplies  and  another  crew  for  the  San  Carlos.  A 
third  vessel,  the  San  Jose,  had  been  fitted  out  by  Galvez  and  loaded  with  supplies 
for  the  missionaries ;  but  she  was  never  heard  from  after  the  day  of  sailing. 

On  July  1 6th,  Father  Serra  formally  founded  the  first  mission  in  Nueva 
California,  which  was  dedicated  to  San  Diego  de  Alcala — St.  James  of  Alcala — 
a  Franciscan  friar  who  died  in  1463  and  was  canonized  in  1588.  On  July  I4th 
Governor  Portala,  with  Padres  Crespi  and  Gomez  and  a  force  made  up  of  sol 
diers  and  Indians  of  Lower  California,  numbering  in  all  sixty-five  persons,  set 
out  from  San  Diego  to  go  overland  to  Monterey  Bay  and  there  found  the  intended 
mission  and  settlement.  The  route  of  the  expedition  was  mainly  along  the  coast, 
with  an  occasional  divergence  inland.  On  August  2nd  they  camped  on  the  future 
site  of  Los  Angeles.  Along  the  coast  of  Santa  Barbara  channel  they  found  pop 
ulous  Indian  villages  and  were  everywhere  welcomed  by  the  natives  of  the  coun 
try.  The  explorers  passed  by  Monterey  Bay  without  recognizing  it  from  the 
description  of  Viscaino,  and  traveled  along  the  coast  to  the  north.  On  Nov.  2nd 
some  of  the  hunters  of  the  party  climbed  a  hill  and  saw  an  "arm  of  the  sea." 
This  was  the  body  of  water  we  now  know  as  San  Francisco  Bay.  Their  pro 
visions  were  exhausted  and  many  were  sick.  In  consequence  it  was  decided  to 
turn  back  and  the  party  reached  San  Diego  again  in  January,  1770.  Portala's 
expedition  had  failed  in  its  object  to  found  a  mission  on  the  bay  of  Monterey, 
but  it  had  accomplished  a  far  greater  feat — it  had  discovered  San  Francisco  Bay. 

In  April,  1770,  Portala  again  set  out  for  Monterey,  with  a  force  of  twenty- 
five  soldiers  and  natives.  At  the  same  time  Father  Serra  sailed  on  the  San  An 
tonio  for  the  bay.  On  June  3,  1770,  the  mission  of  San  Carlos  Borremeo  de 
Monterey  was  formally  established  on  the  beach,  with  solemn  ceremonies,  ac- 


companied  by  the  ringing  of  bells  and  the  crack  of  musketry  and  roar  of  cannon. 
Father  Serra  conducted  the  services  and  Governor  Portala  took  possession  of 
the  country  in  the  name  of  the  King  of  Spain,  Carlos  III.  A  presidio  or  fort  of 
palisades  was  erected  and  a  few  huts  built.  Portala,  having  formed  the  nucleus 
of  a  settlement,  turned  over  the  command  of  the  territory  to  Pages  and  sailed 
to  Lower  California  on  the  San  Antonio.  This  was  the  end  of  his  term  as  Gov 


For  the  protection  of  the  missions  and  to  prevent  foreigners  from  entering 
California,  military  posts,  called  presidios,  were  established  at  San  Diego,  Monte 
rey,  Santa  Barbara  and  San  Francisco.  These  enclosures  were  in  the  form  of 
a  square  and  were  surrounded  by  adobe  walls  ten  or  twelve  feet  high.  Within 
were  the  officers'  quarters,  the  barracks  for  the  soldiers,  a  guard  house,  chapel, 
granaries,  and  storehouses.  A  military  force,  usually  consisting  of  one  cor 
pany,  was  stationed  at  each  post  under  the  command  of  a  colonel  or  lieutenant. 
The  largest  force  was  kept  at  Monterey,  the  capital  of  the  territory.  The  Gov 
ernor,  or  commandante-general  who,  under  Spanish  rule  was  always  an  army 
officer,  was  commander-in-chief  of  the  troops  in  the  territory.  The  principal 
service  of  the  soldiers  was  to  keep  in  check  the  neophytes,  to  protect  the  mis 
sions  from  the  incursions  of  the  "gentiles,"  as  the  wild  Indians  were  known,  and 
to  capture  neophytes  who  had  escaped  to  their  unconverted  relatives. 

The  mission  fathers  were  opposed  to  the  colonization  of  the  country  by 
white  people.  They  well  knew  that  the  bringing  of  a  superior  race  of  people 
into  contact  with  the  lower  would  result  in  the  demoralization  of  the  inferior  race. 
As  rapidly  as  they  could  found  missions,  they  arrogated  to  themselves  all  tlv 
choice  lands  within  the  vicinity  of  each  establishment.  A  settler  could  not  ob 
tain  a  grant  of  land  from  the  public  domain  if  the  padres  of  the  nearest  mission 
opposed  the  action.  The  difficulty  of  obtaining  supplies  from  Mexico  for  the 
soldiers  of  the  presidios,  necessitated  the  founding  of  agricultural  colonies.  Pre 
vious  to  1776  the  Governor  of  "Las  Californias"  as  the  country  from  Cape  San 
Lucas  to  the  most  northern  point  of  the  Spanish  possessions  was  known,  re 
sided  at  Loreto,  in  Lower  California.  In  that  year  the  territory  was  divided 
into  two  districts  and  a  governor  appointed  for  each.  Felipe  de  Neve  was  made 
Governor  of  Nueva  California,  of  which  Monterey  was  designated  as  the  capital, 
and  Rivera  y  Moncada  was  appointed  Governor  of  Lower  California  to  reside 
at  Loreto. 

Hitherto  all  expeditions  to  Nueva  California  had  come  either  by  the  coast 
route,  up  the  peninsula,  or  by  sea.  In  1774  Captain  Juan  Bautista  de  Anza, 
commander  of  the  Tubac  presidio  of  Sonora,  was  ordered  to  explore  a  route  by 
way  of  the  Gila  and  Colorado  rivers  overland  to  Monterey.  With  a  party  of 


thirty-four  men,  he  made  the  Jornada,  crossing  the  desert,  entering  the  San  Ber 
nardino  Valley  through  the  San  Gorgonio  Pass  and  reaching  San  Gabriel.  On 
his  return  to  Sonora,  he  recruited  a  second  expedition  composed  of  soldiers,  set 
tlers  and  their  families — in  all  over  three  hundred  persons,  who  were  designed 
to  found  a  mission  and  a  presidio  on  San  Francisco  Bay.  After  a  long  and  toil 
some  journey  this  party  reached  California  in  1776.  On  the  I7th  of  Septembc 
1776,  the  presidio  of  San  Francisco  was  formally  established  and  on  October  gth 
the  mission,  christened  for  the  founder  of  the  Franciscan  order,  was  founded. 

Governor  de  Neve,  on  his  journey  overland  in  1777  from  Loreto  to  Monte 
rey,  was  instructed  to  examine  the  country  from  San  Diego  northward  and  se 
lect  locations  for  agricultural  settlements.  He  chose  two  colony  sites,  one  on 
the  Ric  de  Porciuncula,  where  Portala's  expedition  had  camped  in  1769  and  to 
which  he  had  given  the  name  of  "Nuestra  Senora  de  Los  Angeles,"  and  the 
other  on  the  Rio  de  Guadalupe  in  the  northern  section  of  the  territory.  Here, 
Nov.  29,  1777,  Governor  de  Xeve  founded  the  Pueblo  de  San  Jose.  The  col 
onists  were  nine  soldiers  from  the  presidios  of  Monterey  and  San  Francisco  and 
five  settlers  of  Anza's  expedition.  These,  with  their  families,  made  a  total  of 
sixty-six.  The  site  of  the  pueblo  was  about  a  mile  north  of  the  present  city  of 
San  Jose.  Each  settler  was  given  a  tract  of  irrigable  land,  a  soldier's  rations 
and  ten  dollars  per  month.  Each  head  of  a  family  received  a  yoke  of  oxen,  two 
horses,  two  cows,  a  mule,  two  sheep  and  two  goats,  a  few  farming  implements 
and  seed  for  the  first  sowing.  The  colonists  were  to  reimburse  the  royal  treas 
ury  for  all  the  articles  furnished  them  except  their  rations  and  monthly  pay, 
the  payments  to  be  made  in  installments  from  the  products  of  their  industry. 

The  Spanish  government  had  an  elaborate  code  of  laws  governing  the  es 
tablishment  and  management  of  pueblos.  These  were  applied  with  small  mod 
ification  to  all  new  pueblos,  whatever  their  location  and  conditions.  Each  pueblo 
must  contain  four  square  leagues  of  land,  which  was  divided  into  planting  fields, 
allotted  to  the  colonists :  lands  retained  by  the  municipality  for  renting ;  a  com 
mon  pasture  for  the  use  of  all,  and  a  portion  of  land  reserved  for  the  state,  used 
for  raising  revenues.  Wood  and  water  were  communal  property.  The  pueblo 
was  governed  by  a  semi-civil,  semi-military  official  known  as  the  comisionaclo. 
There  was  also  an  alcalde,  who  was  a  mayor  and  petty  judge.  A  guard  of  sol 
diers  were  kept  at  the  guard  house,  partly  for  protection  against  the  Indians  and 
partly  to  preserve  the  peace  in  the  pueblo. 

In  1779  Rivera  y  Moncada,  the  Governor  of  Lower  California,  was  instructed 
to  recruit  in  Sonora  and  Sinaloa  settlers  for  the  founding  of  a  pueblo  on  the 
Rio  Porciuncula  and  soldiers  for  the  founding  of  a  presidio  and  mission  on  the 
Santa  Barbara  channel.  The  settlers  were  to  receive  each  $106.50  for  two  years 
and  $60  for  the  next  three  years,  the  payment  to  be  in  clothing  and  other  neces 
sary  articles  at  cost  price ;  also  live  stock,  farming  implements  and  seeds.  These 


liberal  offers  secured  but  few  recruits  and  those  of  poor  quality.  After  a  year 
Rivera  had  obtained  but  fourteen  settlers.  Two  of  these  deserted  before  the 
company  left  Sonora  and  one  was  left  behind  at  Loreto  when,  in  April,  1781, 
the  expedition  began  to  march  up  the  peninsula.  The  colonists  under  command 
of  Lieut.  Zuniga  arrived  at  San  Gabriel,  August  i8th,  where  they  remained  until 
Sept.  4th.  The  eleven  settlers  and  their  families — forty-four  persons  in  all,  es 
corted  by  Gov.  de  Neve  and  a  small  guard  of  soldiers  and  accompanied  by  the 
priests  of  San  Gabriel  Mission,  on  Sept.  4,  1781,  proceeded  to  the  site  previously 
selected  for  the  pueblo.  This  was  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Rio  Porciuncula  near 
the  spot  where  Portala's  explorers  had  celebrated  the  feast  of  Nuesta  Seiiora  de 
Los  Angeles  de  Porciuncula,  from  which  circumstances  was  derived  the  name  of 
the  pueblo  and  the  river.  A  plaza,  seventy-five  by  one  hundred  varas  was  laid 
off  on  the  mesa  above  the  river  as  the  center  of  the  settlement.  A  mass  was 
said  by  the  priests  of  the  mission,  a  procession  was  formed  and  marched  around 
the  plaza,  the  soldiers  bearing  the  imperial  standard  of  Spain  and  the  women 
the  image  of  "Our  Lady  of  the  Angels."  The  priests  blessed  the  plaza  and  the 
house  lots.  The  services  over,  the  Governor  and  his  escort  took  their  departure 
and  the  colonists  were  left  to  work  out  their  destiny.  Another  pueblo  called 
Branciforte  was  founded  in  1797  near  Santa  Cruz,  but  never  prospered.  The 
settlers  were  discharged  soldiers,  unused  to  labor  and  averse  to  acquiring  indus 
trious  habits. 

A  few  grants  of  land  were  made  to  private  citizens,  but  substantially,  during 
the  Spanish  era,  all  the  land  outside  of  the  pueblos  used  for  grazing  or  for  culti 
vation  was  held  by  the  missions.  The  commerce  of  California  at  this  period  was 
limited  to  the  ships  of  the  missions  which  usually  came  twice  a  year  from  San 
Bias  with  supplies  for  the  missions  and  presidios  and  took  away  the  few  commer 
cial  products  of  the  country,  such  as  otter  skins,  hides  and  tallow  of  cattle.  About 
1800  the  American  smugglers  began  to  come  to  the  coast.  The  vessels  engaged 
in  this  trade  were  principally  from  Boston  and  were  fast  sailing  craft.  They 
exchanged  Yankee  notions  for  otter  skins.  The  authorities  tried  to  suppress 
this  illicit  traffic,  but  were  not  often  successful,  as  the  vessels  were  heavily  armed 
and  when  not  able  to  escape  the  revenue  officers,  by  speed  or  strategem,  were  not 
averse  to  fighting  their  way  out. 

Of  the  long  and  bloody  struggle  for  Mexican  independence,  beginning  with 
the  insurrection  led  by  the  patriot  priest,  Hidalgo,  in  1810,  and  continuing  under 
various  leaders  for  eleven  years,  but  little  was  known  in  California.  The  men 
who  filled  the  office  of  territorial  governor  during  the  years  of  the  fratricidal 
struggle — Arrilliga,  Argiiella  and  Sola,  were  royalists  and  so  were  the  mission 
padres,  nearly  all  of  whom  were  Spanish  born.  The  soldiers  and  the  common 
people  knew  but  little  about  what  was  going  on  in  the  world  beyond  and  cared  less. 

The  one  event  that  disturbed  the  placidity  of  life  during  the  closing  years 


of  the  Spanish  rule  was  the  appearance  on  the  coast  of  Bouchard,  the  privateer, 
with  two  frigates  heavily  armed.  Bouchard  was  a  Frenchman  cruising  under 
letters  of  Marque  from  the  insurgent  government  of  Buenos  Ayres,  against  the 
Spanish.  He  entered  the  harbor  of  Monterey,  Nov.  21,  1818,  probably  to  ob 
tain  supplies,  but  being  coldly  received,  he  fired  upon  the  fort.  The  Californians 
made  a  brave  resistance,  but  were  finally  overpowered.  Bouchard  sacked  and 
burned  the  town.  He  next  appeared  at  Ortega's  Rancho,  where  he  burned  the 
buildings.  Here  the  Californians  captured  three  prisoners,  who  were  exchanged 
next  day  when  Bouchard  anchored  off  Santa  Barbara  for  one  Californian  whom 
the  insurgents  had  captured  at  Monterey.  Bouchard  next  visited  San  Juan  Cap- 
istrano,  where  his  "pirates"  drank  the  padres'  wine,  then  he  took  his  departure 
from  California.  Four  of  Bouchard's  men  were  left  and  became  permanent  resi 
dents — Joseph  Chapman,  an  American,  and  Fisher,  a  negro,  who  were  captured 
at  Monterey ;  and  John  Ross,  a  Scotchman,  and  Jose  Pascual,  a  negro,  who  de 
serted  at  San  Juan.  Chapman  was  the  first  American  resident  of  Southern  Cali 
fornia.  He  married  Guadalupe  Ortega,  a  daughter  of  the  owner  of  the  Refugio 
Rancho  which  was  plundered  by  the  insurgents,  and  settled  at  the  mission  San 
Gabriel.  He  built  there  the  first  flour  mill  erected  in  California. 

The  war  of  Mexican  Independence  caused  hard  times  in  California.  The 
soldiers  received  no  pay  and  the  mission  supply  ships  came  at  long  intervals. 
Money  was  almost  an  unknown  quantity.  There  were  prodvcts  to  sell,  but  no 
one  to  sell  them  to  except  an  occasional  smuggler,  or  a  tallow  ship  from  Peru. 



IT  WAS  not  the  intention  of  the  Spanish  government  that  the  mission 
establishments  should  continue  permanently  as  missions.  According  to 
the  law,  at  the  end  of  ten  years  from  its  founding  each  mission  was  to 
be  converted  into  a  municipal  organization,  known  as  a  pueblo,  or  town  ;  and 
the  property  of  the  mission,  both  personal  and  real,  was  to  be  sub-divided 
among  the  neophytes  of  the  establishment.  But  the  training  which  the  natives 
received  did  not  fit  them  for  self-government.  They  were  forced  to  labor  and 
were  instructed  in  many  branches  of  industry,  as  well  as  in  the  religious 
ceremonials ;  but  they  received  no  intellectual  training  and  they  made  little 
progress  toward  self-control.  The  padres  persistently  urged  that  the  neophytes 
were  incompetent  to  use  and  manage  property,  and  during  the  time  that  Cali 
fornia  was  subject  to  Spain  no  attempt  was  made  to  carry  out  the  law  and 
secularize  the  missions. 

In  form,  the  different  missions  resembled  one  another.  Col.  J.  J.  Warner, 
thus  describes  the  general  form:  "A  large  pile  of  buildings  in  the  form  of 
a  quadrangle,  composed  partly  of  burnt  brick,  but  chiefly  of  sun-dried  ones, 
was  erected  around  a  spacious  court.  A  large  and  capacious  church,  usually 
occupying  one  corner  of  the  quadrangle,  was  a  conspicuous  part  of  the  pile. 
In  these  buildings,  which  were  covered  with  red  tile,  was  the  habitation  of 
the  friars,  rooms  for  guests  and  for  the  major-domos  and  their  families,  hospital 
wards,  storehouses  and  granaries." 

A  guard  of  four  or  five  soldiers  was  kept  at  each  mission  to  control  the 
neophytes.  Each  establishment  held  possession  of  large  tracts  of  land,  con 
tiguous  to  its  buildings.  These  were  divided  into  ranches,  over  which  roamed 
large  herds  and  flocks  under  the  charge  of  Indian  vaqueros.  The  neophytes 
for  the  most  part  were  docile  and  easily  managed,  and  some  of  the  brighter 
ones  were  taught  mechanical  trades  and  became  fairly  good  blacksmiths, 
weavers,  tanners,  shoemakers,  saddlers,  brick-makers,  etc.  They  certainly 
accomplished  a  large  amount  of  labor  under  the  padres  and  proved  themselves 
capable,  with  proper  supervision,  of  supporting  themselves — and  producing  a 
large  surplus  for  the  benefit  of  the  church. 

The    history    and    present    condition    of    each    mission    is    here    presented. 



"  The  first  Apostle  of  California,"  Father  Junipero  Serra,  was  a  humble 
friar  of  the  Franciscan  order  when,  in  1767,  he  was  appointed  presidente 
general  of  the  missions  of  the  Californias,  in  charge  of  the  missions  of  Lower 
California,  and  with  orders  to  establish  new  missions  in  Upper  California. 
Filled  with  zeal  for  the  salvation  of  souls,  he  prepared  with  great  rejoicing  and 
^^^^_^^_^_^^^^^__  with  excellent  good  sense,  as  well,  to  enter  new 

territory.  For  sixteen  years  he  labored  inces 
santly,  travelling  up  and  down  the  coast  and 
visiting  the  City  of  Mexico,  although  he  was 
afflicted  with  an  incurable  disease  and  so  lame 
that  he  could  not  move  without  suffering.  He 
founded  nine  missions  before  his  death,  at  which 
five  thousand  natives  had  been  baptized. 

Less  than  a  year  before  he  died,  he  made  his 
last  journey  from  San  Diego  to  Monterey,  visiting 


each  of  the  missions,  journeying  on  foot,  sleeping 

on  the  ground,  although  he  was  so  ill  that  no  one  believed  he  would  live  to 
complete  the  trip.  He  was  most  ascetic  in  his  habits,  never  eating  meat ;  sleeping 
upon  rough  boards,  and  spending  most  of  the  night  in  prayer ;  Palou  relates  that 
four  days  before  his  death  an  old  Indian  woman  came  to  visit  the  holy  father 
and  with  his  own  hand  he  gave  her  a  blanket.  After  his  death  they  found  that 
it  was  half  of  his  own  blanket  that  he  had  given. 

Father  Serra  was  born  on  the  Island  of  Majorca  in  1713:  he  died  at  San 
Carlos  Mission,  August  29,  1784.  and  was  buried  in  the  church  to  which  he 
had  given  so  much  of  his  love  and  thought. 

To  Junipero  Serra  and  his  noble  band  of  assistants  California  owes  the 
existence  of  her  mission  ruins ;  but  she  also  owes  to  these  simple,  hard-working 
friars,  the  beginnings  of  her  industries,  the  nomenclature  of  her  geography, 
the  distinctiveness  of  her  architecture  and  the  civilization  of  her  savages. 


The  Mission  San  Diego  cle  Alcala  (Saint  James  of  Alcala),  was  founded 
July  16,  1769,  by  Father  Junipero  Serra,  on  an  eminence  overlooking  the  Bay 
of  San  Diego.  A  temporary  altar  was  erected  beneath  the  branches  of  a  tree 
from  which  bells  were  swung  and  loudly  rung.  Water  was  blessed,  the  cross 
raised,  high  mass  was  sung  by  Father  Junipero.  The  services  were  attended 
by  the  officers  and  soldiers  from  the  ships  and  the  land  forces ;  the  royal  standard 
was  unfurled  and  the  country  was  formally  occupied  in  the  name  of  Carlos  III. 



Several  huts  were  erected,  one  of  which  was  used  as  a  chapel.  The  Indians  at 
no  time  very  friendly,  became  hostile,  and  on  August  15,  1769,  made  an  attack 
upon  the  mission,  but  were  repulsed,  and  a  stockade  was  immediately  erected 
around  the  camp. 

In  1771  Fathers  Luis  Jayme  and  Francisco  Dumetz  came  from  Mexico  and 
were  placed  in  charge  of  the  mission.  In  1774  the  location  was  changed  to  a 
point  about  seven  miles  up  the  Valley  of  the  San  Diego  river.  A  wooden 
church  was  constructed,  18x57  feet  in  size,  roofed  with  tules,  three  small  adobe 
buildings  used  for  a  store,  a  blacksmith  shop  and  a  dwelling.  In  1775  new 
buildings  were  erected  and  a  well  dug.  A  ferocious  attack  was  made  upon 
the  settlement  by  the  Indians  on  the  night  of  November  4th,  1775,  all  the 
buildings  being  destroyed  and  Father  Jayme  murdered.  His  body  was  found 
naked  with  twenty  arrow  wounds  in  the  breast.  Jose  Manuel  Arroyo,  the  black 
smith,  and  the  carpenter  Ursulino  were  also  killed.  All  three  were  buried  in 
the  chapel  at  the  Presidio.  Fathers  de  la  Pena  and  Fuster  resumed  the  mission 

work,  holding     services     at     the 

Presidio.     Anew  lrf  ,,  ,    \MM£1      church,   strength- 

pine  timbers  and 
proved  was  com- 
A  report  on  the 
Diego  Mission 
Lasuen,  in  1783, 
church,  9OXI7X 
75x161/2  feet;  a 
house  for  sick 
for  sick  men ; 

A  new 
ened  with  heavy 
otherwise  im- 
pleted  in  1 780. 
condition  of  San 
given  by  Father 
is  as  follows :  "A 
17;  a  granary, 
store-house;  a 


women ;   a  house 

sheds  for  wood  and  oxen ;  two  horses  for  the  fathers ;  a  larder ;  a  guests'  room 
and  a  kitchen."  All  were  of  adobe  and  with  the  soldiers'  barracks  these 
buildings  formed  three  sides  of  a  quadrangle  of  165  feet.  The  fourth  side 
consisted  of  an  adobe  wall  fifteen  feet  high.  There  was  a  vat  for  use  in 
tanning  hides,  two  adobe  corrals  for  sheep  and  one  for  cows.  These  were 
outside  the  regular  mission  enclosure.  The  cabins  of  the  neophytes  were  of 
wood  and  grass.  At  this  time  there  were  seven  hundred  and  forty  neophytes, 
under  missionary  care. 

In  1793,  a  substantial  granary  of  adobe,  96x24  feet,  was  built,  and  in  1795, 
the  vineyard  was  surrounded  with  an  adobe  wall  five  hundred  yards  in  length. 
This  year  saw  also  the  commencement  of  an  extensive  system  of  irrigating 
ditches,  remains  of  which  can  still  be  seen  and  constitute  a  valuable  object  lesson 
in  ditch  construction.  About  three  miles  of  San  Diego  river  was  dammed  back 
with  a  solid  stone  clam  thirteen  feet  in  thickness  and  coated  with  cement  that 


became  as  solid  as  rock  and  remains  so  to  this  day.  In  the  center  of  this 
dam  was  a  gateway  from  which  a  stream  of  water,  12x24  inches,  was  carried 
through  an  aqueduct  of  tile  and  resting  on  a  base  of  cobblestones  and  cement. 
This  aqueduct  for  the  major  portion  of  the  way  was  laid  along  the  sides  of  a 
precipitous  gorge  and  frequently  crossed  gulches  from  15  to  20  feet  wide,  and 
as  many  feet  deep. 

On  May  25th,  1803,  an  earthquake  occurred  which  damaged  the  church. 
In  1804,  a  new  church  was  begun.  It  was  completed  and  dedicated  November 
I2th,  1813.  It  is  the  ruins  of  this  building  that  we  see  today.  The  remains 
of  Fathers  Jayme,  Figuer  and  Mariner  were  transferred  from  their  old  resting 
place  and  buried  in  one  grave,  though  in  separate  coffins,  between  the  altars  of 
the  church,  Father  Jayme  resting  nearest  the  altar  of  the  Blessed  Virgin. 

From  the  time  of  the  establishment  of  San  Diego  in  1769  to  1834,  the 
date  of  its  secularization,  there  were  6638  persons  baptized,  1879  marriages 
performed,  and  4428  burials.  In  1831,  the  mission  owned  8822  head  of  cattle, 
1192  horses  and  16,661  head  of  sheep.  There  were  1506  Indians  on  the  roll 
of  the  mission  January  6th,  1846,  when  an  inventory  of  the  mission  property 
was  taken.  In  June  of  the  same  year  the  mission  lands  were  sold  to  Santiago 
Argiiello  for  past  services  to  the  United  States  government.  His  title  was  not, 
however,  sustained  and  in  accordance  with  a  decision  of  the  United  States 
Land  Commissioners,  in  1856,  based  on  the  old  Spanish  law,  that  divided 
church  property  into  two  classes,  sacred  and  ecclesiastical,  and  whereby  sacred 
property  could  not  be  sold,  San  Diego  Mission  was  returned  to  the  church. 
"  Sacred  property"  is  defined  as  that  which  has  been  formally  consecrated  to 
God,  such  as  churches,  church  buildings,  vessels  and  vestments.  The  priests' 
houses  and  their  gardens  were  thus  included.  According  to  this  decision  all 
church  property  that  had  been  sold  by  Governor  Pio  Pico  reverted  to  the  church, 
while  the  ecclesiastic  or  mission  lands  were  government  property. 

San  Diego  Mission  has  been  in  part  restored  by  the  Auxiliary  to  the  Land 
marks  Club.  The  ruins  of  the  old  dam,  the  irrigating  system  and  garden  walls 
are  to  be  seen.  Many  of  the  original  trees  of  the  olive  orchard  are  still  standing 
and  productive.  The  old  olive  press  is  also  there.  Down  at  the  old  town  of 
San  Diego  may  be  seen  the  ruins  of  the  first  Presidio  buildings,  relics  of  the 
century  past.  Two  old  mission  bells  hung  suspended  from  a  beam  outside  of 
one  of  the  origiml  buildings. 


Mission  San  Carlos  Borremeo  de  Monterey  was  founded  June  3rd,   1770, 
on  the  inner  shore  of  Monterey  Bay,  where  the  city  of  Monterey  now  stands, 


the  exact  location  being  marked  with  the  statue  of  Junipero  Serra,  erected  by 
the  late  Mrs.  Jane  Lathrop  Stanford.  Near  the  bay  shore  stands  a  cross, 
indicating  the  landing  place  of  Fathers  Serra  and  Crespi  and  near  by  is  the 
old  oak  tree  upon  a  branch  of  which  they  hung  the  bell,  and  under  which  the 
christening  services  were  held.  The  Indians  of  that  locality  were  more 
timorous  than  those  of  the  South,  and  progress  in  gaining  their  confidence  was 
somewhat  slow,  but  within  about  three  years,  one  hundred  and  seventy-five 
had  been  gathered  into  the  church.  The  situation  and  surroundings  were  not 

satisfactory,  however,  and  a  few 
months  later  the  mission  was  removed 
about  five  miles  to  the  mouth  of  El 
Carmel  river,  on  the  beautiful  Bay 
of  Carmel,  and  while  the  mission  was 
thereafter  known  as  San  Carlos  el 
Carmello,  it  officially  retained  its 
original  title. 

At  this  new  mission  Fathers  Serra 

and    Crespi  began   the   study    of   the 

SAN   CARLOS   BORREMEO  DE   MONTEREY.  j^j^     ]anguage         Rey      p^     Juan 

Crespi  was  a  native  of  Spain,  being  sixty-one  years  of  age  at  the  time  of  his 
decease,  January  ist,  1783.  He  was  buried  near  the  main  altar.  It  was  here 
that  Serra  two  years  later  passed  away  after  a  lingering  illness,  and  his  remains 
were  laid  beside  those  of  Father  Crespi. 

It  was  not  until  July  7th,  1793,  that  the  first  stone  of  the  new  church  was 
laid.  It  was  built  of  soft,  straw-colored  stone,  quarried  near  by,  laid  in  lime 
made  from  sea-shells,  gathered  along  the  sea-beach,  the  roof  being  of  red  tiles. 
The  church  was  dedicated  in  1797,  and  the  remains  of  this  building,  restored 
through  the  efforts  of  the  Rev.  Father  Cassanova,  pastor  of  Monterey,  are  to 
be  seen  today.  On  July  3rd,  1882,  Father  Cassanova  opened  the  tombs. 
This  was  evidently  done  to  reassure  the  world  of  the  recorded  fact  that  the 
sacred  remains  of  those  true  disciples  of  Christ  and  pioneers  of  California, 
founders  of  the  Missions,  were  there.  At  the  services,  the  following  entries 
from  the  parish  records  were  read : 

"  Rev.  Fr.  Juan  Crespi;  born  in  Spain;  died  Jany.  ist,  A.  D.  1782,  61  years 
old,  buried  near  the  main  altar,  gospel  side."  "Rev.  Fr.  Junipero  Serra,  D.  D., 
President  of  all  the  Missions;  born  in  Majorca,  Spain;  died  on  the  28th  of 
August,  A.  D.  1784,  at  the  age  of  71  years,  buried  in  the  Sanctuary,  fronting 
the  altar  of  Our  Lady  of  Seven  Dolores,  on  the  gospel  side."  "  Rev.  Fr.  Julian 
Lopez,  born  in  Spain ;  died  here  on  the  1 5th  of  July,  A.  D.  1 797,  aged  35  years ; 
buried  in  the  Sanctuary,  on  the  gospel  side,  in  the  tomb  near  the  wall  on  the 



left."  "Rev.  Fr.  Francisco  Lasuen,  Vic.  for  Second  President  of  the  Missions, 
born  in  Spain,  died  here,  and  is  buried  in  the  Sanctuary,  on  the  gospel  side,  in 
a  stone  tomb,  near  the  main  altar,  June  28th,  1803." 

The  heavy  stone  slabs  having  been  removed  before  the  ceremony  began, 
the  coffin  in  each  tomb  was  left  visible.  The  lids  of  each  was  then  raised 
and  the  people  then  viewed  the  remains  of  which  only  the  clothing  and  the 
skeletons  were  seen.  The  tombs  were  then  covered  as  before  with  the  stone 
slabs.  The  coffins  were  of  unplaned  redwood  boards,  and  all  but  that  of  Father 
Lasuen  in  a  good  state  of  preservation. 

When  the  restoration  of  the  old  mission  church  was  commenced  in  1882, 
the  tile  roof  had  fallen  in,  the  walls  were  crumbled,  and  grass  had  grown  upon 
the  tiled  floor.  The  resting  place  of  the  founder  of  the  California  missions 
was  completely  obliterated. 

Through  the  untiring  efforts  of  Father  Cassanova,  and  his  band  of 
sympathizers,  the  tomb  of  Serra  and  his  beloved  co-worker,  Father  Crespi,  are 
in  fairly  good  repair.  Services  are  held  here  once  a  month  by  the  resident 
priest  of  Monterey,  and  upon  each  occasion  the  old  mission  bell  is  rung. 


The  Mission  San  Antonio  de  Padua  (Saint  Anthony  of  Padua),  now  a 
mass  of  ruins,  was  founded  by  Father  Junipero  Serra,  July-  14,  1771,  under 
most  auspicious  circumstances.  The  ringing  of  bells  attracted  an  Indian,  and 
instead  of  hiding  in  fear,  he  remained  to  witness  the  ceremony  of  dedication, 
and  later  brought  his  companions  in  large  numbers  to  meet  the  missionaries. 

This  mission  is  located  in  a  beauti 
fully  oak-studded  glen,  in  the  Santa 
Lucia  Mountains,  and  near  the  Sa 
linas  River,  in  Monterey  County. 
Father  Serra  named  the  valley  Los 
Robles.  The  present  ruins  are  those 
of  the  second  church,  which  was 
built  in  the  year  1809  or  1810,  and 
was  extended  by  adobe  structures 
several  times.  The  Indians  assisted 
Fathers  Buenaventura,  Sitjar  and 
Miguel  Pieras  in  erecting  the  first  temporary  structure,  which  was  unusual. 

San  Antonio  became  famous  for  its  piety,  prosperity  and  its  splendid 
horses.  In  1805  it  had  a  population  of  1261  neophytes.  An  inventory  of 
property  made  in  1835,  when  the  mission  was  secularized,  showed  the  valuation 
of  buildings  and  vineyards  to  be  $90,000.00,  but  in  1845  '*  was  invoiced  at  only 



$8,000.00,  and  the  membership  had  declined  to  ten  men  and  five  women.  Mrs. 
Forbes  writes  in  1904  that,  "At  present  the  roof  of  the  mission  building  has 
fallen  in  and  the  last  room  is  ready  to  collapse.  The  relics  have  all  beer, 
stolen  or  removed  to  other  places,  with  the  exception  of  one  iron  kettle  used 
by  the  Fathers  in  cooking  soup  for  the  Indians.  Only  one  family  of  the 
original  Indians  of  the  Valley  remain,  and  they  live  many  miles  from  the 
mission.  The  tree  upon  which  Father  Serra  hung  the  bell  when  the  first  chapel 
was  founded  still  stands  beside  the  road,  leading  up  to  the  mission.  Near  by 
the  mission  flows  Mission  creek,  a  branch  of  the  San  Antonio  river.  In  mission 
days  the  Padres  constructed  a  dam  across  the  river,  and  its  water  was  diverted 
to  irrigate  the  mission  lands.-  At  one  time  San  Antonio  rivalled  San  Juan 
Capistrano,  San  Luis  Rev  and  Santa  Barbara  in  prosperity  and  importance. 
The  buildings  were  extensive.  Long  cloisters,  arches  and  broken  walls  and 
tiled  roofs  now  remain  to  tell  the  story  of  architectural  grandeur." 


The  Mission  San  Gabriel  Archangel  was  founded  September  8th,  1771, 
by  Fathers  Angel  Somera  and  Pedro  Benito  Cambon.  The  first  mission  site 
was  located  about  five  miles  south  of  the  present  mission  on  the  bank  of  the 
San  Gabriel  (then  San  Miguel)  river.  The  first  chapel  was  of  logs  cut  to 
length,  the  desired  height  of  the  building,  then  split  in  two  and  set  upright 
in  a  trench  or  ditch.  The  roof  was  made  of  tules  and  adobe  mud.  The 
dwellings  of  the  priests  and  attendants  were  enclosed  with  a  stockade  of  similar 
construction  which,  however,  was  soon  replaced  with  an  adobe  wall.  Xot  a 
vestige  of  this  first  mission  of  San  Gabriel  remains,  and  it  is  even  quite 
uncertain  as  to  its  exact  location. 

By  reason  of  danger  from  floods,  from  the  river's  overflow,  low-land  frosts 
and  poor  drainage,  the  mission  was  moved  to  its  present  site,  then  as  now,  a 
most  charming  location,  in  the  midst  of  a  belt  of  live  oak,  on  warm  and 
responsive  soil.  The  date  of  removal  to  the  new  site  is  unknown,  but  it  must 
have  been  about  1775,  since  Junipero  Serra  in  his  second  annual  report  of 
1774  indicates  his  intention  to  move  San  Gabriel  Mission  a  short  distance  and 
states  that  for  that  reason  no  permanent  improvements  had  been  made  on 
the  old  site. 

The  stone  church  which  is  now  the  admiration  of  visitors  was  half  finished 
in  1794,  and  had  not  been  completed  in  1800.  It  was  first  built  with  an  arched 
roof,  in  which  cracks  soon  appeared.  When  these  were  repaired  an  earthquake 
reopened  them.  The  arched  roof  was  then  removed  and  a  new  roof  of  timbers 
and  tiles  substituted  in  1804.  The  valley  was  fertile  and  Indians  were 
numerous  but  were  seemingly  slow  to  embrace  the  religion  of  the  Friars,  since 



only  seventy-three  baptisms  were  recorded  the  first  two  years.  Up  to  the  year 
1800,  there  were,  however,  1078  neophytes  attached  to  the  mission.  There 
had  been  1953  baptisms,  869  burials  and  396  marriages  performed.  Once 
established  on  the  new  mission  site  affairs  seemed  to  take  on  new  life  and 
enterprise  and  set  the  pace  for  those  missions  already  established  and  those  to  be. 

In  1806  Jose  Marie  Zalvidea,  a  man  of  great  energy  and  executive  ability, 
\vas  transferred  from  San  Fernando  to  San  Gabriel.  According  to  Hugo  Reid: 

"  He  it  was,  who  planted  the  large  vineyards,  intersected  with  fine  walks, 
shaded  fruit  trees  of  every  description,  and  rendered  still  more  lovely  by  shrubs 
interspersed  between ;  who  laid  out  the  orange  garden,  fruit  and  olive  orchards ; 
built  the  mill  and  dam;  made  fences  of  tunas  (cactus)  round  the  fields;  made 
hedges  of  rose  bushes ;  planted  trees  in  the  mission  square,  with  a  flower  garden 
and  hour-dial  in  the  center ;  brought  water  from  long  distances,  etc.  He  also 
remodeled  the  existent  system  of  government.  Every  article  must  henceforth 
be  in  place,  and  every  man  at  his  station.  Everything  under  him  was 

organized  and  = that  organization 

kept  up  with  a  lash !  The  people 

were  now  di-  vided  into  class- 

culturists,  brick  and  tile  makers, 

musicians,  sing-  ^— '  ers.  tallow  melt- 

ers,  vignerons,  SAX  GABRIEI,  AROANGEU  carters,  cart- 

makers,  shepherds,  poultry-keepers,  pigeon-tenders,  weavers,  spinners,  saddle- 
makers,  store  and  key-keepers,  deer  hunters,  deer  and  sheep-skin  dressers, 
masons,  plasterers,  people  of  all  work — everything  but  coopers,  these  were 
foreign ;  all  the  rest  were  native  Indians. 

"  Large  soap  works  were  erected,  tanning  yards  established,  tallow  works, 
bakery,  cooper,  blacksmith,  carpenter  and  other  shops.  Large  spinning  rooms, 
where  might  be  seen  fifty  or  sixty  women  turning  their  spindles  merrily,  and 
looms  for  weaving  wool,  flax  and  cotton.  Then  large  store  rooms  were  allotted  to 
the  various  articles,  which  were  kept  separate.  For  instance,  wheat,  barley,  peas, 
beans,  lentels,  chick,  peas,  butter  and  cheese,  soap,  candles,  wool,  leather,  flour, 
lime,  salt,  horse-hair,  wine  and  spirits,  fruit  stores,  etc.,  etc.  Sugar-cane,  flax  and 
hemp  jvere  added  to  the  other  articles  cultivated,  but  cotton  wool  was  imported. 

"  At  an  early  period  in  the  history  of  San  Gabriel,  a  water-power  mill,  for 
grinding  wheat,  was  constructed  and  put  in  operation  in  front  of  and  near  the 


mission  building.  At  a  later  period,  a  new  grist  mill  was  built  by  the  mission, 
and  placed  about  two  miles  west  of  the  mission  proper.  This  was  also  operated 
by  water-power.  The  building  in  which  was  placed  the  mill  is  still  standing 
and  is  known  as  El  Molino,  the  Spanish  words  for  "  The  Mill."  It  is  now 
the  property  of  H.  E.  Huntington.  A  water-power  saw-mill  was  also  built  by 
this  mission,  and  was  located  near  the  last-mentioned  grist-mill.  These  were 
the  only  mills  made  or  used  in  California,  either  for  grinding  or  sawing,  in 
which  water  was  the  motive  power,  or  in  which  a  wheel  was  used,  for  more 
than  half  a  century  after  the  founding  of  the  first  mission.  In  these  two  grist 
mills  the  revolving  mill  stone  was  upon  the  upper  end  of  the  vertical  shaft,  and 
the  water-wheel  upon  the  lower  end,  so  that  the  revolution  of  the  stone  was  no 
more  frequent  than  that  of  the  water-wheel.  They  did  no  grading  or  separating 
of  the  flour  in  these  mills.  This  process,  if  done  at  all,  was  done  with  hand  sieves." 

"  The  principal  ranches  belonging  at  that  time  to  San  Gabriel  were  San 
Pasqual,  Santa  Anita,  Azusa,  San  Francisquito,  Cucamonga,  San  Antonio,  San 
Gorgonio,  Yucaipa,  Jurupa,  Guapa,  Rincon,  Chino,  San  Jose,  Ybarras,  Puente, 
Mission  Vieja,  Serranos,  Rosa  Castillo,  Coyotes,  Jaboneria,  Las  Bolsas,  Alamitos 
and  Serritos. 

"  The  principal  head  (Major-domo)  commanded  and  superintended  over 
all.  Claudio  Lopez  was  the  famed  one  during  Padre  Zalvidea's  administration, 
and  although  only  executing  the  priest's  plans,  in  the  minds  of  the  people  he 
is  the  real  hero  Ask  any  one  who  made  this,  or  who  did  that,  and  the  answer  on 
all  sides  is  the  same:  'El  difunto  Claudio!'  Great  credit  is  due  him  for  carrying 
out  without  flogging  the  numerous  works  intrusted  to  him.  There  were  a  great 
many  other  major-domos  under  him  for  all  kinds  of  work,  from  tending  of  horses 
down  to  those  of  superintending  crops,  and  in  charge  of  vineyards  and  gardens. 

"  Indian  alcaldes  were  appointed  annually  by  the  padre,  and  chosen  from 
among  the  very  laziest  in  the  community,  he  being  of  the  opinion  that  they  took 
more  pleasure  in  making  the  others  work  than  would  industrious  ones,  and  from 
my  own  observation  this  is  correct.  They  carried  a  wand  to  denote  their 
authority,  and  an  immense  scourge  of  rawhide  about  ten  feet  in  length,  plaited 
to  the  size  of  an  ordinary  man's  wrist.  They  did  a  great  deal  of  chastisement. 

"  The  unmarried  women  and  girls  were  kept  as  nuns,  under  the  supervision 
of  an  abbess,  who  slept  with  them  in  a  large  room.  Their  occupations :  some 
times  they  served,  at  others  they  cleaned  weeds  from  out  of  the  gardens  with 
hoes,  worked  at  the  ditches  or  gathered  in  the  crops.  The  best  looking  youths 
were  kept  as  pages  to  attend  at  the  tables  and  those  of  most  musical  talent  were 
reserved  for  church  service. 

"The  number  of  hogs  was  great.  They  were  principally  used  for  making 
soap.  (The  Indians,  with  a  few  exceptions,  refused  to  eat  pork.)  Near  the 


mission  at  San  Francisquito  (San  Fernando  Mission)  were  kept  the  turkeys  of 
which  they  had  large  numbers.  The  dove-cote  was  alongside  of  the  soap  works, 
in  an  upper  story,  affording  plenty  of  dung  to  cure  leather  and  skins  with. 

"  The  padre  had  an  idea  that  finery  led  Indians  to  run  away,  for  which 
reason  he  never  gave  either  men  or  women  any  other  clothing  (including  skirts 
and  petticoats)  than  coarse  frieze  (xerga)  made  by  themselves,  which  kept 
the  poor  wretches  all  the  time  diseased  with  the  itch.  If  any  handkerchiefs  or 
cotton  goods  were  discovered  among  them  the  same  were  immediately  committed 
to  the  flames.  He  was  an  inveterate  enemy  to  drunkenness,  and  did  all  in  his 
power  to  prevent  it,  but  to  no  purpose.  He  never  flogged,  however,  while  the 
influence  of  liquor  lasted,  but  put  them  into  stocks,  under  the  care  of  a  guard 
until  sober.  Finding  the  lash,  alone,  was  of  no  avail,  he  added  warm  water 
and  salt  to  the  dose,  which  was  given  as  a  drink  until  it  ran  out  of  the  mouth 
again.  It  was  no  use.  The  disease  was  as  incurable  as  consumption. 

''  Having  found  out  the  game  practiced  in  regard  to  destroying  the  children 
borne  by  Indian  women  to  white  men,  he  put  down  all  miscarriages  to  the  same 
cause.  Therefore,  when  a  woman  had  the  misfortune  to  bring  forth  a  still-born 
child,  she  was  punished.  The  penalty  inflicted  was  shaving  the  head,  flogging 
for  fifteen  subsequent  days,  iron  on  the  feet  for  three  months,  and  having  to 
appear  every  Sunday  in  church  on  the  steps  leading  up  to  the  altar,  with  a 
hideous  painted  wooden  child  in  her  arms.  He  had  no  predilections  for  wizards, 
and  generally  (as  some  one  or  other  was  always  reporting  evil  of  them)  kept 
them  chained  together  in  couples  and  well  flogged.  There  were,  at  that  period, 
no  small  number  of  old  men  rejoicing  in  the  fame  of  witchcraft,  so  he  made 
sawyers  of  them  all,  keeping  them  like  hounds  in  couples  and  so  they  worked, 
two  above  and  two  below  in  the  sawpit.  On  a  breach  occurring  between  man 
and  wife,  they  were  fastened  together  by  the  leg  until  they  agreed  to  live  in 
harmony.  He  was  not  only  severe,  but  he  was  in  his  chastisements  most  cruel. 
So  as  not  to  make  a  revolting  picture,  I  shall  bury  acts  of  barbarity,  known  to 
me  through  good  authority,  by  merely  saying  that  he  must  assuredly  have 
considered  whipping  as  meat  and  drink  to  them,  for  they  had  it  morning,  noon 
and  night.  Although  so  severe  to  the  Indians,  he  was  kind,  in  the  extreme, 
to  travelers  and  others.  There  being  so  much  beef,  mutton,  pork  and  poultry, 
with  fruits,  vegetables  and  wine,  a  splendid  public  table  was  spread  daily,  at 
which  he  presided." 

J.  J.  Warner,  in  1889,  furnished  the  writer  the  following,  as  setting  forth 
the  usual  dinner  served  daily  at  San  Gabriel  Mission  during  the  years  of  its 
prosperity:  First  course:  Caldo  (plain  broth  in  which  meat  and  vegetables  had 
been  boiled).  Second  course:  La  Olla  (meat  boiled  with  vegetables  and  served 
separately).  Third  course:  El  Bondigas  (forced  meat  balls  in  gravy).  Fourth 
course:  Guisados  (stews,  generally  two).  Fifth  course:  Azado  (roasts— beef. 


mutton,  game,  fowls).  Sixth  course:  Fruit  and  sweetmeat.  Seventh  course: 
Tea,  coffee,  cigarritos.  Pork  was  also  eaten  sparingly  at  every  meal.  Wine 
was  served  ad  libitum.  On  Friday,  fish  followed  the  caldo,  and  the  meats  were 
dispensed  with.  Horses  to  ride  were  ever  at  their  service,  and  a  good  bed  to 
sleep  on  at  night.  Whenever  ready  to  start,  either  up  or  down  the  coast,  horses 
and  a  servant  were  ever  at  their  command  to  go  as  far  as  the  next  mission." 

Having  brought  the  establishment  and  everything  connected  with  it  to  the 
climax  of  perfection,  Zalviclea  had  still  calculated  on  doing  more.  He  purchased 
large  quantities  of  iron,  with  the  intention  of  railing  in  all  vineyards  and 
gardens.  But,  alas!  even  Catholic  societies  are  not  proof  against  the  "capital 
sins  "  they  so  strongly  condemn.  Envy  and  jealousy  stepped  in  and  prevailed. 
He  was  ordered  by  his  superior  to  the  mission  of  San  Juan  Capistrano.  The 
loss  of  his  favorite  hobby  capsized  his  reason,  and  after  lingering  for  many 
years  in  a  disturbed  religious  state  of  mind  he  at  length  expired,  regretted  by 
all  who  knew  his  worth  and  gigantic  intellect. 

During  his  pastorate,  Zalvidea  also  mastered  the  Indian  language,  and 
reduced  it  to  grammatical  rules,  being  the  first  padre  in  this  section  having 
either  the  ability  or  energy  necessary  for  such  a  task.  He  translated  the  church 
service,  and  preached  each  Sabbath  in  the  native  tongue.  His  translation  of 
the  Lord's  Prayer,  commencing  " Ayoinac,"  "Our  Father,"  is  said  by  Mr.  Reid 
to  be  a  "a  grand  specimen  of  his  eloquence  and  ability."  He  thus  gave  the 
natives  an  insight  into  the  Catholic  faith,  but  did  not  alter  their  own  one  iota. 
Those  who  came  after  him  were  too  indolent  to  keep  up  the  reforms  he  had 
inaugurated.  For  a  time  sermons  were  translated  sentence  by  sentence,  to  the 
congregation ;  but  this  was  soon  discontinued,  probably  to  the  great  relief  of 
the  unfortunate  listeners. 

Zalvidea  was  succeeded  by  Padre  Jose  Bernardo  Sanchez,  his  former 
colleague  and  assistant,  who  is  described  as  having  been  "  of  a  cheeerful  disposi 
tion,  and  a  frank  and  generous  nature."  He  was  also  a  great  sportsman  and 
capital  shot.  "  In  ecclesiastical  affairs,  solemn ;  in  trade,  formal ;  in  government 
of  the  mission,  active,  lively,  and  strict ;  in  social  intercourse,  friendly,  full  of 
anecdote,  and  fond  of  jokes ;  even  to  those  of  a  practical  nature." 

"The  regulations  enforced  by  his  predecessor  were  still  observed  under 
Sanchez,  but  while  the  lash  was  still  ready,  other  modes  of  punishment  were 
adopted  for  minor  offenses.  Nor  was  such  leniency  barren  of  good  results,  for 
many  Indians  who  had  formerly  proven  insubordinate  from  mere  vindictiveness 
of  spirit,  now  refrained  because  of  the  love  and  good  will  which  all  bore  toward 
their  spiritual  and  temporal  ruler. 

"  Supplies  for  the  mission  were  purchased  in  large  quantities,  frequently 
amounting  to  $30,000  at  one  time.  These  purchases  consisted  of  domestics 


(brown,  bleached  and  printed),  flannels,  cloths,  ribbons,  silks,  hosiery,  sugar, 
panoche,  rice,  etc.,  etc.  These  articles  were  distributed  in  two  stores,  from 
whence  they  were  dealt  out  to  the  natives,  or  sold  to  the  public.  The  people 
were  now  better  dressed  than  formerly.  The  coarse  frieze  (xerga)  of  the 
women  was  used  only  as  sweat-cloths  for  horses ;  and  all  the  native  ladies 
appeared  at  church  in  full-blown  glory  of  fancy  petticoats,  clean  white  chemises, 
variegated  kerchiefs  on  their  head,  and  rebosos  around  their  shoulders.  The 
men  had  pants,  jackets,  hats,  and  fancy  silk  sashes.  Even  the  children  plumed 
themselves  in  gay  colors,  and  sported  shirts  and  kerchiefs. 

Married  people  were  provided  with  sheets  for  their  beds,  and  even  curtains. 
The  major-domo  visited  each  house  weekly  to  see  that  all  was  kept  clean,  and 
the  priest  made  a  similar  round  in  person  once  a  month.  Rations,  with  wine  and 
spirits  (and  occasionally  a  few  dollars  in  money)  were  distributed  once  a  week; 
but  in  addition  to  this,  daily  food  was  provided  ready  cooked,  for  the  laborers. 
We  quote  further  from  Mr.  Reid's  letters : 

"  The  mission  bell,  on  being  rung,  aroused  the  alcaldes  from  their  slumbers, 
and  these  with  loud  voices  soon  set  all  the  world  agog.  Mass  was  now  heard, 
and  again  the  bell  rang  to  work.  At  eleven  its  notes  proclaimed  dinner,  when 
in  all  flocked,  basket  in  hand,  to  receive  posale  and  a  piece  of  beef.  (Posale 
consisted  of  beans  boiled  with  corn  or  wheat.)  At  twelve  o'clock  they  were 
again  warned  to  their  labors,  which  concluded  a  little  before  sundown,  to  afford 
them  time  to  receive  supper,  which  consisted  of  '  atolc '  or  mush.  If  a  gang 
were  at  a  distance,  a  copper  kettle  and  attendant  accompanied  them  and  provided 
food  on  the  spot. 

"  After  twelve  o'clock  on  Saturdays  soap  was  distributed,  and  all  the  world 
went  a  washing  of  clothes  and  persons,  to  make  a  decent  appearance  at  church 
on  Sunday.  Saturday  night  was  devoted  to  playing  peon,  and,  with  few  excep 
tions,  none  slept ;  for  whites  and  Indians,  men,  women  and  children,  were  all 
generally  present. 

"  After  service  on  Sunday,  foot-ball  and  races  took  place,  and  in  the  after 
noon  a  game  called  '  Shindy  '  by  the  Scotch,  and  '  Bandy  '  by  the  English,  was 
played,  with  men  and  \vomen  on  opposite  sides.  People  flocked  in  from  all 
parts  to  see  the  sport  and  heavy  bets  were  made.  The  priest  took  great  interest 
in  the  game  and,  as  the  women  seldom  had  less  than  half  a  dozen  quarrels  among 
them,  in  which  hair  flew  by  the  handfuls,  he  was  the  more  pleased.  The  game 
being  concluded,  all  went  to  prayers  and  so  ended  the  Sabbath." 

The  general  statistics  of  the  Mission  of  San  Gabriel  for  the  whole  period 
of  its  existence  of  sixty-three  years  (from  1771  to  1834)  are  thus  given  by 
Bancroft :  Total  number  of  baptisms.  7,854,  of  which  4,355  were  Indian  adults, 
2,459  Indian  children,  and  i  adult  and  1,039  children  of  "  gente  cle  razon," 


which  may  mean  the  Spaniards  and  their  mixed-blooded  descendants.  Total 
marriages,  1,955;  °f  which  241  were  "  gente  de  razon."  Total  deaths,  5,656; 
of  which  2,896  were  Indian  adults,  2,363  Indian  children,  211  adults  and  186 
children  "  de  razon."  Annual  average,  88 ;  annual  average  death  rate,  7.61  per 
cent,  of  population.  Largest  population,  1,701,  in  1817.  There  was  a  slight 
excess  of  males  down  to  1803,  and  a  greater  excess  later.  The  proportion  of 
children  varied  from  one-eighth  per  cent,  at  first  to  one-tenth  per  cent,  at  the 
last.  Largest  number  of  cattle,  26,300,  in  1828;  horses,  2,400,  in  1827;  mules, 
205,  in  1814;  asses,  6  in  1794;  sheep,  15,000,  in  1829;  goats,  1,380  in  1/85; 
swine,  300,  in  1802,  1803  and  1822;  all  kinds,  40,360  animals,  in  1830.  Total 
product  of  wheat,  225,942  bushels;  yield,  16  fold.  Barley  (for  only  eleven 
years),  1,250  bushels;  yield,  10  fold.  Maize,  154,820  bushels;  yield,  145  fold. 
Beans,  14,467  bushels ;  yield,  28  fold.  In  the  year  1834,  at  the  time  of  seculariza 
tion,  there  were  163,579  vines  in  four  vineyards,  and  2,333  fruit  trees. 

All  statistics  stop  with  the  attempted  secularization  of  the  mission  in  1834. 

In  1832,  Governor  Echandia  sent  an  envoy  to  San  Gabriel  Mission,  demand 
ing  a  loan,  which  was  refused.  The  store  house  was  broken  open  and  the  money 
in  gold  coin  forcibly  taken  and  never  returned.  Secularization  soon  followed, 
and  the  mission,  with  upwards  of  42,000  head  of  live  stock  and  gold  in  sacks 
passed  into  the  control  of  the  Mexican  government,  and  like  all  the  other 
missions  suffered  temporal  and  spiritual  destruction. 

In  June,  1846,  the  mission  estate  was  sold  by  Governor  Pico  to  Reid  and 
Workman.  The  title  was  not,  however,  confirmed,  and  the  property  returned 
to  the  church.  In  1847  Father  Bias  Ordaz  took  charge  of  the  mission  and 
ministered  to  the  few  Indians  then  remaining,  until  his  death,  1850.  It  is  since 
secularization,  a  parish  church  only,  and  is  now  presided  over  by  a  parish  priest, 
who  holds  regular  services. 


On  the  first  of  September,  1772,  Fathers  Junipero  Serra  and  Cavalier 
founded  San  Luis  Obispo,  the  fifth  mission  in  California,  in  honor  of  St.  Louis, 
Bishop  of  Toulouse.  The  history  of  this  mission  is  a  remarkable  evidence  of 
the  energy  and  religious  zeal  of  these  men  of  God.  Father  Serra  departed  the 
second  day,  leaving  Father  Cavalier,  two  Lower  California  Indians,  and  five 
soldiers,  to  commence  the  work  of  establishing  a  mission.  Their  supplies  con 
sisted  of  fifty  pounds  of  flour,  three  pecks  of  wheat  and  a  barrel  of  brown 
sugar — the  sugar  to  be  used  in  bartering  with  the  native  Indians  for  further 
supplies.  The  Indians  proved  friendly,  supplied  the  missionary  with  venison, 
seeds  and  wild  berries,  and  in  many  ways  helped  the  Padres.  A  little  chapel 
and  dwelling  were  soon  erected.  But  Father  Cavalier  remained  alone  at  his  post 



for  one  year.  Then  four  immigrant  families  and  a  few  unmarried  Christians 
came  to  San  Luis  Obispo  to  make  it  their  home.  In  November,  1776,  the 
buildings,  except  the  chapel  and  granary,  were  destroyed  by  fire,  the  Indians 
having  thrown  burning  arrows  upon  the  tule  roofs.  Twice  again  in  ten  years  the 
buildings  were  on  fire  from  the  same  cause.  For  this  reason  tiles  were  adopted 
for  roofing,  at  all  the  missions,  instead  of  the  dangerous  but  economical  tules. 

The  adobe  church  was  finished  in 
1793  ;  other  spacious  buildings  such  as 
barracks,  a  missionary's  house,  work 
house,  guardhouse,  granary,  etc.,  were 
added  the  following  year.  Huts  for 
the  natives  were  comfortable  and  well 
built.  A  trained  blacksmith,  a  carpen 
ter  and  a  millwright  were  sent  to  San 
Luis  Obispo  to  instruct  the  Indians. 
Father  Luis  Martinez  labored  long 
and  earnestly  for  the  welfare  of  this 
mission.  He  learned  the  Indian  language  and  gave  assistance,  both  to  the  troops 
and  to  other  missions.  Squirrels  and  locusts  were  extremely  troublesome,  and 
one  crop  was  entirely  eaten  up  by  mice.  In  the  inventory  taken  1836,  an  item 
is  made  of  the  library  and  musical  instruments,  $519,  and  the  total  valuation 
was  given  at  $70,779.  On  September  loth,  1842,  Governor  Alvarado  ordered 
the  lands  divided  among  the  neophytes ;  and  two  years  later  the  mission  was 
formed  into  a  pueblo.  It  was  sold  the  following  year  (1845)  to  Scott,  Wilson  & 
MrKierey  for  $510.  However,  Governor  Mason  ordered  the  property  returned 
to  the  Catholic  church. 

The  mission  church  is  located  near  the  business  center  of  San  Luis  Obispo, 
county  of  the  same  name,  and  it  is  in  a  good  state  of  repair,  being  used,  as  it 
is,  as  the  parish  church. 

SA\    I.riS   or.ISPO   DB   TOLOSO. 


Mission  San  Francisco  de  Asis,  better  known  as  Mission  Dolores,  is  the 
sixth  mission  founded  in  Alta  California,  and  was  formally  dedicated  October 
9th,  1776,  by  Fathers  Palou,  Cambon,  Nocedal  and  Pena.  Officers  and  soldiers 
of  the  Presidio  were  present.  High  mass  was  sung  by  Father  Palou,  the  image 
St.  Francis  was  exhibited,  bells  were  rung,  volleys  of  musketry  rent  the  air, 
cannons  and  rockets  from  the  good  ship  San  Carlos,  lying  in  the  bay,  were  fired. 
The  building  was  a  comfortable  house  of  wood,  roofed  with  tules  and  plastered 
with  clay.  It  measure'd  about  54x30x15  feet.  The  first  chapel  blessed  was  at 
the  presidio,  on  the  I7th  of  September,  on  the  Feast  of  Stigmata  of  St.  Francis, 




the  patron  saint  of  the  port  and  missions,  while  the  mission  was  named  for  the 
patron  saint  of  the  Franciscan  order. 

The  name  Dolores  (sorrow)  in  this  instance  signifies  the  name  of  a  stream 
or  lagoon,  a  place  known  as  "  the  willows  "  by  those  who  came  in  1849.  This 
swamp  was  later  filled  in  and  graded,  forming  the  tract  that  lies  between 
Seventeenth,  Nineteenth,  Valencia  and  Howard  streets.  The  corner-stone  for 

the  present  church  was  laid  1782, 
and  by  1795  adobe  buildings  with 
tile  roofs,  forming  two  sides  of  a 
square  were  completed ;  also  a  ditch 
protecting  the  potrero  or  cattle  farm 
and  fields,  had  been  dug. 

Weaving  looms  were  constructed 
by  the  Indians  and  a  substantial 
though  coarse  kind  of  blanketing, 
was  woven  as  clothing  for  the 
neophytes.  Vancouver  describes  it 
as  "  cloth  not  to  be  despised,  had  it  received  the  advantage  of  fulling." 
The  products  made  and  produced  at  Dolores  Mission  were  soap,  salt,  wool, 
hides,  wine,  tallow  and  butter.  The  garden  was  not  notable  for  its 
produce,  the  reason  given  being  high  winds  and  weather  unfavorable  to  horti 
culture.  The  climate  proved  detrimental  to  the  Indians,  and  after  a  fierce 
epidemic  of  measles,  a  new  mission  known  as  the  "  hospital  mission  "  was 
founded  at  San  Rafael,  across  the  bay,  and  590  of  the  Indians  were  transferred 
to  this  place  for  a  change  of  climate.  Later  322  neophytes  were  sent  to  Solano, 
and  it  was  thought  best  at  one  time  to  discontinue  the  mission  at  San  Francisco 
altogether;  but  the  idea  met  stout  opposition  from  Father  President  Sarria. 
Consequently  a  new  mission,  known  as  New  San  Francisco  or  Solano,  was 
founded,  and  the  old  San  Francisco,  known  as  Dolores,  was  not  abandoned. 
Dolores  was  not  a  prosperous  mission,  and  rapidly  declined  after  secularisation. 
The  Fathers  baptized  6883  persons  and  buried  2089.  The  little  church-yard  at 
the  side  of  the  mission  is  small  and  sad.  Few  monuments  mark  the  resting  places 
of  any  of  the  2000  and  over,  who  lie  sleeping  in  that  small  space.  A  tall  shaft 
marks  the  grave  of  the  first  Mexican  governor,  Don  Luis  Antonio  Arguello. 


The  founding  of  the  Mission  San  Juan  Capistrano  was  accomplished  under 
many  discouragements.  The  first  attempt  was  made  by  Fathers  Lasuen  and 
Amurrio  on  the  igth  or  the  3Oth  of  October,  1775.  Dates  given  by  Palou  and 
Ortega  differ.  The  first  service  was  held  in  a  hut  of  branches.  A  large  cross 




was   erected   and   blessed,    but    nothing    further   was   done    at    that    time.     The 
bells  of  Capistrano  were  taken  down  from  the  tree  and  buried. 

(  hi  November  1st,  17/6,  a  second  attempt  was  made  by  Father  Serra.  A 
new  altar  was  erected,  mass  was  celebrated,  and  the  seventh  mission  of  California 
was  founded,  upon  the  site  known  by  the  Indians  as  Sajirit.  Capistrano  became 
prosperous,  but  did  not  excel  either  in  number  of  converts  or  in  wealth.  In 

February,  1797,  work  was  begun  on 
the  stone  chapel,  the  ruins  of  which 
are  standing  today.  It  proved  to  be 
one  of  the  grandest  church  buildings 
in  California.  It  measured  159x30 
feet,  was  surmounted  by  a  lofty 
tower,  and  all  was  of  stone  and 
mortar.  The  stones  were  not  hewn, 
but  were  fitted  together  in  the  rough. 
The  church  was  built  with  nave 
and  transept  with  thick  walls,  and 
an  arched,  dome-like  roof.  Here  and  there  remain  evidence  of  decoration. 
Ten  years  ago  there  still  were  wooden  figures  to  be  seen  in  many  small  niches 
and  the  carving  showing  ability  and  taste.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  these  relics 
were  carried  away  and  not  placed  in  the  room  used  as  the  chapel.  The  stone 
church  of  San  Juan  Capistrano  was  dedicated  September  7th.  1806.  The  cere 
mony  lasted  three  days,  and  visiting  Padnes  and  Indians  came  long  distances,  even 
as  far  as  from  Santa  Barbara,  to  witness  the  ceremony.  But  the  magnificent 
building  Was  doomed  to  short  service,  for  on  the  morning  of  December  8th, 
1812.  a  terrible  earthquake  shook  it  to  its  very  foundation,  causing  the  lofty 
tower  to  crash  down  upon  the  vaulted  roof,  precipitating  the  mass  of  stone  and 
mortar  down  upon  the  worshipping  congregation — for  it  was  on  Sunday  morning. 
About  fifty  persons  were  present,  and  only  ten  escaped.  Excavation  for  the 
recovery  of  the  crushed  and  mangled  bodies  began  at  once,  but  nothing  has  ever 
been  done  toward  restoring  the  building  to  its  former  grandeur.  Capistrano  was 
secularized  in  1833,  ar|d  even  after  the  loss  of  the  mission  church  the  inventory 
placed  the  valuation  of  the  mission  at  about  $55,000;  with  debts  of  only  $1410. 
In  December,  1845,  tne  mission  buildings  were  sold  to  McKinley  and  Forster 
for  $710.00.  Juan  Forster  was  in  possession  for  twenty  years,  but  after 
extended  litigation,  the  Catholic  church  regained  possession  of  the  property. 


The  Mission  of  Santa  Clara  was  founded  January   12th,   1777.  by   Father 
Tomas  de  la  Pena,  O.  S.  F.     The  site  was  the  present  Laurel  Wood  Farm  of 




Peter  J.  Donahue.  The  floods  of  1778-9,  however,  obliged  the  Fathers  to  look 
for  higher  and  safer  grounds.  They  selected  the  "  Valley  of  the  Oaks,"  a 
location  some  150  yards  to  the  southwest  of  the  present  Union  depot  of  the 
town  of  Santa  Clara.  At  the  ceremony  of  the  removal  of  the  Santa  Clara 
Mission  to  the  second  location,  Father  Serra  was  himself  present,  and  officiated. 
The  structures  there  were  begun  November  I9th,  1781,  and  the  second 

church  and  buildings  were  blessed 
and  dedicated  on  May  I5th,  1784.  The 
earthquake  of  1812  cracked  the  walls 
of  the  church  and  the  more  severe 
"  temblores  "  of  1818  completed  the 
destruction.  A  third  church  was 
erected  upon  the  present  site  of  the 
mission  church,  and  was  dedicated  on 
August  nth,  1822,  the  eve  of  Santa 
Clara.  This  third  church  was  the 
work  of  Father  Jose  Viader,  assisted 
by  Don  Ignacio  Alviso,  as  foreman.  The  original  adobe  walls  of  this  church 
were  replaced  in  1885  by  wooden  ones.  The  single  belfry,  and  the  facade  was 
replaced  in  1862  by  the  present  towers,  and  the  present  facades.  But  the 
interior,  the  ornamentations  and  furnishings  are  almost  intact.  These  latter 
include  the  life-size  crucifix,  the  original  holy-water  fonts,  the  pulpits  of  those 
early  days,  the  copy  of  the  miraculous  and  historic  painting  of  "  Nuestra  Senora 
de  Guadalupe,"  the  identical  reredos  or  background  of  the  main  altar,  the 
tabernacle  and  candelabra-shelves,  the  wings  of  the  latter  itself ;  the  accompany 
ing  statues  in  wood  of  Saints  Joachin  and  Ann,  parents  of  Our  Lady ;  and  like 
statues  of  Saints  Juan  Capistran  and  Colette.  The  reredos  contain  other  statues 
and  medallions.  The  church  has  the  identical  frescoed  ceiling  of  the  chancel. 
The  paintings  of  the  walls  and  ceilings  of  the  interior  are  reproductions :  also 
the  statue  in  wood  of  St.  Francis  of  Asisi,  with  sacred  stigmata  on  the  hands 
and  feet;  also  that  of  St.  Anthony  of  Padua,  with  the  Infant  Jesus  in  his  arms. 
In  the  right  hand  belfry  are  the  three  old  bells  donated  to  the  Santa  Clara 
Mission  by  the  King  of  Spain.  Two  bear  the  original  dates,  1798  and  1799, 
and  the  third,  which  was  recast  in  1864,  bears  the  double  dates  1805-64.  In 
the  college  library  may  be  seen  the  historic  paintings  of  "  Alameda,"  the 
"  Beautiful  Way,"  "  Santa  Clara  Mission  in  1851  "  and  the  grand  old  choral 
of  those  early  days,  with  cover  in  bronze  and  wood. 

At  the  time  of  Vancouver's  visit  to  Santa  Clara,  many  of  the  Indians  were 
engaged  in  building  adobe  houses  for  themselves.  In  1794,  twenty-three  of 
these  dwellings  with  thatched  roofs  were  completed,  and  in  1798,  nearly  all  of 



the  married  neophytes  were  thus  accommodated.  Today  not  a  mission  Indian 
is  to  be  found  in  or  about  Santa  Clara.  Here  as  at  all  other  missions,  seculari 
zation  with  one  blow  ruined  fifty  years  of  faithful  and  patient  work  of  the  Padres. 


The  Mission  of  San  Buenaventura  Doctor  Sarafico  (Saint  Bonaventura, 
Serafic  Doctor)  was  founded  Easter  Sunday,  March  3Oth,  1783,  by  Father 
Serra.  It  was  the  last  mission  that  Father  Serra  founded,  and  he  had  intended 
it  to  be  one  of  the  first.  The  delay  was  a  trial  to  the  good  man,  but  he  com 
forted  himself  with  the  saying,  "  the  more  slowly  the  more  solemnly."  The 
place  chosen  was  the  head  of  the  Santa  Barbara  channel  and  the  home  of  a  large 
tribe  of  Indians.  The  Indians  were  friendly  and  even  assisted  in  building  a 
chapel,  a  house  for  Father  Cambon,  who  was  left  in  charge,  and  barracks  for  the 
soldiers.  The  group  of  buildings  was,  for  greater  safety,  surrounded  by 
a  palisade.  Within  ten  years  San  Buenaventura  had  become  one  of  the 

most     flourishing      settlements     in 

California.     Van-  couver,  who  vis 

ited    the    mission  in     1793,    speaks 

of  the  wonderful  _**^±_  1  gardens,     the 

plums,  figs,  or-  anges,  grapes, 
pomegranates,  cocoanut,  sugar 
cane,  bananas,  plantain  and  even 
indigo ;  besides  all  of  the  ordinary 

.     .  ,  SAN   BUENAVENTURA. 

kitchen    vege-  tables,   roots   and 

herbs.  A  disastrous  fire  compelled  the  missionaries  to  erect  all  new  buildings. 
The  new  church  was  built  of  stone  and  brick,  and  it  is  the  one  standing  today. 
But  the  tile  roof  is  gone.  The  earthquake  of  1812  damaged  the  church  and 
many  buildings.  The  tower  and  much  of  the  facade  were  rebuilt.  The  whole 
site  of  Buenaventura  settled,  and  the  fear  of  all  sinking  into  the  sea  frightened 
the  inhabitants  away.  They  fled  to  San  Joaquin  y  Santa  Ana,  where  they 
remained  for  a  year.  Here  the  Priests  erected  a  cajal,  or  Indian  hut,  to  be 
used  as  a  chapel.  Upon  their  return  to  Ventura,  the  neophytes,  under  the 
direction  of  the  Fathers,  restored  the  buildings  to  a  better  condition  than  they 
were  originally.  In  1820  the  government  of  Mexico  owed  to  San  Buenaventura 
^S-1?0-  There  is  no  record  that  it  was  ever  paid.  They  had  purchased  sup 
plies  from  the  mission,  a  cargo  of  hemp,  and  were  in  arrears  in  stipends  to  the 
Fathers  for  $6,200.  In  1822  the  Indians  had  individual  gardens  along  the  banks 
of  the  river,  where  they  raised  vegetables  for  sale.  They  labored  and  might 



have  become  self-supporting,  for  the  mission  establishments  sold  great  quantities 
of  produce  and  supplies  to  the  home  government  as  well  as  supplying  their  own 
demands  at  the  missions. 

Secularization  came  in  1837.  The  mission  estate  was  first  rented  for 
$1,630.00  per  annum,  and  then  sold  to  Jose  Arnaz  for  $12,000,  in  June,  1846. 
His  title  was  not  recognized  by  the  United  States  government.  The  records  of 
San  Buenaventura  are  interesting  old  documents.  They  show  3,857  baptisms, 
1,086  marriages,  3,098  deaths.  In  1831  there  were  7,240  head  of  live  stock. 
Today  the  old  mission  is  the  parish  church  of  Ventura. 


Santa  Barbara,  (Virgin  and  Martyr)  was  founded  December  4th,  1/86,  by 
Father  Fermin  Francisco  de  Lasuen,  who  had  been  made  President  of  the  Missions 
the  previous  year  to  succeed  the  lamented  Junipero  Serra.  The  site  selected  was 
called  Tavnayam  by  the  natives,  and  El  Pedragoso  by  the  Spaniards.  It  was  about 
one  mile  distant  from  the  preside,  which  had  been  established  in  1782  by  Father 
Serra.  The  location  of  Santa  Barbara  is  the  most  beautiful  of  all  the  missions. 
Back  from  the  water's  edge  nearly  two  miles,  it  is  situated  in  the  foothills  of  the 
Santa  Ynez  mountains.  It  was  from  the  hills  of  San  Marcos  that  the  great  oak- 
beams  were  carried  by  oxen  (or  more  likely  by  faithful  Indian  neophytes)  and 
used  in  the  construction  of  the  mission  buildings.  Chief  Yanonalit,  ruler  of  the 
thirteen  neighboring  rancherias,  proved  friendly  and  contributed  Indians  to 
assist  in  work,  their  labor  to  be  paid  for  in  articles  of  clothing  and  food.  This 
was  especially  .the  arrangement  for  work  on  the  presidio.  The  first  chapel  con 
structed  was  of  boughs. 

In  the  following  year,  1787.  a  church  building  15x42  feet,  was  made  of 
adobe  and  thatched  with  straw.  Six  other  buildings  of  the  same  kind  were 
erected,  and  in  1788  tiles  were  manu-  ,^^_^____^^_^^__^_____ 

factured   and   all   the  buildings   were 

covered     with     them.     In     1789    the 

chapel    had    become    too    small,    and 

another  was  built.     Again  in   1793  a 

larger    one    was    constructed,    a    fact 

which  is  evidence  of  prosperity.     As 

the  Indian  population  was  gradually 

increasing,    it    became    necessary    to 

form  a  village  and  build  a  separate 

house  for  each  family  ;  in  consequence, 

nineteen    houses    were    built    of    adobe    in    1798.     Also    a    piece    of    land    was 

enclosed  by  an  adobe  wall  nine  feet  high,  and  3600  feet  in  extent ;  to  be  used 



as  a  garden,  orchard  and  vineyard.  The  wall  was  capped  with  tiles  to  protect 
it  from  the  rain.  In  1800  the  village  was  laid  out  in  streets  and  cross- 
streets,  and  there  were  over  fifty  houses.  The  neophytes  were  taught  to  weave 
blankets,  to  make  soap,  clothing,  implements  and  many  other  necessary  articles. 
By  1807  the  town  of  Santa  Barbara  had  252  dwellings  besides  the  store 
houses,  and  other  necessary  buildings,  all  enclosed  on  three  sides  by  a 
high  wall. 

In  this  year  Santa  Barbara  dedicated  a  mission  church  at  the  station  of 
Sagshpileel,  a  large  rancheria  near  a  laguna.  This  was  known  as  San  Miguel. 
Again  in  1804  Santa  Inez  was  formed  because  of  the  great  number  of  susceptible 
Indians  in  this  district.  The  number  thus  withdrawn  from  Santa  Barbara 
Mission  was  over  one  hundred. 

The  earthquake  of  1812  badly  damaged  the  mission  building  at  Santa 
Barbara,  so  much  so  that  the  chapel  building  was  torn  down  and  replaced 
by  a  new  stone  edifice — the  present  structure.  This  new  edifice  was 
dedicated  on  September  loth,  1820.  The  walls  of  the  church,  which  is  still 
used  by  the  Fathers,  are  six  feet  in  thickness  and  were  made  of  hewn  stone, 
strengthened  by  solid  stone  buttresses.  The  building  is  the  most  substantial  of 
any  of  the  missions  in  California.  In  June,  1846,  the  mission  was  sold  to 
Richard  S.  Den  for  $7500,  but  the  title  was  invalid.  In  1852,  a  petition  to 
establish  a  Franciscan  convent  or  college,  with  a  novitiate  for  the  education 
of  young  men,  was  sent  to  Rome  and  was  granted  by  the  authorities.  Santa 
Barbara  Mission  was  selected  for  the  purpose.  Bishop  Thaddeus  Amat  removed 
from  the  mission  to  the  parish  church,  thus  leaving  the  Fathers  in  possession. 
By  this  arrangement  they  will  have  perpetual  use  of  the  buildings,  gardens, 
vineyard  and  two  orchards.  The  inner  garden  of  the  Mission  is  the  private 
park  or  retreat  for  the  priests,  and  is  closed  to  the  public.  With  two  notable 
exceptions,  woman  has  never  entered  this  garden.  They  were  Mrs.  Benjamin 
Harrison,  wife  of  the  then  President  of  the  United  States,  and  Princess  Louise 
Marchioness  of  Lome.  The  East  garden,  comprizing  about  one  acre  of  land, 
is  a  part  of  the  old  burying  ground  and  contains  over  four  hundred  bodies,  one 
buried  upon  another.  It  is  a  beautiful  spot,  covered  with  roses,  geraniums,  rare 
plants  and  trees. 

The  most  valued  treasure  of  Santa  Barbara  is  a  portion  of  the  true 
cross  brought  from  the  Holy  Land.  The  Mission  archives  are  of  inestimable 
value  to  California  history.  The  library  contains  massive  books  of  parch 
ment,  illuminated,  and  rare  old  manuscripts,  descriptive  of  life  and  scenes 
of  early  days  in  this  country.  When  the  missions  secularized,  books,  manu 
scripts  and  most  valuable  records  were  sent  to  Santa  Barbara  Mission  for  safe 
keeping  and  many  still  remain  there.  Huge  chests  are  filled  with  gorgeous 
robes  and  vestments,  many  of  them  made  of  richest  brocades. 



December  8th,  1/87,  Father  Lasuen  founded  the  Mission  of  La  Purisima 
Concepcion  in  honor  of  the  Immaculate  Conception  of  the  Blessed  Virgin. 
It  is  situated  on  the  Santa  Ynez  river.  The  first  church  building  was  replaced 
_  __  ^__^_  by  a  new  one  of  adobe  with  tile 

roof  in   1795.     Father   Payeras,  with 
the  aid  of  interpreters,  completed  in 
MBjM^^^^^^^  1810,    a    catechism    and    manual    of 

-^     .safc..-         .„  confession    in    the    Indian    language. 

Bl       This    was    of   greatest    advantage    to 
the  neophytes  in  the  study  of  religion. 
However,  there  remained  at  this  time 
•  --       no  more   Indians  nearer  than  twenty- 

LA  PURISIMA  co.N-cEPciox.  five  or  fa^y  leagues  away,  to 

be  converted.  In  1815  Father  Payeras  became  president  of  the  California 
missions,  but  he  continued  to  reside  at  Purisima,  instead  of  repairing  to  San 
Carlos  del  Carmelo. 

Early  on  the  morning  of  December  I2th,  1812,  a  violent  earthquake  shook 
the  church  walls  out  of  plumb,  a  second  shock  about  n  o'clock  destroyed  the 
chapel  completely,  and  nearly  all  of  the  mission  buildings,  besides  about  100 
of  the  neophyte  houses.  Rents  in  the  earth  from  which  black  sand  and  water 
oozed,  added  to  the  peril.  Huts  of  wood  and  grass  were  erected  for  tem 
porary  use.  Later  the  mission  was  moved  to  a  position  farther  up  the  river, 
The  first  church  building  erected  here  was  destroyed  by  fire  and  another 
one  erected  and  dedicated  October  4th,  1825,  the  remains  of  which  are  to  be 
seen  today.  It  is  a  long,  low  structure,  and  had  twenty-one  rooms.  There 
were  twelve  smaller  buildings  about  it.  The  church  ornaments  were  valued 
in  1834  at  nearly  $5000;  the  library  at  $655;  there  were  five  bells,  worth 
$1000.  In  fact,  the  mission  property,  live-stock  and  ranches  were  valued  at 
over  $60,000.  In  1845  it  was  s°ld  by  the  Governor  to  John  Temple  for 
$1,110;  and  La  Purisima  was  abandoned  by  its  rightful  owners,  the  Indians, 
and  the  Padres. 

The  location  is  about  three  miles  from  the  town  of  Lompoc,  in  Santa 
Barbara  county. 


Santa  Cruz,  the  Mission  of  the  Holy  Cross,  was  formally  established  by  Don 
Hermenegildo  Sal,  on  Sunday,  September  25,  1791.  The  site  had  been  selected 
and  blessed  by  Father  Lasuen,  August  28,  on  the  day  of  San  Augustin.  Near 



by  was  a  fine  stream  in  the  Arroyo  cie  Pedro  Regalado,  which  is  now  known  as 
Rio  San  Lorenzo.  Huts  were  built  by  the  Indians,  land  was  prepared,  and  wheat 
sown.  The  founding  of  the  mission  was  most  favorable,  as  many  of  the  Indians 
came  and  offered  to  help  with  the  work,  while  their  chief,  Sugert,  presented  him 
self,  with  a  few  of  his'  followers,  and  promised  to  become  the  first  Christian  of  his 
tribe,  and  Sal  agreed  to  be  godfather.  In  the  history  of  the  founding  of  the  mis 
sion,  it  is  an  interesting  fact  that  frequently  everything  wherewith  to  establish  a 
new  mission  was  contributed  as  a  loan  by  the  other  missions.  In  this  instance 
Santa  Clara  contributed  64  head  of  cattle,  22  horses,  77  fanegas  of  grain,  and  26 
loaves  of  bread.  San  Francisco  gave  five  yoke  of  oxen,  70  sheep  and  two  bushels 
of  barley.  San  Carlos  gave  eight  horses  and  seven  mules.  The  vestments  and 
sacred  vessels  were  loaned  by  other  missions,  also  tools  and  implements,  until 
those  intended  for  Santa  Cruz  should  arrive  from  Mexico.  The  mission  was 
beautifully  situated,  near  the  waters  of  the  I!ay  of  Monterey,  and  as  a  background 
there  was  a  dense  forest.  Although  the  founding  was  auspicious,  the  mission 
never  became  an  important  or  even  flourishing  establishment,  because  of  the 
close  proximity of  the  penal  sta 
tion  of  Branci-  forte,  which  later 
became  the  town  of  Santa  Cruz. 
At  the  present  ^«^ '  '  MlM^.  date,  however, 

all     of     the     un-        77T-~TTT  .T"  ,  ,    ,  pleasant    associa- 

l     -J^^»— ^^^«___ 

tions  of  the  con-  vict  hie  have  dis 

appeared  as  whol-  •~i*Mir'^ii*^fcl«.1^?"r  '''    as     ^ave    ^e 

old  mission  build-  ^^8IB|HP  m£s>      an^      tne 

Santa  Cruz  of  to-      ' • — *      day  is  one  of  Cal- 

fornia's      charm-  ing  resorts.     The 

corner-stone  of  the  mission  church  was  laid  February  27,  1793.  The  building  was 
120x30  feet.  The  walls  were  of  stone  to  the  height  of  three  feet,  the  front  was 
of  masonrv.  and  the  rest  of  adobe.  In  1812  Father  Andres  Quintana  was  brutally 
murdered  by  nine  or  ten  of  the  Mission  Indians.  Though  sick  himself,  he  left 
his  room  at  night  to  call  upon  a  man  said  to  be  dying.  On  the  way  home  he  was 
murdered.  It  was  two  years  before  the  murderers  were  apprehended  and  pun 
ished.  Their  defense  was  that  of  cruelty  on  the  part  of  the  father ;  but  the  fact 
that  he  had  left  his  sick  bed  to  minister  to  a  dying  man  belied  the  accusation,  and 
the  murderers  were  condemned  to  work  in  chains  from  two  to  ten  years.  Only 
one  survived  the  punishment.  When  Santa  Cruz  was  secularized,  in  1835,  ten 
thousand  dollars  of  the  church  money  was  divided  among  the  neophytes.  In  1839 
Hartnell  found  but  seventy  of  the  Indians  remaining,  and  all  of  the  money  gone. 
Of  the  mission  itself  there  is  now  hardly  a  trace.  The  portion  of  a  tile-covered 
shed  in  'the  rear  of  the  present  church  is  all  that  remains.  A  few  relics,  among 
them  two  mission  books  used  by  the  Indians,  may  be  seen  in  the  church. 



The  Mission  of  "Our  Lady  of  Solitude"  ("Soledad"),  was  founded 
October  gth,  1791,  by  Father  Lasuen.  The  sites  for  Soledad  and  Santa  Cruz 
were  selected  upon  the  same  trip.  Governor  Portola  named  this  lonely  spot 
Soledad  in  1769,  but  it  was  not  until  1797  that  the  adobe  structure  with  its 

roof  of  straw,  which  was  known  as 
the  chapel  of  Soledad,  was  com 
pleted.  Later  a  tiled  roof  and  corri 
dors  were  added.  Soledad  became  a 
flourishing  Christian  settlement,  but 
after  the  secularization  in  1835,  so 
great  was  the  devastation  and  ruin 
that  the  venerable  Father  Vincente 
Sarria,  who  had  labored  for  the  mis- 
LA  SOLEDAD.  s|on  £or  thirty  years,  and  who  refused 

to  leave  his  post  of  duty  or  the  remaining  Indians,  died  here  in  1835.  the  year 
of  the  secularization,  of  starvation  and  want.  June  4th,  1846,  Soledad  Mis 
sion  was  sold  to  Feliciano  Soberanes  for  $800,  yet  the  inventory  of  '35  had 
shown  a  valuation  of  $36,000,  besides  the  church  property. 

A  heap  of  ruins  standing  alone  in  an  open  field,  used  for  the  growing  of 
grain,  is  all  that  today  remains  of  Soledad  Mission.  The  Indians  called  the 
place  Chuttusgelis,  but  the  Spaniards  called  it  Solitude. 


Mission  San  Jose  was  founded  June  11,  1797,  Trinity  Sunday.  By  an 
order  from  the  College  of  Fernando,  Mexico,  the  new  mission  was  dedicated 
to  St.  Joseph,  the  foster-father  of  Our  Lord.  A  wooden  structure  with  grass 
roof  was  quickly  constructed,  and  Father  Barcenilla  was  left  in  charge.  San 
Jose  was  founded  by  Father  Lasuen.  The  northern  missions  contributed  very 
generously  toward  the  establishment 
of  the  new  one.  They  sent  12  mules, 
12  yoke  of  oxen,  39  horses,  242  sheep 
and  60  pigs.  The  Indians  from  the 
adjacent  hills  proved  to  be  treach 
erous  and  cruel.  Father  Cueva  after 
having  labored  five  years  among  them. 
was  cruelly  attacked,  wounded  and 
almost  killed.  He  had  been  called  a 
long  distance  from  the  mission,  about 



fifteen  miles,  to  attend  to  some  sick  neophytes.  Upon  arriving  at  the  rancheria, 
the  natives  attacked  him  and  his  guard  with  arrows,  killing  the  guard,  a  soldier 
and  three  neophytes  and  wounding  Father  Cueva.  On  account  of  the  treachery 
of  the  Indians,  and  their  having  made  several  attempts  to  do  injury  to  the  padres 
and  to  the  buildings,  the  houses  were  soon  reconstructed,  and  made  of  brick  from 
the  excellent  brick-earth  near  by.  There  are  chalk  hills  near  San  Jose,  and 
everywhere  the  soil  is  rich  and  fertile.  The  establishment  was  never  extensive 
nor  imposing,  yet  at  one  time  Mission  San  Jose  had  a  greater  number  of  neo 
phytes  than  any  other  mission  in  California,  with  the  single  exception  of  San 
Luis  Rev.  The  illustration  shows  the  mission  as  it  was  years  ago,  and  gives 
some  idea  of  the  plan  of  the  establishment.  San  Jose  was  never  wealthy,  but 
still  they  could  order  a  bell  weighing  1000  pounds,  and  that  was  considered  a 
luxury.  At  the  time  of  the  secularization  the  church  property  was  valued  at 
$155,000  over  and  above  the  debts.  On  May  5th,  1846,  San  Jose  Mission  was 
sold  to  Andres  Pico  and  J.  B.  Alvarado,  for  $12,000,  by  Governor  Pio  Pico. 


The  Mission  of  San  Juan  Bautista  was  built  on  the  edge  of  a  mesa,  over 
looking  a  fertile  valley,  of  what  is  now  San  Benito  county,  in  San  Juan  Valley, 
about  seven  miles  from  Hollister,  the  county  seat.  It  was  200x70  feet  on  the 
ground  and  height  of  walls  was  forty-five  feet,  being  higher  than  most  of  the 
mission  churches.  Each  of  the  walls  were  supported  by  four  buttresses. 
Those  on  the  northeast  are  still 

standing:  one  re- 
back  ;  while  the 
west  is  covered 
lumber,  to  sup- 
tect  it  from  the 
The  church  was 
and  transepts, 
divided  by  seven 
which  have  been 
s  u  m !  a  b  1  y  to 
building.  There 



mains  at  the 
entire  wall  on  the 
with  redwood 
port  and  to  pro- 
built  with  a  nave 
The  nave  is  sub- 
arches,  five  of 
walled  in,  pre- 
strengthen  the 
is  a  choir  loft 

over  the  door  entrance  at  the  front.     The  church  is  lighted  with  eight  quaint 
little  windows,   with  glass  of  small   panes  about   five   inches   square. 

The  baptismal  font,  carved  from  sandstone,  stands  about  three  feet  high, 
and  is  three  feet  in  diameter,  and  over  it  hangs  an  ancient  picture  of  the  baptism 
.it  Christ.  The  principal  altar  is  dedicated  to  St.  John  the  Baptist,  and  is  very 
gaudily  frescoed  and  painted.  Statues  of  redwood,  one  life-size  of  St.  John, 


and  four  smaller  ones,  are  executed  with  rare  talent  and  artistic  effect.  That 
they  are  of  our  native  woods  proves  that  the  padres,  Indians,  or  perchance  a 
Mexican,  who  dwelt  at  the  mission,  was  more  than  ordinarily  gifted  in  carving. 

In  the  mission  gardens  are  pear  trees,  planted  a  century  ago.  The  cemetery, 
one  acre  in  size,  is  full  to  the  limit.  In  many  graves  are  said  to  be  buried  six 
bodies,  one  above  the  other.  In  all,  4,557  bodies  are  there  interred.  An  old 
sun  dial  in  the  garden  is  an  object  of  interest,  carved  from  sandstone  long  be 
fore  the  day  of  clocks  in  this  country.  It  was  originally  intended  for  San 
Felipe  and  is  therefore  one  second  slow  for  San  Juan  Bautista. 

The  site  of  San  Juan,  was  selected  as  early  as  1786,  but  the  church  of  San 
Juan  Bautista  was  not  established  until  June  24,  1797,  the  day  dedicated  to  the 
patron  saint,  John  the  Baptist.  Work  upon  the  chapel  and  the  various  build 
ings  was  begun  immediately.  It  took  hundreds  of  workers  fifteen  years  to 
complete  the  task,  and  the  chapel  was  dedicated  by  Father  President  Esteban 
Tapis,  June  25,  1812.  The  establishment  was  so  constructed  as  to  form  a  court 
200  feet  square  with  buildings  on  three  sides  of  it,  and  a  high  wall  on  the 
fourth.  The  material  used  was  adobe  (sun-dried  brick)  and  ladiello,  a  kind  of 
brick  that  was  frequently  used  for  flooring,  and  was  made  in  a  subterranean  kiln. 
Adobes  are  made  of  certain  mud  mixed  with  straw  or  tough  grass.  Being 
thoroughly  kneaded  by  hand  or  trodden  by  foot  it  is  molded  in  the  desired  shape 
and  dimensions  and  dried  in  the  sun.  Size,  16x30x4  inches  and  weight  about 
50  pounds.  The  ladellos  were  8x12x2  inches,  and  after  baking  in  a  kiln  were 
very  hard.  The  old  floor  at  this  mission  is  more  than  a  century  old,  and  is  in 
fair  condition.  The  buildings  were  originally  roofed  with  tile,  a  portion  of 
which  has  given  place  to  shingles  until  such  a  time  as  the  tile  can  be  restored. 
The  walls  of  San  Juan  have  been  allowed  to  retain  the  delicate  tint  of  the  cinnabar 
that  colored  the  mortar,  and  left  an  effect  that  no  after-tinting  can  successfully 

The  fine  music  of  San  Juan  was  a  feature  of  the  mission  and  a  reason  of 
its  success.  A  chime  of  nine  bells  once  called  to  worship.  Only  one  of  these 
now  remains.  A  second  one  was  cast  from  two  of  the  originals  in  1874,  but 
lacks  the  sweet  tone  of  the  old  ones.  The  other  six  bells  have  been  given  to 
other  churches.  An  interesting  and  ingenious  attachment  to  the  original  chime 
of  bells  is  an  old  wooden  wheel,  with  hollow  arms,  about  two  inches  square, 
hung  on  an  axle.  Between  each  two  arms  is  hung  a  wooden  clapper,  and  as 
the  wheel  revolves,  these  clappers  successively  rap  on  the  hollow  arms.  This 
wheel  was  used  to  call  the  people  to  worship  upon  occasions  when  the  Catholic 
church  rings  no  bells  and  could  be  heard  at  a  great  distance. 

The  Padres  placed  a  small  organ  (the  first  brought  to  California),  on  an 
elevation  overlooking  the  valley,  and  swiftly  turned  the  crank,  and  when  the 
Indians  first  heard  the  strange  sounds,  they  fell  upon  their  faces  in  fear ;  but  as 


the  music  continued  their  fear  left  them  and  they  began  to  enjoy  the  sweet 
sounds.  Finally  they  slowly  approached  the  hill  and  gradually  gathered  about 
the  Padre  and  the  wonderful  singing  box  and  listened  with  delight.  After  play 
ing  for  an  hour  or  more,  he  offered  them  sweets  and  told  them  that  he  had 
come  to  live  among  them,  and  the  good  man  received  a  hearty  welcome.  The 
box  is  a  hand  organ  standing  about  4^  feet  high.  It  has  tin  pipes  and  was 
built  by  Benjamin  Dodson,  22  Swan  Street,  London,  England,  in  1735.  It  was 
brought  to  San  Juan  in  1797.  It  became  disabled,  and  was  removed  to  the 
storehouse  of  the  mission,  where  it  remained  for  many  years,  when  a  wandering 
tinker  stopped  at  the  mission  for  something  to  eat  and  repaired  it.  Father  Tapis, 
the  priest  of  San  Juan,  composed  a  great  deal  of  music  for  the  California 
missions.  Three  large  volumes  of  his  work  remain  at  this  mission  alone. 
Much  of  the  music  is  on  parchment,  and  in  bold,  clear  characters. 

The  chapel  of  San  Juan  Bautista  could  accommodate  one  thousand  or 
more  worshippers,  and  in  prosperous  days  the  capacity  was  frequently  taxed 
to  its  fullest.  The  mission  possessed  extensive  lands  and  great  herds. 
Between  the  years  1797  and  1835,  4,100  persons  were  baptized.  When  the 
crash  of  secularization  came,  the  inventory  showed  a  valuation  of  $147,413. 
In  1846,  San  Juan  was  sold  for  debt.  There  are  many  choice  mementoes  at 
San  Juan  church — ancient  candlesticks  of  curious  pattern,  the  old  bass  viol, 
the  rude  music  stand,  a  violin  past  all  music,  the  old  organ,  vestments,  robes 
and  sheet  music,  torn  and  faded,  but  dear  to  the  devout  and  interesting  to 
the  historian.  Today  it  is  an  impoverished  parish  church — but  nevertheless 
one  of  the  most  interesting  and  artistic  relics  of  the  mission  period. 


The  Mission  of  San  Miguel  (St.  Michael,  the  Arcangel),  "the  most  glorious 
prince  of  the  heavenly  militia,"  was  founded  on  July  25,  1797,  by  Father  Lasuen, 
assisted  by  Father  Buenaventura  Sitjar.  The  site  chosen  was  a  beautiful  spot 
on  the  Salinas  River  called  by  the  Indians  Vahia,  or  Vatica,  and  by  the  Spaniards 
Las  Pozas.  Father  Lasuen  says  that  a  great  multitude  of  Indians  gathered 
about  with  pleased  expression,  while  he  held  the  first  service  that  founded  the 
Mission  of  San  Miguel.  The  chapel  consisted  of  the  wide-spreading  branches 
of  an  old  oak  tree.  A  wooden  church  with  mud  roof,  was  soon  erected,  and  it 
was  not  replaced  with  the  present  structure  until  1800.  In  1801,  three  Indians 
attempted  to  poison  Fathers  Martin  and  Carnicer.  Father  Pujol,  who  came 
from  San  Carlos  to  attend  the  sick  missionaries,  was  also  poisoned,  and  died, 
while  the  two  whom  he  came  to  minister  unto  recovered.  In  1806,  a  fire 
occurred,  which  destroyed  all  the  implements  belonging  to  the  mission,  all  of  the 
raw  material,  large  quantities  of  wool,  hides,  cloth,  and  6000  bushels  of  wheat ; 
besides  doing  great  damage  to  the  building.  The  other  missions  contributed 


to  the  relief  of  the  burned  San  Miguel.  The  largest  enrollment  at  this  mis 
sion  was  in  1814,  when  there  were  1076.  Total  number  of  baptisms  was 
2588,  and  the  largest  number  of  cattle  owned  at  one  time  was  10,558,  in 
1822.  All  this  bespeaks  the  prosperity  of  the  establishment.  In  1819  Father 
Cabot  made  a  safe  journey  into  the  valley  of  the  Tulares,  a  thing  quite  unusual, 
and  a  proof  of  the  safety  of  the  country  at  that  period.  When  the  Indians 
of  San  Miguel  were  consulted  re 
garding  the  scheme  of  secularization, 
they  expressed  themselves  as  de 
cidedly  in  favor  of  the  missionary 
fathers  and  their  system.  Their  pref 
erence  was  of  no  avail,  and  the  mis 
sion  was  confiscated  in  1836,  with  a 
valuation  of  $82,000.  By  1845  a^ 
property  had  disappeared,  except  the 

SAN    MIGUEL   ARCANGEL.  buildings,       valued      at      $S8OO,      which 

were  ordered  sold  by  Governor  Pico. 

The  sale  was  made  July  4th,  1846,  P.  Rios  and  William  Reed  being  the  pur 
chasers.  Later  the  title  was  declared  invalid,  and  the  buildings  restored  to 
the  church. 

The  mission  buildings  consist  of  a  chapel  and  a  long  row  of  low  adobe 
buildings.  The  corridor  is  a  feature  of  the  main  edifice,  the  interior  of  which 
is  to  many  most  interesting,  since  it  remains  in  its  original  condition,  showing 
its  ancient  decorations  and  fixtures.  The  altar,  very  effective  in  color  and 
design,  is  a  valuable  piece  of  decorative  art.  It  is  crowned  with  a  statue  of 
St.  Michael,  the  patron  saint.  The  floors  are  of  burnt  brick  laid  in  alternating 
rows  of  oblongs  and  squares.  The  chapel  is  in  use  and  there  is  a  resident 


The  mission  of  San  Fernando  was  the  second  to  be  established  within  the 
present  limits  of  Los  Angeles  county,  and  was  founded  September  8,  1797,  by 
President  Lasuen,  assisted  by  Francisco  Dumetz,  at  a  site  called  by  the  natives 
Achois  Comihavit,  on  the  lands  claimed  by  Francisco  Reyes,  who  quarreled  with 
the  friars  respecting  the  ownership  of  the  land.  The  priests  appropriated  Reyes' 
ranch  house  for  their  dwelling.  The  mission  was  established  with  the  usual 
religious  ceremonies,  in  the  presence  of  the  troops  and  a  great  crowd  of  natives, 
and  dedicated  as  required  by  instructions  from  Mexico  to  San  Fernando,  King 
of  Spain.  St.  Ferdinand  was  Fernando  III.,  who  reigned  in  I2i7-'5i,  and  under 
whose  rule  the  crowns  of  Castile  and  Leon  were  united.  He  was  the  founder 
of  the  Spanish  Inquisition,  and  was  canonized  in  1671  by  Pope  Clement  X. 



Francisco  Javier  Uria  was  associate  priest  with  Dumetz.  Ten  children  were 
baptized  the  first  day,  and  thirteen  adults  had  been  added  to  the  list  early  in  Oc 
tober.  In  1/97  there  were  fifty-five  neophytes  on  the  baptismal  register;  in  1800 
there  were  310,  there  having  been  to  that  date  352  baptisms  and  seventy  deaths. 
The  number  of  cattle  (including  mules  and  horses)  in  1800  was  526,  and  of  sheep 
600.  In  1799  there  were  1,200  bushels  of  wheat,  corn  and  barley  raised,  and  the 
total  yield  for  the  three  years  1798-1800  was  4,700  bushels. 

The  adobe  church  with  a  tile  roof,  the  ruins  of  which  yet  remain,  was  com 
pleted  and  consecrated  in  December,  1806.  An  earthquake  occurred  December 
21,  1812,  that  did  some  slight  damage  to  the  church  building,  necessitating  the 
introduction  of  thirty  new  beams  to  support  the  wall.  In  1813  a  neophyte  was 
killed  by  the  Indian  alcalde,  who  threw  a  club  at  him  from  a  distance  of  some 
sixty  feet  with  a  view  to  hasten  his  work.  The  killing  was  deemed  accidental, 
and  the  penalty  imposed  was  two  months'  imprisonment  in  the  presidio.  During 
i8i6-'i8  a  large  number  of  neophytes  deserted;  before  1818  a  new  chapel  was 
completed  The  ____^  greatest  popula 

tion  of  this  mis- 
in  1819,  and  then 
Captain  de  la 
applied  for  a 
Rancho,  which 
was  already  using 
for  the  mission 
troversy  resulted 
failing  to  obtain 
it  was  not  se- 


sion  was  i  ,080, 
began  its  decline. 
Guerra,  in  1821, 
grant  of  the  Pirn 
Father  Ybarra 
to  some  extent 
herds.  The  con- 
in  de  la  Guerra 
the  rancho ;  but 

cured  for  the 

mission.  About  this  time  complaint  was  made  that  the  soldiers  behaved 
badly,  selling  liquor  to  the  Indians.  The  mission  was  no  longer  prosperous 
in  any  respect,  showing  a  decline  in  live  stock  and  agriculture.  The  amount 
of  supplies  furnished  by  this  mission  to  the  soldiers  in  1822-27  was  $21,203. 

In  1834,  with  others,  the  Mission  San  Fernando  was  secularized,  with  Lieu 
tenant  Del  Valle  as  the  commissioner  in  charge.  Yharre  continued  his  ministry 
until  the  middle  of  the  year  1835,  when  he  temporarily  retired  to  Mexico. 

Del  Valle  became  major-domo  the  next  year,  which  position  he  held  until  the 
year  1837,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  Anastasio  Carrillo.  Captain  Jose  M. 
Villavicencio  served  as  administrator  from  the  middle  of  the  year  1838.  In  1840 
there  were  still  about  400  Indians  in  the  ex-mission  community. 

At  one  period  of  its  history  there  were  nearly  one  and  a  half  miles  of  build 
ings  connected  with  this  mission,  these  including  residences,  workshops,  schools 
and  storehouses,  all  of  which  are  now  in  ruins.  The  edifice  erected  especially  as 
an  abode  for  the  padres  and  reputed  to  be  the  finest  of  its  kind  in  Alta  California, 


is,  however,  still  standing  in  a  fair  state  of  preservation.  It  is  principally  inter 
esting  as  having  been  the  abode  of  the  Mexican  General,  Andres  Pico,  and  was 
his  headquarters  during  the  war  of  occupation.  It  is  two-story,  nearly  300  feet 
in  length  by  eighty  feet  in  width,  inside  measurements ;  and  the  walls — of  brick 
and  adobe — are  four  feet  thick,  The  rafters,  after  being  cut  in  the  mountain 
forests  many  miles  away,  were  dragged  here  by  Indians  and  oxen,  each  log  being 
occasionally  turned  upon  the  way,  "  that  all  sides  might  be  planed  alike."  They 
are  as  smooth  as  though  really  planed.  The  long  corridor  of  this  building  is 
paved  with  brick,  and  the  heavy  tile  roof  is  supported  by  arches  and  columns  of 
masonry.  Many  of  the  windows  are  protected  by  iron  bars,  giving  it  a  some 
what  prison-like  appearance. 

The  church  is  40x60  varas.  tile  roofed,  board  ceiling,  brick  floor,  adobe 
walls,  three  doors,  seven  windows  with  wooden  bars ;  sacristy,  eight  varas 
square,  with  one  door  and  window. 

The  general  statistics  of  the  San  Fernando  Mission  from  the  date  of  its 
foundation  till  its  secularization  in  1834,  are  as  follows :  Total  number  of  bap 
tisms  2,839,  °f  which  1,415  were  Indian  adults,  1,367  Indian  children,  57  children 
de  razon.  Total  marriages,  849,  of  which  15  were  gente  de  razon.  Deaths, 
2,028;  1,036  were  Indian  adults,  965  Indian  children,  12  white  adults  and  15  white 
children.  The  largest  population  was  1,080  in  1819.  The  sexes  were  nearly 
equal;  children  from  one-fourth  to  one-third.  Largest  number  of  cattle,  12,800 
in  1819;  horses,  1,320  in  1820;  mules,  340  in  1812;  sheep,  7,800  in  1819;  goats, 
600  in  1816;  swine,  250  in  1814;  all  kinds,  21,745  animals  in  1819.  Total  product 
of  wheat,  119,000  bushels,  yield  nineteen  fold;  barley,  (only  raised  six  years) 
3,070  bushels,  fourteen  fold ;  maize,  27,750  bushels,  eighty-three  fold ;  beans, 
3,624  bushels,  fourteen  fold. 

It  has  been  in  part  restored  by  the  Landmarks  Club. 


The  Mission  of  San  Luis  Rev  de  Francia  (Saint  Louis  IX,  King  of  France, 
member  of  the  Franciscans)  was  founded  by  Frs.  Lasuen,  Santiago  and  Peyri,  on 
June  3,  1798.  The  ceremony  of  dedication  was  supplemented  by  the  baptism  of 
fifty-four  children.  Within  a  week  Father  Peyri,  who  was  left  in  charge,  had  bap 
tized  seventy-seven  more.  By  July  I  he  had  6,000  adobe  bricks  ready  to  begin 
the  erection  of  the  mission  buildings.  It  was  due  to  Father  Peyri's  energy,  zeal 
and  executive  ability  that  San  Luis  Rey,  the  grandest  mission  building  of  Alta 
California,  was  erected.  It  was  completed  in  1802.  During  the  first  decade  this 
mission  made  larger  gains  in  number  of  neophyte  population  and  had  a  lower 
death  rate  than  any  other  establishment.  Father  Peyri  was  beloved  bv  all.  He 
ministered  personally  to  the  needs  of  his  charges,  and  likewise  superintended  the 
agricultural  pursuits.  In  1818  San  Luis  Rey  was  the  most  prosperous  mission  in 



SAN    l.riS  KEY  DE  FRANCIA. 

California,  and  this  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  so  many  of  its  sheep  died  that  it  was 
necessary  for  the  padres  to  go  as  far  north  as  San  Juan  Bautista  to  obtain  wool 
enough  for  clothing. 

Father  Peyri  early  established  a  hospital  and  taught  the  Indians  the  rudi 
ments  of  healthful  living.  The  highest  number  of  neophytes  enrolled  at  one  time 
\\as  j,8(,(),  in  1826.  In  1828  there  was  a  white  population  of  thirty-five  at  San 

Luis  Rey.  Father  Peyri,  unlike  most 
of  the  Franciscans  in  California,  was 
a  strong  supporter  of  the  Mexican 
republic  and  his  surprise  and  disap 
pointment  at  the  expulsion  of  the 
( )rder  in  1829  knew  no  bounds.  The 
pathetic  romance  of  his  being  spirited 
away  at  night  and  taken  on  board  a 
vessel  lying  in  the  Bay  of  San  Diego, 
is  one  well  known  to  those  inter 
ested  in  the  missions.  When  the  neo 
phytes  learned  that  Father  Peyri  was  gone,  many  of  them  mounted  their  ponies 
and  rode  in  the  gray  dawn  of  the  morning  in  a  wild  chase  to  the  sea,  in  order  to 
rescue  their  padre  and  bring  him  back  to  the  mission.  As  they  appeared  on  the 
shore  the  ship  weighed  anchor  and  slowly  sailed  out  to  sea.  It  is  said  that  two 
venturesome  boys  swam  after  the  ship  and  were  taken  on  board  and  carried  to 
Spain  with  the  Father. 

San  Luis  Rev  is  the  only  mission  that  progressed  after  secularization ;  but 
it,  too,  declined  after  a  few  years,  and  was  finally  sold,  on  May  18,  1846,  to  Jose 
A.  Cot  and  Jose  A.  Pico  for  $2,437;  ^ut  their  agent  was  dispossessed  by  General 
Fremont,  and  they  failed  to  regain  possession.  Later  it  was  decided  that  the 
governor  had  had  no  power  to  sell  the  mission.  San  Luis  Rey  was  used  as  a 
military  post  by  our  troops  during  the  Mexican  war,  and  at  the  close  of  the  war 
the  government  caused  an  estimate  to  be  made  of  the  cost  of  repairing  and 
restoring  it  to  its  former  condition.  The  figures  were  $2,000,000. 

An  inventory  taken  August  22nd,  1835,  gives  a  fair  idea  of  the  importance 
and  wealth  of  the  mission.  Valuation,  $203,737.00;  debts,  $93,000.00;  the  church, 
of  adobe,  tile  roof,  clay  floor,  board  ceilings,  nine  doors,  eighteen  windows,  four 
adjoining  rooms,  value  $30,000.00,  was  included  in  the  total  amount,  as  was  also 
the  six  ranches,  valued  at  $40,437.00.  These  were  Pala,  Santa  Margarita.  San 
Jacinto,  Santa  Ysabel,  Temecula  and  one  other. 

In  the  day  of  its  glory  and  wealth,  San  Luis  Rey  was  the  pride  of  all  the 
missions.  It  owned  and  pastured  upon  its  lands  an  annual  average  of  20,000  head 
of  cattle,  and  nearly  as  many  sheep.  It  kept  3,000  Indians  to  perform  the  various 
kinds  of  service.  In  1834  the  mission  had  3,500  neophytes  to  support.  In 



the  zenith  of  its  prosperity,  it  raised  and  harvested  annually  more  than  60,000 
bushels  of  grain,  and  250  barrels  of  wine  were  produced  from  the  vineyards. 

The  church  is  an  imposing  structure,  50x160  feet,  and  walls  sixty  feet  in 
height,  by  four  feet  in  thickness.  The  tower  at  one  corner  contained  eight  bells. 
The  ornaments  and  vestments  of  the  church,  in  gold  and  silver,  were  very  rich 
and  beautiful.  On  one  side  of  the  mission  building  extended  a  corridor  of  two 
hundred  and  fifty  arches.  In  the  rear  was  a  large  square  enclosed  by  buildings 
on  each  side.  The  front  and  rear  sides  formed  corridors,  with  beautiful  arches. 
In  this  square  was  a  well-kept  garden,  with  a  stone  fountain,  the  favorite  retreat 
of  the  padres. 

In  1892,  steps  were  taken  by  Father  O'Keefe,  who  for  so  many  years  was 
well  known  at  Santa  Barbara  Mission,  to  restore  San  Luis  Rev  to  a  condition  of 
usefulness,  and  the  good  father  had  succeeded  so  admirably  that  May  I2th,  1894, 
the  mission  was  rededicated  and  title  passed  to  the  Franciscan  order  of  the  Catholic 
church.  A  school  for  the  training  of  priests  of  the  order  is  now  maintained  there. 


The  Mission  Santa  Ynez  was  founded  September  ijth,  1804.  The  work 
of  the  Mission  Fathers  was  there  begun  by  the  baptizing  of  twenty-seven 
children.  The  present  buildings  were  not  commenced  until  after  the  destruc 
tive  earthquake  of  September  2ist,  1812,  when  a  corner  of  the  old  church  and 
many  of  the  best  houses  were  destroyed.  It  was  at  Santa  Ynez  that  the 
serious  and  wide-spread  Indian  revolt  of  1824  started.  After  destroying  many 
of  the  buildings  they  fled  to  Purisima  and  set  fire  to  that  establishment. 

At  the  time  of  secularization,  Santa 
Ynez  was  valued  at  $56,000.  In 
1844,  the  Mission  had  sufficient  en 
ergy,  enterprise  and  wealth  to  estab 
lish  a  seminary  of  learning.  The 
Fathers,  through  the  efforts  of  Bishop 
Garcia,  received  a  liberal  grant  of 
land  from  the  government  for  this 
institution,  beside  an  endowment  of 
$500  per  annum,  on  condition  that 
all  Californians  in  search  of  higher 
education  be  admitted  thereto.  There  were  about  270  Indians  at  Santa  Ynez 
at  this  time.  By  order  of  Governor  Pico,  in  1836,  the  entire  estate  was  rented 
to  Jose  Covarrubias  and  Joaquin  Carrillo  for  $580  per  annum.  The  mission 
was  finally  sold  to  the  lessees  in  1846,  for  $7,000,  but  the  title  was  declared 
invalid.  Santa  Ynez  remained  a  religious  institution  until  1850,  when  it  was 
abandoned,  and  the  Fathers  went  to  Santa  Barbara. 





The  mission  of  San  Rafael,  the  first  one  located  north  of  San  Francisco, 
was  established  December  i8th,  1817.  The  Fathers  and  the  Government  of 
California  had  a  double  purpose  in  fixing  the  site  of  this  establishment.  It 

was  intended  to  head  off  the  Russian 

encroachment  from  the  north,  and 
also  as  a  refuge  for  the  neophytes  of 
San  Francisco  de  Asis,  of  which  it 
was  a  branch.  A  scourge  had  be 
come  epidemic  at  Mission  Dolores  and 
many  of  its  occupants  were  trans 
ferred  to  the  new  site,  which  was 
supposed  to  be  in  a  healthier  region. 
This  establishment  was  never  verv 


populous    or    influential.     It    reached 

its  zenith  in  1828  when  a  membership  of  1,140  neophytes  was  reported.  After 
this  date  it  steadily  declined  and  at  the  time  of  its  secularization  only  about 
500  Indians  remained.  During  its  existence,  1873  converts  were  baptized. 


On  the  4th  of  July,  1823,  a  cross  was  blessed,  Holy  Mass  was  offered 
ap,  sacred  songs  were  sung,  and  the  Mission  of  San  Francisco  de  Solano  was 
founded.  It  was  called  New  San  Francisco.  It  was  not  until  April  4th,  1824, 
that  the  mission  church  was  formally 
dedicated,  by  Father  Altimira,  to  the 
patron  saint  of  the  Indies.  This 
structure  was  of  wood,  and  the  one 
of  adobe,  the  remains  of  which  are 
seen  today,  was  erected  the  same 
year,  many  articles  being  donated  by 
the  Russians,  then  living  in  that 
region  of  country.  The  walls  of  the 
new  church  were  about  completed, 
when  a  terrific  downpour  of  rain,  last 
ing  several  days,  did  great  injury  and  changed  the  original  plan.  At  the  close  of 
the  year,  1824,  the  mission  numbered  639  neophytes,  many  of  whom  had  come 
from  San  Francisco,  San  Jose,  and  San  Rafael.  At  the  time  of  secularization 
the  movable  property  was  distributed  to  the  Indians.  After  1840,  Solano  had 
no  existence  as  a  mission  community.  During  its  entire  history,  1,315  persons 
were  there  baptized.  Its  greatest  population  was  in  1832,  when  there  were  996 
persons  enrolled. 

SAX     KUAN' 'IS 



PABLO  VICENTE  DE  SOLA  was  governor  of  California  when  Mexico 
attained  independence  from  Spain.  He  was  of  Spanish  birth  and  was 
bitterly  opposed  to  the  Revolution,  even  going  so  far  as  to  threaten  death 
to  any  one  who  should  speak  in  favor  of  it.  Although  the  rule  of  Spain  in  Mexico 
was  overthrown  in  September,  1821,  it  was  not  until  March,  1822,  that  official  dis 
patches  reached  Sola  informing  him  of  the  change.  The  "  plan  of  Iguala  "  under 
which  Iturbide  finally  overthrew  the  Spanish  power  contemplated  the  placing  of 
Fernando  VII  on  the  throne  of  the  Mexican  Empire,  or,  if  he  would  not  accept, 
then  some  scion  of  the  royal  family  of  Spain.  Such  a  termination  to  the  revolu 
tion  did  not  affect  Sola's  loyalist  sympathies.  He  called  a  junta  to  meet  at  Monte 
rey  and  on  the  nth  of  April  the  oath  was  taken  to  the  new  government. 

But  Sola's  royalist  sympathies  received  a  rude  shock  a  few  months  later 
when  news  reached  California  that  Iturbide  had  seized  the  government  for  him 
self  and  been  proclaimed  Emperor  with  the  imposing  title  of  ''  Augustin  I,  by 
Divine  Providence  and  by  the  Congress  of  the  Nation,  first  Constitutional  Emperor 
of  Mexico."  In  September,  1822,  the  flag  of  Spain  that  for  half  a  century  had 
waved  over  the  palacio  of  the  governor  at  Monterey,  was  lowered  and  the  imperial 
banner  of  Mexico  took  its  place.  California,  from  the  dependency  of  a  kingdom, 
had  become  a  province  of  an  empire.  Scarce  half  a  year  after  the  flag  of  the 
empire  floated  on  the  breeze  had  passed  when  the  emperor  was  dethroned  and 
forced  into  exile.  The  downfall  of  the  empire  was  followed  by  the  establishment 
of  a  republic  fashioned  after  that  of  the  United  States.  The  country  over  which 
the  viceroys  of  Spain  had  ruled  for  three  hundred  years  was  divided  into  nineteen 
states  and  four  territories.  Only  the  states  were  allowed  representatives  in  the 
the  senate ;  the  territories,  of  which  Alta  California  was  one,  were  to  be  governed 
by  a  governor  appointed  by  the  president  and  a  diputacion,  or  territorial  assem 
bly,  elected  by  the  people.  Each  territory  was  entitled  to  send  a  diputado,  or  dele 
gate,  to  the  Mexican  congress. 

Luis  Antonio  Argiiello  succeeded  Sola  as  governor,  or  gefe  poltico  (political 
chief),  as  the  office  was  later  styled  under  the  republic.  He  was  elected,  Novem 
ber  9,  1822,  president  of  the  provincial  diputacion  and  by  virtue  of  his  office  be 
came  temporary  governor  instead  of  Sola,  who  had  been  elected  delegate  to  the 
imperial  congress.  Argiiello  was  a  native  Californian,  having  been  born  at  the 
presidio  of  San  Francisco  in  1784.  He  was  a  man  of  limited  education,  but  made 
good  use  of  what  he  had.  Like  Sola  he  had  been  a  pronounced  royalist  during 
the  revolution,  but  with  the  downfall  of  Spanish  domination  he  had  submitted 
gracefully  to  the  inevitable. 


The  success  of  the  revolution  was  most  bitterly  disappointing  to  the  mission 
padres.  Through  the  long  years  of  strife  between  Mexico  and  the  mother  coun 
try  they  had  hoped  and  prayed  for  the  triumph  of  Spain.  In  the  downfall  of 
Spanish  domination  and  the  rise  of  Republicanism,  they  read  the  doom  of  their 
feudal  institutions,  the  missions.  On  the  promulgation  of  the  Federal  Constitu 
tion  of  October,  1824,  in  California,  Father  Vicente  de  Serria,  the  president  of 
the  missions — a  Spaniard  and  a  royalist — not  only  refused  to  take  the  oath  of 
allegiance  to  it,  but  also  declined  to  perform  religious  services  in  favor  of  it.  An 
order  was  issued  by  the  Supreme  Government  for  his  arrest ;  but  before  it  reached 
California  he  had  been  superseded  in  the  presidency  by  Father  Narciso  Duran  of 
San  Jose.  A  number  of  the  padres  were  hostile  to  the  Republic  and  evaded 
taking  the  oath  of  allegiance  on  the  ground  of  obedience  to  the  orders  of  their 
Superior.  Their  unfriendly  attitude  to  the  Republic  was  one  of  the  causes  that 
led  to  the  secularization  of  the  missions  a  few  years  later. 

The  Mexican  government,  shortly  after  its  inauguration,  removed  most  of 
the  restrictions  imposed  by  Spain  against  foreigners  settling  in  California  and  the 
colonization  law  of  1824  was  liberal.  The  state  religion  was  the  Roman  Catholic 
and  all  foreigners  who  settled  in  the  country  were  required  to  embrace  it.  During 
Spanish  domination  not  more  than  half  a  dozen  foreigners  had  been  allowed  to 
become  permanent  residents.  The  earliest  English  settler  was  John  Gilroy.  who 
was  left  by  his  vessel  at  Monterey  in  1814.  He  married  a  daughter  of  Ignacio 
Ortega  and  at  one  time  owned  a  large  body  of  land,  but  died  poor.  Joseph  Chap 
man,  the  first  American  settler,  was  one  of  Bouchard's  men,  captured  at  Monterey 
in  1818. 

Beginning  with  Baron  Rezanof's  visit  to  San  Francisco,  in  1806,  for  the 
purpose  of  buying  grain  for  the  starving  Russian  colony  at  Sitka,  the  Russians 
made  frequent  visits  to  the  coast,  partly  to  obtain  supplies,  but  more  for  the  pur 
pose  of  hunting  seal  and  sea  otter.  Their  Aleut  fur  hunters  in  their  bidarkas, 
or  skin  canoes,  killed  otter  in  San  Francisco  bay  and  the  Spaniards,  destitute  of 
boats  or  ships,  were  powerless  to  prevent  them.  In  1812  they  built  a  village  and 
fort  about  18  miles  north  of  Bodega  bay,  which  they  named  Rbss,  and  which 
mounted  ten  cannon.  They  also  maintained  a  port  on  Bodega  bay,  and  a  small 
station  on  Russian  river.  The  Spanish  protested  against  this  invasion  of  terri 
tory  and  threatened  to  drive  out  the  Russians,  but  nothing  came  of  either  their 
protests  or  threats.  The  Russian  ships  came  for  supplies  and  were  welcomed  by 
the  people  and  the  padres,  if  not  by  the  government  officials.  The  Russian  colony 
was  not  a  success,  and  after  the  decline  of  fur  hunting  the  settlement  became 
unprofitable,  and  in  1841,  the  building  and  stock  were  sold  by  the  Russian  gov 
ernor  to  Captain  John  A.  Sutler  for  $30,000.  The  settlement  was  abandoned  and 
the  fort  and  town  have  long  since  fallen  into  ruins. 

Among  the  foreigners  who  came  to  California  soon  after  the  establishment 
of  Mexican  independence  and  became  prominent  in  affairs  may  be  named,  W. 
E.  P.  Hartnell,  Captain  John  R.  Cooper,  William  A.  Richardson,  Daniel  A.  Hill 


and  William  A.  Gale.  William  Edward  Petty  Hartnell  came  from  Lima  as  a 
member  of  the  firm  of  McCullock,  Hartnell  &  Co.,  engaged  in  the  hide  and  tallow 
trade.  Hartnell  was  an  Englishman  by  birth,  well  educated  and  highly  respected. 
He  married  Maria  Teresa  de  la  Gucrra  and  twenty-five  children  were  born  to 
them.  He  died  at  Monterey  in  1859.  William  A.  Gale  came  in  1810  as  a  Bos 
ton  fur  trader.  He  returned  to  the  territory  in  1822  on  the  ship  Sachem,  the 
pioneer  Boston  hide  drogher.  It  brought  to  the  coast  a  number  of  Americans 
who  became  permanent  residents  of  the  country.  California  on  account  of  its 
long  distance  from  the  centers  of  trade  had  but  few  products  for  exchange  that 
would  bear  the  cost  of  transportation.  Its  chief  commodities  for  barter,  during 
the  Mexican  era,  were  hides  and  tallow.  The  vast  range  of  country  adapted  to 
cattle  raising  made  that  its  most  profitable  industry.  After  the  removal  of  the 
restrictions  on  commerce  with  foreigners  by  the  Mexican  government,  a  profitable 
trade  grew  up  between  the  New  England  ship  owners  and  the  California  ranch- 
eros.  Vessels  were  fitted  out  in  Boston  with  a  cargo  of  assorted  goods  suitable 
for  the  trade.  Voyaging  around  Cape  Horn  and  stopping  at  the  various  points 
along  the  coast  they  exchanged  their  stock  of  goods  and  Yankee  "notions"  for 
hides  and  tallow.  It  took  from  two  to  three  years  to  make  the  voyage  out  from 
Boston  and  return,  but  the  profits  on  the  goods  sold  and  on  the  hides  received  in 
exchange  were  so  large  that  these  ventures  paid  handsomely.  Cattle  raising,  up 
to  the  time  of  the  discovery  of  gold  in  1848,  continued  to  be  the  principal  industry 
of  the  country. 

During  the  first  decade  of  republican  rule,  there  was  but  little  change  in  polit 
ical  conditions  or  in  the  views  of  the  people  concerning  the  government.  Mission 
rule  was  still  dominant  and  the  people  were  subservient  to  the  governors  appointed 
over  them.  But  with  the  increase  of  foreigners  and  the  advent  of  ex-revolution 
ists  from  Mexico,  the  old-time  native  California  Loyalists  gradually  became  im 
bued  with  a  kind  of  republicanism  that  transformed  them  into  malcontents,  whose 
protests  against  the  sins  of  governmental  officials  took  the  form  of  pronuncia- 
mentos  and  revolutions. 

The  first  of  the  numerous  revolts  against  the  rule  of  the  governors  appointed 
by  the  Mexican  government  occurred  in  November,  1829.  The  soldiers  at  the 
presidios  for  years  had  received  but  a  small  part  of  their  pay  and  were  but  poorly 
clothed  and  provisioned.  The  garrison  at  Monterey  rebelled  and  seized  and  im 
prisoned  their  officers.  That  at  San  Francisco  followed  their  example.  Under 
the  leadership  of  Joaquin  Solis,  an  ex-revolutionist  of  Mexico  who  had  been  ban 
ished  from  that  country,  they  marched  southward  to  meet  Governor  Echandia, 
who  was  moving  northward  with  a  force  of  about  one  hundred  men  from  San 
Diego,  where  he  had  established  his  capital.  The  two  forces  met  at  Dos  Pueblos, 
near  Santa  Barbara,  and  a  bloodless  battle  ensued.  The  rebellious  "escoltas" 
(militia)  were  pardoned  and  returned  to  duty.  Herrara,  the  deposed  commissary- 
general  ;  Solis,  and  several  other  leaders  were  arrested  and  sent  to  Mexico  to  be 


tried,  for  high  crimes  and  misdemeanor.     On  their  arrival  in  that  land  of  revolu 
tions,  they  were  turned  loose  and  eventually  returned  to  California. 

The  principal  cause  of  the  California  disturbances  was  the  jealousy  and  dis 
like  of  the  "  hijos  del  pais  "  (native  sons)  to  the  Mexican-born  officers  who  were 
appointed  by  the  superior  government  to  fill  the  offices.  Many  of  these  were  ad 
venturers  who  came  to  the  country  to  improve,  their  fortunes  and  were  not  scrupu 
lous  as  to  methods  or  means,  so  that  the  end  was  accomplished. 



MAXL'EL  VICTORIA  succeeded  Echandia  as  gefe  politico  of  Alta  Cali 
fornia  in  January  1831.  Victoria  was  a  soldier,  arbitrary  and  tyrannical, 
and  refused  to  convoke  the  diputacion,  or  territorial  assembly.  From 
the  outset  he  was  involved  in  quarrels  with  the  leading  men  of  the  territory. 
Exile,  imprisonment  and  banishment  were  meted  out  to  small  offences  and  some 
times  for  none  at  all.  At  length  Jose  Antonio  Carrillo  and  Don  Abel  Stearns,  who 
had  been  exiled  to  Lower  California  with  Juan  Bandini  and  Pio  Pico,  residents 
of  San  Diego,  formulated  a  plot  for  the  overthrow  of  Victoria,  and  issued  a 
pronunciamento  arraigning  him  for  misdeeds  and  petty  tyrannies.  The  soldiers 
at  the  presidio,  with  their  Captain,  Portilla,  joined  the  revolt,  and  with  the 
leading  conspirators  and  fifty  men  marched  northward.  At  Los  Angeles  they 
released  the  prisoners  from  the  jail  and  chained  up  instead,  Alcalde  Sanchez,  the 
petty  despot  of  the  pueblo  who  had  been  very  ready  to  carry  out  the  arbitrary 
decrees  of  Victoria. 

The  San  Diego  army,  augmented  by  the  liberated  prisoners  and  volunteers 
from  Los  Angeles,  to  the  number  of  150  men,  marched  out  to  meet  Victoria,  who 
with  a  small  force  was  moving  southward  to  suppress  the  rebellion.  The  two 
armies  met  west  of  Los  Angeles  in  the  Cahuenga  valley.  In  the  fight  that  ensued 
Jose  Maria  Avila,  who  had  been  imprisoned  by  Victoria's  orders  in  the  pueblo 
jail,  charged  single-handed  upon  Victoria.  He  killed  Captain  Pacheco,  of  Vic 
toria's  staff  and  dangerously  wounded  the  governor  himself.  Avila  was  killed  by 
one  of  Victoria's  men.  Victoria's  army  retired  with  the  wounded  governor  to 
San  Gabriel  mission  and  the  revolutionists  retired  to  Los  Angeles.  Next  day, 
the  governor,  who  supposed  himself  mortally  wounded,  abdicated ;  later  he  was  de 
ported  to  Mexico.  Pio  Pico,  senior  vocal  of  the  diputacion,  was  elected  gefe- 
politico  by  that  body,  but  Echandia  on  account  of  his  military  rank,  claimed  the 
office  and  Pico,  for  the  sake  of  peace,  did  not  insist  upon  his  rights. 

Echandia  did  not  long  enjoy  in  peace  the  office  obtained  by  threats.  Captain 
Augustin  V.  Zamorano,  late  secretary  of  the  deposed  Victoria,  raised  an  army  of 


about  one  hundred  men,  some  of  whom  were  cholos,  or  convicts,  which  under  the 
command  of  Captain  Ibarra  marched  southward  and  met  no  opposition  until  it 
reached  El  Paso  de  Bartolo,  on  the  San  Gabriel  river.  Here  Captain  Barrosa,  of 
Echandia's  force,  with  fourteen  men  and  a  piece  of  artillery  stopped  the  onward 
march  of  the  invaders.  Echandia  had  gathered  an  army  of  neophytes,  said  to 
have  been  a  thousand  strong.  On  the  approach  of  this  body,  Ibarra's  men  re 
treated  to  Santa  Barbara.  The  diputacion,  which  was  really  the  only  legal 
authority  in  the  country,  finally  effected  a  compromise  between  the  two  rivals. 
Echandia  was  to  be  recognized  as  military  chief  for  the  country  south  of  San 
Gabriel,  and  Zamorano  for  all  territory  north  of  San  Fernando,  while  Pico, 
who  by  virtue  of  his  rank  as  senior-vocal,  was  the  lawful  governor  was  left 
without  jurisdiction.  After  this  adjustment  there  was  peace. 

On  January  I4th,  1833,  Jose  Figueroa,  "gobernador  proprietario"  of  Alta 
California  by  appointment  of  the  Supreme  government  of  Mexico,  arrived  at 
Monterey.  Zamorano  at  once  turned  over  to  him  whatever  authority  he  had 
and  Echandia  did  the  same.  Figueroa  was  Mexican  born,  of  Aztec  descent, 
and  is  regarded  as  one  of  the  ablest  and  most  efficient  of  our  Mexican  governors. 
He  instituted  a  policy  of  conciliation  and  became  very  popular  with  the  people. 
He  inaugurated  a  number  of  reforms,  especially  in  the  treatment  of  the  neophytes 
and  in  his  attention  to  the  conditions  of  secularization,  which  took  place  during 
his  term  of  office.  Another  important  event  of  this  time  was  the  arrival  of 
the  Hijar  colonists. 

In  1833,  Jose  Maria  Hijar,  a  Mexican  gentleman  of  considerable  property, 
•aided  by  Jose  Maria  Padres,  set  about  organizing  a  scheme  for  the  founding 
•of  an  extensive  colony  in  California.  Each  settler  was  promised  a  ranch  and 
was  to  receive  rations  to  the  amount  of  four  reales  per  day  with  a  certain  amount 
•of  live  stock  and  tools.  All  to  be  repaid  later  from  the  products  of  the  faflm. 
A  corporation  known  as  the  "Compania  Cosmopolitana"  was  organized  for  the 
purpose  of  buying  vessels  and  carrying  on  a  shipping  business  between  Mexico 
;and  California.  About  250  colonists  were  recruited  and  left  the  City  of  Mexico 
for  San  Bias  where  they  were  to  be  given  free  passage.  One  of  the  vessels 
bringing  them  landed  at  San  Diego,  September  ist,  1834,  and  the  other  reached 
Monterey  September  25th. 

Hijar  had  succeeded  in  securing  an  appointment  as  gefe-politico ;  but  after 
his  departure  for  California,  President  Santa  Anna  countermanded  the  order 
and  sent  a  courier  overland  by  the  way  of  Sonora  with  an  order  to  Figueroa 
not  to  give  up  the  governor-ship.  By  one  of  the  most  remarkable  rides  in  his 
tory,  this  courier  reached  Monterey  before  Hijar,  and  delivered  his  message  to 
Governor  Figueroa.  Hijar,  on  his  arrival  at  the  capital  found  himself  shorn 
of  all  authority.  Part  of  the  scheme  of  Hijar  and  Padres  was  the  sub-division 
of  the  mission  property  among  themselves  and  their  colonists.  But  the  revoca- 


tion  of  his  commission  deprived  him  of  his  power  to  enforce  his  plans.  An 
attempt  was  made  to  form  a  settlement  at  San  Francisco  Solano,  but  was  not 
successful  and  many  of  the  colonists  returned  to  Mexico,  while  the  remainder 
were  scattered  throughout  the  territory.  Hijar  and  Padres  were  accused  of  insti 
gating  a  plot  to  overthrow  Figueroa  and  seize  the  mission  property.  They  were 
shipped  out  of  the  country  and  thus  ended  in  disaster  to  the  promoters  the  first 
California  colonization  scheme. 

The  missions  had  been  founded  by  Spain  for  the  purpose  of  converting 
the  Indians  to  the  "holy  faith"  and  transforming  them  into  citizens.  The  natives 
residing  becween  the  Coast  Range  and  the  ocean  from  San  Diego  to  San  Fran 
cisco  had  been  gathered  into  the  different  mission  establishments,  each  of  which 
held  in  possession,  in  trust,  for  its  neophyte  retainers,  large  areas  of  the  most 
fertile  lands  in  the  territory.  This  absorbtion  of  the  public  domain  by  the 
missions  prevented  the  colonization  of  the  country  by  white  settlers. 

The  first  decree  of  secularization  was  passed  by  the  Spanish  Cortes  in  1813; 
but  Spain  was  then  engaged  in  a  death  struggle  with  her  American  colonies 
and  she  had  neither  power  nor  opportunity  to  enforce  it.  In  July,  1830,  the 
territorial  diputacion  adopted  a  plan  of  secularization  formulated  by  Echandia 
in  1828;  but  before  it  could  be  carried  out,  he  was  superseded  by  Victoria  who 
was  a  friend  of  the  padres  and  strongly  opposed  to  secularization.  Governor 
Figueroa  was  instructed  to  examine  into  the  condition  of  the  neophytes  and  re 
port  upon  the  best  method  of  bringing  about  a  gradual  emancipation  of  the 
Indians  from  missionary  rule.  He  visited  some  of  the  older  missions  himself 
and.  after  careful  study,  was  convinced  that  any  general  measure  of  seculariza 
tion  would  be  disastrous  to  the  neophytes.  A  few  might  be  given  their  liberty 
and  entrusted  with  property ;  but  the  great  mass  of  them  were  incapable  of  self- 
government  or  self  support. 

In  the  meantime,  the  Mexican  Congress,  without  waiting  for  information 
from  Figueroa  as  to  the  advisability  of  the  step,  ordered  the  immediate  emancipa 
tion  of  the  neophytes.  August  I7th.  1833,  a  decree  was  passed  ordering  the 
secularization  of  all  the  missions.  It  was  provided  that  each  mission  should 
constitute  a  parish,  served  by  a  priest,  or  curate,  who  should  be  paid  a  salary. 
The  Franciscans  and  Dominicans  who  had  taken  the  oath  of  allegiance  to  the 
republic  were  to  return  to  their  colleges  or  monasteries ;  while  those  who  refused 
to  take  the  oath  of  allegiance  were  to  quit  the  country.  The  expense  of  putting 
the  decree  into  operation  was  to  be  paid  out  of  the  "Pious  Fund."  The  Pious 
Fund  of  California  was  made  up  of  contributions  for  the  founding  and  main 
tenance  of  missions  in  the  Californias.  It  was  begun  for  the  benefit  of  the 
missions  of  Lower  California,  in  1697,  and  increased  until  it  amounted  to  one 
and  a  half  million  dollars,  in  1842.  It  was  confiscated  by  the  Mexican  govern 
ment  ;  but  after  long  litigation  the  money  was  finally  awarded  to  the  Catholic 
church  of  California  by  the  Hague  Tribunal  in  1902. 


Figueroa  and  the  territorial  diputacion,  under  instructions  from  the  Su 
preme  Government,  June  31,  1834,  adopted  a  plan  for  the  secularization  of  the 
missions  and  the  colonization  of  the  neophytes  into  pueblos.  Each  head  of  a 
'family  was  to  receive  from  the  mission  lands  a  lot  not  more  than  500  nor  less 
than  looo  varas  square.  One  half  of  the  cattle  and  one  half  of  the  farming- 
implements  and  seed  grains  were  to  be  divided  pro  rata  among  those  receiving 
lands  for  cultivation.  Out  of  the  proceeds  of  the  remaining  property  which  was 
to  be  placed  under  a  major  domo,  the  salaries  of  the  administrator  and  the 
priest  in  charge  of  the  church  were  to  be  paid.  No  one  could  sell  or  incumber 
his  land  nor  slaughter  cattle — except  for  subsistence.  The  government  of  the 
Indian  pueblo  was  to  be  administered  the  same  as  that  of  the  other  pueblos  in  the 
territory.  Before  the  plan  of  the  diputacion  had  been  promulgated,  Figueroa 
had  experimented  with  the  neophytes  of  the  San  Juan  Capistrano  mission  and  a 
pueblo  had  been  organized  there.  For  a  time  it  promised  to  be  a  success  but 
ended  in  a  failure. 

For  years  the  threat  of  secularization  had  hung  over  the  missions,  but  here 
tofore  something  had  always  occurred  to  avert  it.  When  it  became  evident  that 
the  blow  would  fall,  the  missionaries  determined  to  save  something  for  them 
selves.  There  were,  on  the  various  mission  ranges,  in  1833,  nearly  half  a 
million  head  of  cattle.  San  Gabriel,  the  richest  of  the  .missions,  had  over  fifty 
thousand  head.  Thousands  of  these  were  slaughtered  on  shares  for  their  hides 
alone  and  the  carcasses  left  on  the  ground  to  rot.  So  terrible  was  the 
stench  arising  that  the  ayuntamiento  of  Los  Angeles,  in  1834.  passed  an  ordinance 
compelling  every  one  slaughtering  cattle  for  the  hides  to  cremate  the  carcasses. 
The  diputacion  finally  issued  a  reglamento  prohibiting  the  wholesale  destruction 
of  the  mission  cattle.  What  remained  of  the  mission  property  was  inventoried 
by  commissioners  appointed  by  the  governor  and  a  certain  portion  distributed  to 
the  Indians  of  the  pueblo  into  which  the  missions  had  been  converted.  The 
property  was  soon  wasted;  for  the  Indian  wns  improvident  and  indolent  and 
took  no  thought  for  the  morrow.  His  property  soon  passed  out  of  his  hands 
and  he  became  virtually  the  slave  of  the  white  man. 

Governor  Figueroa  died  at  San  Juan  Bautista,  September  29,  1835  and 
was  buried  in  the  mission  church  at  Santa  Barbara,  with  much  ceremony.  He 
was  called  the  "Benefactor  of  California."  Before  his  death,  he  had  resigned  his 
political  command  to  Jose  Castro,  primer-vocal  of  the  diputacion.  who  held  the 
office  for  four  months.  By  order  of  the  Supreme  Government,  he  delivered  it 
over  to  Col.  Nicholas  Guiterrez,  who  held  the  military  command  of  the  terri 
tory,  until  the  arrival  in  May,  1836,  of  Mariano  Chico,  the  regularly  appointed 
"gobernador  proprietario."  Chico  was  a  man  of  inordinate  self-conceit  and  of 
but  little  common  sense.  He  very  soon  secured  the  ill-will  of  the  Californians. 
Shortly  before  his  arrival  a  vigilance  committee,  or  as  it  was  called  by  its  or 
ganizers,  "  Junta  Defensora  de  la  Seguridad  Publica,"  the  first  ever  formed 



in  the  territory,  had  taken  from  the  legal  authorities  at  Los  Angeles,  two  criminals, 
under  arrest  for  the  murder  of  the  woman's  husband,  and  had  executed  them  by 
shooting  them  to  death.  This  violation  of  law  greatly  enraged  Governor  Chico 
and  one  of  his  first  acts  on  taking  office  was  to  send  Col.  Guiterrez  with  troops 
to  Los  Angeles  to  punish  the  vigilantes.  Victor  Prudon,  the  president  of  the 
Junta  Defensora,  Manuel  Argaza,  the  secretary,  and  Francisco  Aranjo,  the 
military  officer  who  had  commanded  the  members  of  the  Junta,  were  arrested 
and  committed  to  prison  until  such  time  as  the  governor  could  come  to  Los 
Angeles  and  try  them.  He  came  in  June  and  after  heaping  abuse  and  threats 
upon  them,  finally  pardoned  the  three  leaders  of  the  "Defenders  of  Public 
Security."  Then  he  quarreled  with  Manuel  Requena,  the  alcalde  of  Los  Angeles, 
who  had  opposed  the  vigilantes,  and  threatened  to  imprison  him.  He  returned 
to  Monterey  where  he  was  soon  afterward  involved  in  a  disgraceful  scandal 
which  ended  in  his  placing  the  alcalde  of  that  town  under  arrest.  The  people, 
disgusted  with  him.  arose  en  masse  assuming  a  threatening  attitude.  Alarmed 
for  his  safety,  Chico  took  passage  for  Mexico  and  California  was  rid  of  him,  after 
three  months  of  his  rule.  Before  his  departure  he  turned  over  the  political  and 
military  command  of  the  territory  to  Col.  Gutierrez. 

Gutierrez,  like  Chico, 
was  a  man  of  violent  tem 
per.  It  was  not  long  be 
fore  he  was  involved  in  a 
quarrel  that  eventually 
put  an  end  to  his  official 
career.  In  his  investiga 
tion  of  governmental  af 
fairs  at  Monterey,  he 
charged  fraud  against 
Angel  Ramirez,  the  ad 
ministrator,  and  Juan 
Bautista  Alvarado,  the 
auditor,  of  the  custom 
house.  Volleys  of  words 
were  fired  by  both  sides 

and  Gutierrez  threatened  to  put  the  two  officials  in  irons.  This  was  an  insult  that 
Alvarado,  young,  proud  and  hot-blooded,  could  not  endure  in  silence.  He  left  the 
capital  and  with  Jose  Castro,  at  San  Juan,  began  preparations  for  a  revolt  against 
the  governor.  His  quarrel  with  Gutierrez  w?s  not  the  sole  cause  of  his  fomenting 
a  revolution.  He  was  president  of  the  diputacion  and  the  governor  had  treated 
that  body  with  disrespect,  or  at  least,  the  members,  of  whom  Castro  was  one, 
so  claimed.  General  Vallejo  was  invited  to  take  command  of  the  revolutionary 
movement  but,  while  he  sympathized  with  the  cause,  he  did  not  enlist  in  it. 




News  of  the  projected  uprising  spread  rapidly.  Castro  and  Alvarado  with 
out  much  effort  soon  collected  an  army  of  seventy-five  Californians.  They  also 
secured  the  services  of  an  auxiliary  force  of  twenty-five  Americans — hunters  and 
trappers — under  the  command  of  Graham,  a  backwoodsman  from  Tennessee. 
With  this  force  they  marched  to  Monterey,  and  by  a  strategetic  movement  cap 
tured  the  Castillo.  The  revolutionists  demanded  the  surrender  of  the  presidio 
and  the  arms.  Upon  the  refusal  of  the  governor  a  shot  from  the  cannon  of  the 
Castillo  crashed  through  the  roof  of  the  comandante's  house  and  scattered 
Gutierrez  and  his  staff.  This — and  the  desertion  of  most  of  his  soldiers — brought 
the  governor  to  terms.  November  5,  1836,  he  surrendered  the  presidio  and  re 
signed  his  office.  With  about  seventy  of  his  adherents,  he  was  placed  on  board  a 
vessel  in  the  harbor  and  a  few  days  later  departed  for  Mexico. 



THE   Mexican  governor  having  been  expelled,  the  diputacion,  which  was 
composed  of  hijos  del  pais,   was   called  together  and  a  plan    for  the 
independence  of  California  was   formulated.     This  plan   declared   that 
"  California  is  erected  into  a  free  and  sovereign  state,  establishing  a  congress 
which  shall  pass  all  special  laws  of  the  country,  also  assume  the  other  necessary 
i  supreme    powers."     The    diputacion    issued    a   de 

claration  of  independence  which  arraigned  the 
mother  country,  Mexico,  for  sins  of  commission 
and  omission ;  and  Castro  promulgated  a  pro- 
nunciamento  ending  with  a  ''  Viva  for  El 
Estado  Libre  y  Soberano  de  Alta  California." 
(The  Free  and  Sovereign  State  of  Alta  California.) 
Amid  the  vivas  and  the  pronunciamentos,  with  the 
beating  of  drums  and  the  roar  of  cannon,  the  state 
of  Alta  California  was  launched  on  the  political 
;-ea.  The  revolutionists  soon  found  that  it  was 
easy  enough  to  declare  the  state  free;  but  quite 
another  matter  to  make  it  free. 

For  years  there  had  been  a  growing  jealousy 
between  northern  and  southern  California.  Los 
Angeles,  through  the  efforts  of  Jose  Antonio 

Carrillo  had,  by  the  decree  of  the  Mexican  congress  in  May,  1835,  been  raised 
to  the  dignity  of  a  city  and  made  the  capital  of  the  territory.     In  the  movement 



to  make  California  a  free  and  independent  state,  the  Angelenos  recognized  an 
attempt  to  deprive  their  city  of  its  honor.  Although  as  bitterly  opposed  to 
Mexican  governors  and  as  actively  engaged  in  fomenting  revolutions  against 
them  as  the  people  of  Monterey,  they  chose  at  this  time  to  profess  loyalty  to 
the  mother  country.  They  opposed  the  Monterey  plan  of  government  and 
formulated  one  of  their  own,  in  which  they  declared  that  California  was  not 
free  and  that  they  would  obey  the  laws  of  the  Supreme  government  only. 

Alvarado  had  been  made  governor  by  the  diputacion  and  Castro 
comandante  general  of  the  army  of  the  Free  State.  They  determined  to  sup 
press  the  recalcitrant  surenos  (southerners).  They  collected  an  army  of  eighty 
natives,  obtained  the  assistance  of  Graham  with  his  American  riflemen,  and 
marched  southward.  The  ayuntamiento  of  Los  Angeles  had  organized  an  army 
of  270,  partly  neophytes,  which  was  stationed  at  the  Mission  San  Fernando. 
Before  the  northern  troops  reached  the  mission,  commissioners  from  Los 
Angeles  met  them  and  a  treaty  of  peace  was  patched  up.  Alvarado 
with  his  troops  arrived  in  Los  Angeles  January  23rd,  1837,  and  was  received 
with  expressions  of  friendship.  An  extraordinary  meeting  of  the  ayuntamiento 
was  called ;  Pio  Pico  expressed  the  great  pleasure  it  gave  him  to  see  a  "  hijo 
del  pais  "  in  office  and  Antonio  Osio,  one  of  the  most  belligerent  of  the  south 
erners,  declared  that,  "  sooner  than  again  submit  to  a  Mexican  governor,  or 
dictator,  he  would  flee  to  the  forest  and  be  devoured  by  wild  beasts."  Alvarado 
made  a  conciliatory  speech  and  an  agreement  was  entered  into  to  support  the 
"  .Monterey  plan,"  with  Alvarado  as  governor  pro  tempore,  until  the  Supreme 
government  should  decide  the  question.  Quiet  reigned  in  the  south  for  a  few 
months.  Then  San  Diego  formulated  a  plan  of  government  and  the  standard 
of  revolt  was  again  raised.  The  San  Diego  "  plan "  restored  California  to 
allegiance  to  the  Supreme  government  and  the  officials  at  San  Diego  and  Los 
Angeles  took  the  oath  to  obey  the  constitution  of  1836;  this,  in  their  opinion, 
absolved  them  from  obedience  to  Juan  Bautista  Alvarado  and  his  "  Free  State." 

In  October  came  the  news  that  Carlos  Carrillo  of  Santa  Barbara  had  been 
appointed  governor  by  the  Supreme  government.  Then  consternation  seized 
the  "  Free  State  "  men  of  the  north  and  the  surenos  of  Los  Angeles  went  wild 
with  joy.  They  invited  Carrillo  to  make  Los  Angeles  his  capital — an  invitation 
which  he  accepted.  December  6th  was  set  for  his  inuaguration  and  great 
preparations  were  made  for  the  event.  Cards  of  invitation  were  issued  asking 
the  people  to  come  to  the  inauguration  "  dressed  as  decent  as  possible."  A 
grand  ball  was  held  in  the  governor's  palacio — the  house  of  widow  Josefa 
Alvarado,  the  finest  in  the  city.  Cannon  boomed  on  the  old  plaza,  bonfires 
blazed  in  the  streets  and  the  city  was  illuminated  for  three  nights.  Los  Angeles 
was  at  last  a  real  capital  and  had  a  governor  all  to  herself. 

Alvarado  and  Castro,  with  an  army,  came  down  from  the  north  determined 


to  subjugate  the  troublesome  southerners.  A  battle  was  fought  at  San  Buena 
ventura.  For  two  days  cannon  volleyed  and  thundered — at  intervals.  One 
man  was  killed  and  several  mustangs  died  for  their  country.  The  "  surenos  " 
were  defeated  and  their  leaders  captured  and  sent  as  prisoners  of  state  to  Vallejos' 
bastile  at  Sonoma.  Los  Angeles,  Carrillo's  capital,  was  captured  by  Alvarado. 
Carrillo  rallied  his  demoralized  army  at  Las  Flores.  Another  battle  was  fought — 
or  rather  a  few  shots  were  fired  at  long  range — which  hurt  no  one.  Carillo 
surrendered  and  was  sent  home  to  his  wife  at  Santa  Barbara — who  became 
surety  for  his  future  good  behavior.  Alvarado  was  now  the  acknowledged 
governor  of  El  Estado  Libre  de  Alta  California ;  but  the  "  Free  State  "  had 
ceased  to  exist.  Months  before  Alvarado  had  made  his  peace  with  the  Supreme 
government  by  taking  the  oath  of  allegiance  to  Mexico,  thus  restoring  California 
to  the  rule  of  the  mother  country.  In  November,  1838,  Alvarado  received  his 
formal  appointment  as  "  gobernador  interino  "  of  California,  or  rather  of  the 
Californias;  for  under  the  new  constitution  creating  twenty- four  departments 
instead  of  states,  the  two  Californias  constituted  one  department. 

In  the  internecine  wars  and  in  their  revolts  against  the '  Mexican  gov 
ernors,  the  Californias  invoked  the  aid  of  a  power  that  would  not  down  at  their 
bidding — that  was  the  assistance  of  the  foreigners.  Zamorano  in  his  contest 
with  Echandia  was  the  first  to  enlist  the  foreign  contingent.  Next  Alvarado 
secured  the  offices  of  Graham  and  his  riflemen  to  help  in  the  expulsion  of 
Gutierrez.  In  his  invasion  of  the  south  he  and  Castro  again  called  in  the 
foreign  element  headed  by  Graham  and  Coppinger.  Indeed  the  fear  of  the 
American  riflemen,  who  made  up  the  larger  part  of  Graham's  force,  was  the 
most  potent .  factor  in  bringing  the  south  to  terms.  These  hunters  and  trappers, 
with  their  long  Kentucky  rifles,  shot  to  kill  and  any  battle  in  which  they  took 
part  would  not  be  a  bloodless  affair. 

After  Alvarado  had  been  confirmed  in  his  office,  he  would  gladly  have  rid 
himself  of  his  allies.  But  they  would  not  be  shaken  off  and  were  importunate 
in  their  demands  for  the  recognition  of  their  services.  There  were  rumors  that 
the  foreigners  were  plotting  to  overthrow  the  government  and  revolutionize 
California,  as  had  already  been  clone  in  Texas.  Alvarado  issued  secret  orders 
to  arrest  a  number  of  foreigners  whom  he  had  reason  to  fear.  About  one 
hundred  were  arrested  during  the  month  of  April,  7840.  and  forty-seven  were 
sent  as  prisoners  in  irons  to  San  Bias.  The  others  were  released.  The 
prisoners,  who  were  about  equally  divided  in  nationality  between  Americans  and 
Englishmen,  were  confined  in  prison  at  Tepic.  Here  the  British  consul,  Barren, 
was  instrumental  in  securing  their  release — the  American  consul  being  absent. 
The  Mexican  government  paid  them  damages  for  their  imprisonment  and  fur 
nished  those  who  had  a  legal  right  to  residence  in  California  with  transpor- 



tation  to  Monterey,  where  they  landed  in  July,   1841,  better  dressed  and  with 
more  money  than  when  they  were  sent  away. 

An  important  event  during  Alvarado's  rule  was  the  capture  of  Monterey, 
October  igth,  1842,  by  Commodore  Thomas  ap  Catesby  Jones,  commander  of 
the  United  States  forces  of  the  Pacific.  Jones,  who  was  cruising  in  the  south 
Pacific,  learning  that  Admiral  Thomas,  in  command  of  the  English  squad 
ron  of  the  Pacific,  had  sailed  out  of  Callao  under  sealed  orders,  suspected 
that  the  Admiral's  orders  were  to  seize  California.  Knowing  that  war  was 
imminent  between  Mexico  and  the  United  States,  Jones  determined  to  take 
possession  of  California  for  the  United  States,  if  he  could  reach  it  before  the 
English  admiral  did.  Crowding  on  all  sail,  he  arrived  at  Monterey  October 
igth  and  immediately  demanded  the  surrender  of  California,  both  Upper  and 
Lower,  to  the  United  States  government.  He  gave  Governor  Alvarado  until 
nine  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  2Oth  to  decide  on  his  course.  Alvarado  had 
been  already  superseded  by  Micheltorena,  who  was  then  somewhere  in  the 
neighborhood  of  Los  Angeles,  and  at  first  decided  to  shirk  the  responsibility 
of  surrender  by  leaving  the  town ;  but  he  was  dissuaded  from  this  step.  The 
terms  were  agreed  upon  and  at  ten  o'clock  the  next  morning  150  sailors  and 
marines  disembarked,  took  possession  of  the  fort,  lowered  the  Mexican  flag 
and  raised  the  American  colors.  The  officers  and  soldiers  of  the  California 
government  were  discharged  and  their  guns  and  arms  taken  into  possession  by 
the  United  States  troops,  and  carried  into  the  fort.  On  the  2ist,  at  four  p.  m., 
the  flags  again  changed  places — the  fort  and  arms  were  restored  to  their  former 
claimants.  Commodore  Jones  had  learned  from  some  Mexican  newspapers 
found  in  the  captured  fort  that  war  did  not  yet  exist  between  the  two  republics. 


'•£K~-  •v,,-"' 



FOR  some  time  ill  feeling  had  been  growing  between  Governor  Alvarado- 
and   the  comandante  general,   M.   G.   Vallejo.     Each  had   sent  commis 
sions   to  the   Supreme  government  to  present  his  side  of  the   quarrel. 
The    Supreme    government   finally    decided    to    combine    the    civil    and    military 
offices  in  the  person  of  a  Mexican  officer,  and  on  January  22nd,  1842,  Manuel 

Micheltorena,  who  had  seen  service  with  the  Santa 
Anna  in  Texas,  was  appointed  to  this  office.  He 
was  to  be  provided  with  a  sufficient  number  of 
troops  to  prevent  the  intrusion  of  foreigners — parti 
cularly  Americans — into  California.  The  large 
force  promised  him  finally  dwindled  down  to  300 
convicts,  known  as  cholos,  who  were  released  from 
Mexican  prisons  on  condition  that  they  serve  in  the 

Governor  Micheltorena  had  landed  with  his 
ragged  cholos  at  San  Diego,  in  August,  and  was 
leisurely  marching  northward  to  the  capital.  On 
the  night  of  October  24th,  he  had  arrived  at  a 
point  twenty  miles  north  of  San  Fernando  when 
news  reached  him  of  the  capture  of  Monterey  by 
Commodore  Jones.  The  valiant  commander  and 
his  cholos  retreated  to  San  Fernando  where  they 

remained  until  they  learned  of  the  restoration  of  Monterey  to  the  Californians. 
Then  they  fell  back  to  Los  Angeles.  Here,  January  2Oth,  1843,  Commodore 
Jones  had  a  conference  with  the  governor  who  made  some  exorbitant  demands, 
among  others  that  the  United  States  government  should  pay  $15,000  to  Mexico 
for  the  expense  incurred  in  the  general  alarm  and  for  a  set  of  musical  instru 
ments  lost  in  the  retreat,  and  also  replace  1,500  uniforms  ruined  in  the  violent 
march.  Commodore  Jones  did  not  deign  an  answer  to  these  ridiculous 
demands ;  and  Micheltorena  did  not  insist  upon  them.  The  conference  closed 
with  a  grand  ball — and  all  parties  were  pacified. 

Micheltorena  took  the  oath  of  office  at  Los  Angeles,  December  3ist,  1842. 
Speeches  were  made,  salutes  were  fired  and  the  city  was  illuminated  for  three 
nights.  With  his  Falstaffian  army,  the  governor  remained  at  Los  Angeles  until 
mid-summer.  The  Angelerios  had,  for  years,  contended  with  the  people  of 
Monterey  for  the  capital  and  had  gone  to  war  to  gain  it.  Now  that  they  had 

OEX.     M.     G.    VALL.EJO. 


the  coveted  prize,  they  would  gladly  have  parted  with  it  if,  by  so  doing,  they 
could  rid  themselves  of  Micheltorena's  thieving  soldiers.  The  men  were  not 
altogether  to  blame,  as  their  pay  was  long  in  arrears  and  they  received  but 
scant  supplies  of  clothing  or  rations.  It  was  a  case  of  steal,  or  starve — and 
they  stole. 

In  August  Micheltorena  and  his  cholo  contingent  reached  Monterey.  The 
Californians  did  not  welcome  the  Mexican  governor  very  heartily. 

While  indolent  and  vacillating,  he  was  a  man  of  considerable  ability,  and 
began  his  rule  with  the  intention  of  improving  conditions  in  California. 
Education  had  been  sadly  neglected  both  under  Spanish  and  Mexican  domina 
tion.  One  of  his  first  attempts  was  to  establish  a  public  school  system.  Five 
hundred  dollars  was  apportioned  from  the  public  funds  for  the  maintenance  of 
schools  in  each  of  the  larger  towns  and  arrangements  were  made  for  the  opening 
of  several  schools  for  girls.  Heretofore  the  public  schools  had  been  open  only 
to  boys.  What  was  left  of  the  mission  estates  was  restored  to  the  Padres  and 
an  earnest  effort  was  made  to  reconcile  sectional  animosity,  but  with  all  of  his 
efforts  to  be  just  and  better  the  condition  of  California,  there  was  still  an 
undercurrent  of  hostility  to  him.  Part  of  this  was  due  to  the  thieving  of  his 
convict  soldiers ;  but  a  more  potent  cause  was  the  ambition  of  certain  "  hijos 
del  pais  "  to  rule  the  territory.  They  blamed  the  governor  for  retaining  his 
cholos  in  the  country,  claiming  that  they  were  kept  for  the  purpose  of  subjugat 
ing,  or  terrorizing,  the  natives. 

The  appointment  of  Micheltorena  to  fill  both  the  civil  and  military  offices 
was  a  bitter  disappointment  to  Alvarado  and  Vallejo.  They  were  not  long  in 
discovering  that  much  as  they  hated  each  other,  they  hated  the  Mexican  worse. 
They  buried  the  hatchet  and  combined  with  Castro  to  do  what  the  trio  had 
done  before — drive  the  Mexican  governor  out  of  the  country.  The  depredations 
of  the  cholos  had  so  embittered  the  people  that  they  were  ready  to  join  the 
standard  of  anyone  who  would  head  a  revolution.  On  November  I5th,  1844, 
a  meeting  of  the  leaders  of  the  dissatisfied  was  held  at  Alvarado's  Rancho  de 
Aliso,  and  a  pronunciamento  against  Micheltorena  was  issued. 

Alvarado  and  Castro  headed  a  body  of  revolutionists,  numbering  about 
thirty,  who  moved  northward  to  San  Jose,  where  they  were  largely  reinforced. 
Micheltorena  set  out  in  pursuit  of  them ;  after  some  maneuvering,  a  treaty  was 
finally  effected  between  the  belligerents.  Micheltorena  pledged  his  word  of 
honor  to  send  back  to  Mexico,  within  three  months,  his  vicious  soldiers  and 
officers;  while  Alvarado  and  Castro,  on  their  part,  agreed  to  go  into  winter 
quarters  at  San  Jose,  with  their  troops,  who  were  to  constitute  the  military  force 
of  the  territory  after  the  departure  of  the  convict  soldiers.  Micheltorena 
returned  to  Monterey,  but  the  censure  of  his  officers  for  the  surrender  caused 
him  to  break  his  word  and  secretly  plot  for  the  capture  of  the  insurgents.  He 


secured  the  aid  of  Captain  John  A.  Sutter,  a  Swiss  gentleman,  who  had  an 
establishment  at  New  Helvcetia,  now  Sacramento,  and  a  company  of  Indians 
drilled  in  military  maneuvers  and  the  use  of  arms.  Beside  his  Indians,  Sutter 
secured  for  Micheltorena  the  services  of  a  number  of  foreigners,  mostly  Amer 
icans.  Alvarado  and  Castro  learned  of  the  perfidy  of  Micheltorena  through 
the  capture  of  one  of  his  messengers  with  a  letter  to  Sutter.  Not  being  prepared 
to  sustain  an  attack  from  the  combined  forces  of  Micheltorena  and  Sutter,  they 
hurriedly  broke  camp  at  San  Jose  and  with  a  portion  of  their  force  marched 
to  Los  Angeles  where  they  arrived,  January  21  st,  1845.  They  endeavored  to 
fire  the  southern  heart  against  the  governor,  but  the  old  animosity  was  as  strong 
as  ever  and  the  southerners  regarded  with  suspicion  the  friendly  advances  of 
their  old  enemies.  The  Pico  brothers  were  finally  won  over  and  Pio  Pico,  who 
was  primer-vocal,  of  the  "  junta  departmental  "  or  assembly,  called  that  body 
together,  to  meet  at  Los  Angeles,  on  January  28th.  It  declared  Micheltorena 
a  traitor  to  the  country  who  must  be  deposed. 

Sutter  with  his  force  numbering  about  two  hundred  men,  one  hundred  of 
whom  were  Indians,  joined  Micheltorena  at  Salinas  early  in  January.  The 
combined  forces — about  four  hundred — began  a  leisurely  march  to  the  south. 
The  fear  of  a  raid  by  Micheltorena's  cholos  and  Slitter's  Indians  had  stimulated 
recruiting  in  the  south,  and  Castro  and  Pico  soon  found  themselves  at  the  head 
of  about  four  hundred  men.  A  commission  from  Los  Angeles  met  the  governor 
at  Santa  Barbara  on  Feburary  7th  with  propositions  for  a  settlement  of  the 
difficulty.  He  treated  the  commission  with  scant  respect  and  offered  but  one 
condition — unconditional  surrender  of  the  rebels. 

A  week  later  the  departmental  assembly  met  at  Los  Angeles  and  passed 
resolutions  deposing  Micheltorena  and  appointing  Pio  Pico  temporary  governor. 
In  the  meantime,  disgusted  with  Micheltorena's  slow  movements,  about  half 
of  the  foreigners  in  his  army  deserted.  Micheltorena's  army  moving  clown  by 
way  of  Encinas,  and  Castro's  forces  advancing  from  Los  Angeles,  met  on  the 
Cahuenga  plain.  Artillery  firing  began  at  long  range  and  thus  continued  all 
day.  The  foreigners  in  the  respective  armies  got  together  in  a  ravine  during 
the  fight  and  agreed  to  let  the  Mexicans  and  Californians  settle  their  dispute 
in  their  own  way. 

Toward  evening,  Micheltorena  undertook  to  make  a  flank  movement  and 
marched  his  troops  to  the  eastward,  evidently  intending  to  follow  the  river 
down  to  the  city.  Castro  and  Alvarado  moved  back  through  the  Cahuenga 
Pass  and  again  encountered  the  opposing  force  at  the  Yerdugo  rancho.  A  few 
cannon  shots  were  fired  when  Micheltorena  displayed  a  white  flag  in  token  of 
surrender.  Terms  of  capitulation  were  drawn  up  by  which  he  and  his  convict 
army  were  to  be  sent  back  to  Mexico.  Pio  Pico  was  recognized  as  temporary 
governor  and  Castro  was  made  comandante  general  of  the  miltary  force.  As 


a  sedative  to  his  military  pride,  Micheltorena  was  granted  permission  to  march 
his  army  to  San  Pedro  with  all  the  honors  of  war,  taking  with  them  their  three 
pieces  of  artillery,  but  the  guns  were  to  be  given  up  at  the  embarcadero.  The 
governor  and  his  soldiers  were  sent  to  Monterey  and  there,  joined  by  the 
garrison  that  had  been  stationed  at  the  capital,  all  were  sent  to  San  Bias, 
Mexico.  Captain  Sutter  was  taken  prisoner  during  the  battle  and  was  held 
under  arrest  for  some  time  after  the  departure  of  Micheltorena.  He  was  at 
length  released  and  allowed  to  return,  with  his  Indians,  by  way  of  Tejon  Pass 
and  the  Tulares,  to  New  Helvetia. 

Pio  Pico,  by  virtue  of  his  position  as  senior  vocal  of  the  assembly,  became 
governor,  and  Castro,  in  accordance  with  the  treaty  of  Cahuenga,  was  comand- 
ante  general.  Alvarado  was  made  administrator  of  the  custom  house  in  Monte 
rey.  Thus  the  "  hijos  del  pais  "  were  once  more  a  power  and  the  factional  fight 
between  the  "  uppers  "  and  the  "  lowers  "  was  once  more  declared  off.  Pico 
established  his  government  at  Los  Angeles  and  that  "  ciudad,"  ten  years  after 
the  Mexican  congress  had  decreed  it  the  capital,  became  the  seat  of  governmnet. 
Castro  established  his  military  headquarters  at  Monterey  and  Jose  Antonio 
Carrillo,  one  of  the  leaders  of  the  "  lowers,"  was  made  comandante  of  the  military 
in  the  south.  Pico  began  his  rule  with  a  desire  to  benefit  the  territory.  He 
might  have  succeeded,  had  he  been  able  to  control  the  discordant  factions. 

As  has  been  previously  stated,  Micheltorena  restored,  as  far  as  possible, 
the  mission  property  to  the  Padres ;  but  it  was  impossible  to  establish  the  old 
order — even  on  a  small  scale.  The  few  Indians  remaining  at  the  missions 
were  unmanageable.  Through  the  neglect  or  incompetency  of  the  administra- 
dors,  debts  had  been  incurred  and  creditors  were  importunate.  The  Padres 
in  charge  were  mostly  old  men,  unable  to  cope  with  the  difficulties  that  beset 
them  on  every  side.  Pico,  with  the  concurrence  of  the  junta,  decided  to  make 
a  change  in  the  mission  policy.  In  June,  1845,  ne  issued  a  decree,  warning  the 
Indians  at  San  Rafael,  Soledacl,  San  Miguel  and  Purisima  to  return  to  their 
respective  missions.  Failing  to  do  so,  they  were  to  be  declared  vagrants  and 
punished  as  such.  At  Carmel,  San  Juan  Bautista,  San  Juan  Capistrano  anfl 
Solano,  where  pueblos  had  been  established,  the  church  and  the  curate's  home 
were  to  be  reserved  and  the  balance  of  the  property  sold  at  auction  to  pay  the 
debts  of  the  missions.  The  abctndoned  missions  and  the  mission  pueblos  before 
mentioned  were  sold  in  December,  1845,  and  ten  of  the  missions  were  rented 
for  a  term  of  nine  years.  The  proceeds  of  the  sale  were  to  be  used  for  the 
benefit  of  the  Indians  and  the  support  of  the  Padres.  In  those  rented, 
the  Indians  were  at  liberty  to  remain  in  the  service  of  the  lessees.  A 
portion  of  the  proceeds  were  to  be  used  for  the  support  of  religious 
services.  The  change  brought  no  improvement  in  the  condition  of 
the  neophytes.  They  sank  still  lower  in  degradation,  while  the  mis- 



sions,  deprived  of  income  and  of  power,  ceased  to  exist.  Notwithstanding 
Pico's  efforts  to  conciliate  the  discordant  elements,  it  soon  became  evident  that 
the  old  spirit  of  turbulence  was  still  dominant.  The  first  insurrectionary  move 
ment  originated  with  Jose  Antonio  Carillo,  Pico's  own  brother-in-law.  This 
was  suppressed  and  Carillo  and  Vareles,  one  of  his  auxiliaries,  were  shipped  to 
Mexico  for  trial;  but  were  released  and  returned  to  California.  Castro  ignored 
Pico  in  milittary  affairs  and  soon  a  bitter  quarrel  was  on  between  the  gefe 
politico  and  the  comandante  general. 

For  a  number  of  years  there  had  been  a  steady 
influx  of  foreigners — mostly  Americans.  Many  of 
them  had  married  into  prominent  families  and  had 
become  by  naturalization,  Mexican  citizens.  In  1841, 
the  first  train  of  immigrants  arrived  in  California 
overland.  The  immigration  over  the  plains  contin 
ued  to  increase  after  this.  The  leading  Californians 
saw  that  it  was  their  manifest  destiny  to  become  a 
territory  of  the  United  States.  Texas  had  been 
wrested  from  Mexico  by  the  same  foreign  element 
that  was  now  invading  California.  Early  in  1846, 
Castro  called  a  junta  of  his  officers  at  Monterey. 
This  council  issued  a  pronunciamento  declaring  hos 
tility  to  the  United  States  and  the  members  pledged 
themselves  to  defend  the  honor  of  the  Mexican  na 
tion  against  the  perfidious  attacks  of  its  rivals — the 
North  Americans.  In  this  council.  Pico  had  been 
ignored  and  the  hostile  feelings  between  the  political  and  military  chiefs  grew 
more  bitter.  Pico  had  been  appointed  constitutional  governor  by  President  Her- 
rera  and,  April  i8th,  1846,  in  the  presence  of  the  territorial  assembly  and  a  large 
concourse  of  people  gathered  at  Los  Angeles,  he  took  the  oath  of  office. 

Castro  and  his  associates  were  soon  to  be  given  an  opportunity  to  test  their 
courage  in  the  defence  of  Mexican  honor  against  the  attacks  of  the  perfidious 
North  Americans.  Lieutenant  John  C.  Fremont,  who  had  previously  led  two 
expeditions  through  the  Rocky  mountains,  Oregon  and  California,  in  January, 
1846,  arrived  in  California.  His  company  numbered  sixty-two  men,  scientists, 
guides  and  servants.  These  he  left  encamped  in  the  Tulare  county,  east  of  the 
coast  range,  while  he  repaired  to  Monterey  to  secure  some  needed  supplies  and 
to  explain  his  presence.  As  the  expedition  was  scientific  in  its  object  and  Fre 
mont  expressed  his  intention  of  proceeding  to  Oregon  as  soon  as  his  men  were 
rested  and  recruited,  Castro  made  no  objection  to  his  remaining  in  California 
during  the  winter.  But  when,  a  few  weeks  later,  the  whole  force  of  men 
marched  into  the  Salinas  valley,  thev  were  ordered  to  leave  the  country  at  once. 

LIEUT.     JOHN     C.     FREMONT. 


Instead  of  leaving,  Fremont  marched  his  men  to  Gabilan  Peak,  about  thirty 
miles  from  Monterey,  where  he  raised  the  stars  and  stripes  and  proceeded  to 
fortify  his  camp.  Castro  marshalled  his  force  on  the  plains  below  out  of  range 
of  Fremont's  men.  After  holding  the  fort  on  Gabilan  Peak  two  days,  Fremont, 
on  the  night  of  March  gth,  abandoned  it  and  leisurely  proceeded  northward  by 
way  of  the  San  Joaquin  valley  to  Sutler's  Fort  and  from  there,  after  a  short 
stop,  to  Lassen's  Rancho  on  Deer  Creek,  where  he  remained  until  April  I4th. 
He  then  resumed  his  march  toward  the  Oregon  line. 

On  May  5th,  he  was  encamped  near  Klamath  Lake  when  Samuel  Neal 
and  William  Sigler,  two  settlers  of  the  Sacramento  valley,  rode  into  his  camp 
and  informed  him  that  a  LTnited  States  officer,  bearing  dispatches,  was  endeav 
oring  to  overtake  him.  The  officer  had  but  a  small  escort  and  the  Indians  being 
hostile,  he  was  in  great  danger.  Fremont  took  nine  of  his  men  and  the  two  mes 
sengers  and  hurried  to  the  relief  of  the  officer.  The  parties  met  and  encamped  on 
the  bank  of  a  creek.  About  midnight  the  Indians  attacked  the  camp,  killing  three 
of  Fremont's  men  and  losing  their  own  chief.  The  dispatch  bearer  proved  to 
be  Lieut.  Archibald  H.  Gillespie,  of  the  U.  S.  Navy.  He  had  left  Washington 
in  November,  1845,  with  instructions  from  the  government;  had  crossed  Mex 
ico,  disguised  as  a  merchant,  and  from  San  Bias  had  taken  passage  to  Hono 
lulu  and  thence  reached  Monterey,  April  I7th.  Fremont,  with  his  entire  force, 
after  punishing  the  Klamath  Indians  for  their  treachery,  returned  to  Slitter's 
Fort,  where  Lieut.  Gillespie,  who  had  gone  ahead,  met  them  with  supplies  pro 
cured  from  San  Francisco  through  Captain  Montgomery  of  the  Portsmouth. 
The  substance  of  the  dispatches  sent  to  Fremont  from  Secretary  of  State 
Buchanan  was  to  prevent  the  occupation  of  California  by  any  European  power 
and  in  the  event  of  war  with  Mexico  to  take  possession  of  the  country  for  the 
United  States.  It  was  well  known  that  England  had  designs  on  California  and 
it  was  partly  to  circumvent  these  and  partly  to  warn  Fremont  that  war  with 
Mexico  was  pending  that  the  dispatches  had  been  sent.  The  report  that  a  large 
immigration  was  on  its  way  to  California  from  the  United  States  was,  no  doubt, 
the  cause  of  the  hostility  of  the  authorities  to  Fremont  and  to  the  recently 
arrived  immigrants.  There  were  rumors  that  Castro  was  organizing  a  force  to 
drive  the  foreign  settlers  out  of  the  country.  Many  Americans  were  in  Cali 
fornia  without  authority  under  the  Mexican  laws. 

Believing  themselves  in  danger  and  regarding  Fremont  as  their  protector, 
a  number  of  the  settlers  repaired  to  his  camp.  Their  first  aggressive  act  was 
the  capture  of  250  horses  that  were  being  moved  by  Lieut,  de  Arce  and  four 
teen  men,  from  the  north  side  of  the  bay  to  Castro's  camp  at  Santa  Clara.  A 
party  of  twelve  Americans,  under  Ezekiel  Merritt,  captured  the  horses  and  made 
prisoners  of  the  escort,  who  were  brought  into  Fremont's  camp  and  there 
released.  Hostilities  having  been  begun,  it  became  necessary  for  the  settlers  to 


widen  the  breach  so  as  to  provoke  retaliation  on  the  part  of  the  Californians 
rather  than  be  punished  as  horse  thieves.  The  next  move  was  to  seize  the  mil 
itary  post  and  the  principal  men  of  Sonoma.  On  the  morning  of  June  nth, 
twenty  men  under  command  of  Merritt,  armed  with  pistols  and  rifles,  and 
mounted  on  fresh  horses,  set  out  from  Fremont's  camp  on  Bear  Creek  for 
Sonoma.  On  the  way  their  number  was  recruited  to  thirty-two.  On  the  morn 
ing  of  the  I4th,  about  daybreak,  they  surrounded  the  town  and  took  Gen.  M. 
G.  Vallejo,  Captain  Salvador  Yallejo,  and  Lieut.  Col.  Victor  Prudon,  prisoners. 
There  seem  to  have  been  no  private  soldiers  at  Sonoma — all  officers.  The  cas- 
tillo,  or  fort,  contained  about  a  dozen  rusty  old  cannon  and  two  hundred  and 
fifty  muskets.  Gen.  Vallejo  and  his  officers,  as  prisoners  of  war,  gave  their 
word  of  honor  not  to  take  up  arms  against  the  revolutionists,  on  a  guarantee 
from  their  captain  to  respect  the  lives  and  property  of  the  prisoners,  their  fam 
ilies  and  the  residents  of  the  jurisdiction.  This  guarantee,  signed  by  Merritt, 
Semple,  Fallon  and  Kelsey,  was  given  in  writing.  The  prisoners,  although 
given  their  parole,  were  taken  to  Sutler's  Fort,  by  a  guard.  Twenty-four  men 
remained  at  the  fort.  The  leaders  of  the  party  having  gone  with  the  prisoners, 
W.  B.  Ide,  who  had  come  to  the  front  on  account  of  a  speech  he  made  advocat 
ing  a  movement  to  make  the  country  independent,  was  chosen  commander. 

Ide  immediately  set  about  formulating  a  declaration  of  independence,  and 
William  Todd,  one  of  his  men,  having  procured  a  piece  of  manta,  or  coarse  cot 
ton  cloth  about  two  yards  long,  set  to  work  to  fashion  a  flag  for  the  new  repub 
lic.  Todd,  assisted  by  some  others,  painted  a  star  in  the  upper  coiner  and  in 
the  center  a  figure  supposed  to  represent  a  bear,  but  which  the  natives  called 
a  "  cochina  "  (pig).  Below  these  figures  he  painted  in  large  letters,  "Califor 
nia  Republic.'.'  Along  the  lower  edge  of  the  flag  was  stitched  a  strip  of  red 
woolen  cloth  said  to  have  been  a  part  of  a  red  woolen  petticoat.  When  com 
pleted  the  famous  "  Bear  Flag  "  of  California  was  run  up  on  the  flagstaff  where 
the  Mexican  colors  had  formerly  floated.  The  cannon  and  muskets  were  loaded, 
guards  posted,  military  discipline  established,  and  the  California  Republic  duly 
inaugurated.  On  June  i8th,  the  same  day  that  Ide  issued  his  proclamation, 
Thomas  Cowie  and  George  Fowler,  two  of  Ide's  men,  volunteered  to  go  to 
Fitch's  ranch  to  procure  a  keg  of  powder  from  Mose  Carson.  On  the  way  they 
were  captured  by  a  band  of  Californians  under  Juan  Padilla  and  brutally  mur 
dered.  The  news  of  this  outrage  reached  Sonoma  and  later  a  report  that  Todd, 
who  had  been  sent  to  Bodega  with  a  message,  had  been  captured.  Captain  W. 
L.  Ford,  with  a  force  of  twenty-three  men,  hastily  set  out  from  Sonoma  to  cap 
ture  Padilla.  At  Olampali  Rancho,  Captain  Ford  unexpectedly  came  upon  the 
combined  forces  of  Captain  de  la  Torre  and  Padilla,  numbering  eighty-three 
men.  The  Americans  fell  back  into  a  willow  thicket.  The  Californians,  sup 
posing  that  they  were  retreating,  charged  upon  them  but  were  met  by  a  volley 



of  rifle  balls  that  some  reports  say  killed  eight  men.  Todd,  while  the  fight  was 
going  on,  made  his  escape  and  joined  Ford's  men,  who  fell  back  to  Sonoma. 
Fremont,  who  had  been  camped  at  the  Buttes,  having  learned  of  Ide's 
attempt  to  establish  a  Pacific  Republic  and  that  Castro  would  not  attack  them 
to  rescue  the  prisoners,  but  was  gathering  a  force  to  recapture  Sonoma,  broke 
up  his  camp  and  moved  down  to  New  Helvetia,  where  he  put  his  prisoners  in 
the  fort  under  guard. 

On  June  23rd,  Fremont  hastened  to  Sonoma  with  a  force  of  seventy-two 
mounted   riflemen.     The   Americans,   including   Fremont's   men,   now   numbered 

two  hundred.  Fremont  and  Ford 
with  a  force  of  135  men,  started  out 
to  hunt  Captain  de  la  Torre,  who  was 
in  command  of  the  Calif ornians  north 
of  the  bay.  Torre,  it  is  claimed, 
wrote  letters  stating  that  Castro  was 
about  to  attack  Sonoma  with  a  large 
force.  These  were  placed  in  the 
boots  of  three  of  his  men,  who  al 
lowed  themselves  to  be  captured. 
The  strategem  succeeded — Fremont 
and  Ford  hurried  back  to  Sonoma,  bttt 
the  three  Californians  were  shot  with 
out  trial.  Authorities  differ  as  to  this 
story.  If  such  letters  were  captured, 
they  were  not  preserved,  and  it  is 
more  than  probable  that  the  prisoners, 
Berryessa  and  the  two  de  'Haro  boys, 
were  shot  in  retaliation  for  the  mur 
der  of  Cowie  and  Fowler.  Whether 
from  the  captured  letters,  or  from 
some  other  source,  Fremont  believed  that  Castro's  force  was  north  of  the  bay. 
Castro,  however,  had  not  left  Santa  Clara.  Captain  de  la  Torre,  taking  advantage 
of  the  absence  of  his  pursuers,  crossed  the  bay  at  Sausalito  and  joined  Castro. 
Fremont  finding  himself  deceived,  returned  to  the  pursuit,  but  he  was  too  late — 
the  game  had  escaped  and  he  marched  back  to  Sonoma,  where  he  arrived  July  3rd. 
The  Fourth  of  July  was  celebrated  with  great  eclat  by  the  "  Bears."  Wine,  gun 
powder,  eloquence  and  a  grand  ball  stirred  up  all  the  latent  patriotism  of  the 
revolutionists.  The  "  California  Republic  "  reached  the  zenith  of  its  power  that 
day.  The  next  day  it  collapsed.  Ide  was  deposed  by  a  vote  of  the  Bears  and 
Fremont  was  chosen  to  head  the  movement  for  independence. 

On  the  Jth  of  July,  Commodore  Sloat  raised  the  Stars  and  Stripes  in  Monte- 



rey  and  took  possession  of  the  country  in  the  name  of  the  United  States.  'He 
had  arrived  on  the  Savannah  on  the  2nd  from  Mazatlan,  where  he  had  heard 
rumors  of  hostilities  between  the  United  States  and  Mexico;  but  not  having 
learned  of  any  formal  declaration  of  war,  he  was  undecided  what  course  to  pursue. 
Having  heard  of  the  Bear  Flag  movement  and  of  Fremont's  connection  with  it, 
he  presumed  that  Fremont  had  later  information,  and  finally  decided  to  take 
possession  of  the  country. 

Fremont,  on  July  6th,  leaving  Captain  Grigsby  with  fifty  men  at  Sonoma, 
started  with  the  rest  of  his  battalion,  about  130  men,  for  Sacramento  with  the 
intention  of  making  preparations  to  attack  Castro.  Captain  Montgomery  of  the 
Portsmouth  had  raised  the  flag  at  San  Francisco ;  Lieut.  Revere  arrived  at  Sonoma 
on  the  gth;  the  Bear  flag  was  lowered  and  the  Stars  and  Stripes  unfurled.  On 
the  nth  the  flag  was  raised  over  Slitter's  Fort  and  the  same  day  over  Bodega. 
All  Northern  and  Central  California  was  now  in  possession  of  the  Americans. 

For  months  there  had  been  ill  feeling  between  Governor  Pico  and  the  com- 
mandante-general,  Castro.  Pico  had  made  Los  Angeles  his  capital,  while  Castro 
had  established  his  headquarters  at  Monterey.  Their  quarrel  was  the  old  sec 
tional  jealousy  of  the  north  and  the  south — and  their  respective  sections  supported 
them  in  their  dispute.  Castro  was  accused  of  plotting  to  overthrow  the  govern 
ment.  At  the  time  Sloat  raised  the  United  States  flag  at  Monterey  Pico,  with 
an  armed  body  had  reached  Santa  Barbara,  intending  to  fight  Castro,  who  was 
at  Santa  Clara.  With  a  part  of  his  force,  Castro  retreated  southward  and  joined 
Pico.  They  patched  up  a  truce  and,  uniting  their  forces,  retreated  to  Los  Angeles, 
where  they  began  preparations  to  resist  the  "  perfidious  North  Americans." 



THE   American  era  of   California  history  begins   with  the   raising  of  the 
flag  at  Monterey  on  July  7th,  1846.     Within  a  week  after  that  event  all 
of  the  territory  north  of  Monterey  had  been  taken  possession  of  without 
opposition.     Castro,   with   a   part  of  his    force,   had   retreated   to  Los   Angeles, 
and  those  remaining  behind  had  disbanded  and  retired  to  their  homes.     Fremont 
had  moved  his  battalion  of  about  130  men  to  a  camp  on  the  American   river 
above  Sutler's  Fort.     Here  he  was  encamped  when,  on  the  nth  of  July,  a  mes 
senger  bearing  Sloat's  proclamation  and  an  American  flag  reached  him.     This 
flag  was  raised  over  the  fort  and  saluted  with  twenty-one  guns.     Immediately 
afterward  Fremont's  battalion  began  its  march  to  Monterey,   where  it  arrived 



on  the  iqth.  Fremont  had  an  interview  with  Commodore  Sloat  which  was  not 
very  satisfactory  to  either.  Sloat  was  inclined  to  blame  Fremont  for  acting 
without  sufficient  authority  in  precipitating  hostilities  and  Fremont  was  disap 
pointed  because  Sloat  would  not  endorse  his  scheme  of  making  a  campaign 
against  Castro.. 

On   the    1 5th   of  July   Commodore   Stockton,   on   the   Congress,   arrived   at 
Monterey   from   Honolulu   and   reported   to  Commodore   Sloat    for  duty.     Sloat 

was  an  old  man,  having  entered  the 
Navy  in  1800;  his  health  was  fail 
ing  and  he  was  anxious  to  retire 
from  active  service.  He  made 
Stockton  commander-in-chief  of  all 
the  land  forces  in  California. 
Stockton  on  taking  command,  made 
Fremont  a  major  and  Gillispie  a 
captain.  On  July  26th,  the  battal 
ion  was  loaded  on  the  Cyane,  which 
sailed  the  next  day  for  San  Diego. 
Sloat,  after  transferring  the  com 
mand  of  the  Pacific  squadron  to 
Stockton,  sailed  on  July  2Qth,  on 
board  the  Levant  for  home. 

Commodore  Stockton,  on  as 
suming  command,  issued  a  procla 
mation  in  which  he  arraigned  the 
Mexican  government  for  beginning 
hostilities  against  the  United  States. 
He  was  very  severe  on  Gen.  Cas 
tro,  whom  he  called  a  usurper, 

and  the  Calif  ornians  for  outrages  committed  on  the  American  settlers. 
'  Three  inoffensive  Americans,"  said  he,  "  residents  of  the  country,  have  been 
within  a  few  days  brutally  murdered ;  and  there  are  no  California  officers  who 
will  arrest  and  bring  the  murderers  to  justice,  although  it  is  well  known  who 
they  are  and  where  they  are."  He  ignored  the  brutal  murder  of  the  three  Cali- 
fornians,  Berryessa  and  the  two  De  Haro  boys,  who  were  shot  down  in  cold 
blood  by  Fremont's  men  while  begging  for  quarter.  Bancroft  says  of  the  proc 
lamation,  "  The  paper  was  made  up  of  falsehood,  of  irrelevant  issues  and  of 
bombastic  boasting  in  about  equal  parts."  Commodore  Sloat  read  the  procla 
mation  at  sea  and  did  not  approve  of  it. 

Gen.  Pico  and  Gen.  Castro,  on  their  arrival  at  Los  Angeles,  immediately 
set  to  work  to  organize  an  army.  Every  man  between  fifteen  and  sixty  was 
summoned  for  military  duty  and  any  Mexican  refusing  or  excusing  himself  on 



any  pretext  was  to  be  treated  as  a  traitor.  Those  physically  unable  to  do  mili 
tary  duty  were  required  to  aid  with  their  property.  The  response  to  the  call 
of  the  leaders  was  not  very  enthusiastic ;  sectional  jealousies,  quarrels  and  feuds 
had  destroyed,  or  at  least,  paralyzed  patriotism.  The  foreign  residents  who 
were  mostly  Americans,  secretly  sympathized  with  the  invaders.  Money  and 
the  munitions  of  war  were  scarce.  Castro  had  brought  about  100  men  with 
him  from  the  north  and  Pico  had  recruited  about  the  same  in  the  south ;  these 
constituted  the  available  force  to  resist  Stockton  and  Fremont.  Stockton,  with 
360  sailors  and  marines,  arrived  at  San  Pedro  on  August  6th,  landed  and  drilled 
his  force  in  military  maneuvers.  Castro  sent  a  message  by  two  commissioners, 
Flores  and  de  la  Guerra,  expressing  his  willingness  to  enter  into  negotiations 
with  Stockton.  The  commodore  showed  the  messengers  scant  courtesy  and 
dismissed  them  with  an  "  insulting  threat."  Castro  and  Pico  finding  it  impos 
sible  to  defend  the  capital  with  the  small  force  at  their  command,  determined  to 
quit  the  country.  On  the  night  of  August  loth  they  took  their  departure ;  Castro 
accompanied  by  his  secretary,  Francisco  Arce,  and  eighteen  men,  going  by  way 
of  the  San  Gorgonio  pass  and  the  Colorado  river ;  Pico  by  way  of  San  Juan 
Capistrano  and  Santa  Margarita,  to  Lower  California. 

Stockton  began  his  march  to  Los  Angeles  on  August  iith.  On  the  13111 
Major  Fremont,  with  his  battalion  of  130  mounted  men,  met  him  just  outside 
the  town  and  the  combined  forces  entered  the  capital.  The  United  States  flag 
was  raised  and  possession  taken  of  the  town.  The  reception  of  the  Americans 
was  not  cordial.  Some  of  the  better  class  of  citizens  had  fled  from  the  city, 
but  these  in  a  few  days  returned  to  their  homes.  Fremont's  cavalry  scoured  the 
country  and  brought  in  a  number  of  the  leading  men  who  had  held  civil  or 
military  office;  these  were  paroled.  Stockton,  on  the  I7th,  published  a  much 
milder  proclamation  in  which  he  announced  himself  as  commander-in-chief  and 
governor  of  the  territory ;  he  stated  that  California  belonged  to  the  United  States 
and  would  be  governed  by  military  law  until  a  civil  government  could  be  estab 
lished.  Captain  Gillispie  was  commissioned  by  Stockton  as  commandant  of  the 
southern  department  with  headquarters  at  Los  Angeles.  He  was  assigned  a 
garrison  of  fifty  men  taken  from  Fremont's  force.  On  September  29th,  Com 
modore  Stockton,  with  his  sailors  and  marines,  returned  to  their  ships  at  San 
Pedro  and  sailed  for  Monterey.  '  A  few  days  later  Fremont,  with  the  remainder 
of  his  battalion,  began  his  march  northward  for  Sutler's  fort,  where  he  expected 
to  recruit  his  force  from  the  immigrants  now  arriving  in  the  country. 

While  the  combined  forces  of  Stockton  and  Fremont,  numbering  about  500 
men,  had  occupied  the  town,  the  inhabitants  had  been  quiet  and  submissive. 
But  with  a  small  force  left  to  keep  them  in  subjection,  they  soon  began  to  mani 
fest  their  old  turbulent  and  revolutionary  disposition.  September  i6th,  the  anni 
versary  of  Mexican  independence,  a  number  of  young  men,  under  the  stimulation 
of  wine,  and  probably  more  in  a  spirit  of  mischief  than  with  any  serious  intent, 



made  an  attack  about  midnight  on  Gillispie's  headquarters,  which  were  in  the 
old  government  house.  The  garrison  drove  them  off  with  a  volley  of  musketry, 
in  which  three  men  were  killed — so  Gillispie  reported — but  the  dead  were  never 
found.  The  next  day  Gillispie  ordered  the  arrest  of  a  number  of  leading  citi 
zens  to  be  held  as  hostages.  He  also  vigorously  enforced  military  law.  In  a 
very  short  time  he  had  a  full-grown  Mexican  revolution  on  his  hands.  Some 
300  men,  under  the  leadership  of  Flores  and  Serbulo  Vareles,  besieged  his  garri 
son.  In  the  corral  of  the  government  house  were  five  or  six  old  cannon  that 
Castro  had  spiked  and  abandoned.  Gillispie  had  two  of  these  unspiked  and 
hauled  up  Fort  Hill,  where  they  were  mounted.  He  made  cannon  balls  out  of 
some  lead  pipe  that  he  found  and  cartridge  covers  out  of  a  piece  of  red  flannel 
captured  from  a  store.  The  Californians  had  a  brass  four-pounder,  known  as 
"  the  Old  Woman's  gun  "  because,  on  the  approach  of  Stockton's  army,  an  old 
woman  by  the  name  of  Rocha  had  buried  the  gun  in  her  garden ;  it  had  been 
used  in  firing  salutes  at  church  festivals,  and  the  old  lady  declared  that  the 
"  gringos  "  should  not  have  the  gun  of  the  church. 

While  besieged  on  Fort  Hill,  Gillispie  on  September  24th,  sent  a  messenger, 
Juan  Flaco  (lean  John)  with  dispatches  to  Stockton  asking  aid.  By  one  of  the 
most  wonderful  rides  in  history,  this  man,  John  Brown,  reached  San  Francisco 
where  Stockton  had  gone  from  Monterey,  six  hundred  miles  distance,  in  five 
days.  Stockton  at  once  ordered  Mervine,  commanding  the  Savannah,  to  go  to 
the  relief  of  Gillispie.  On  account  of  a  dense  fog,  the  vessel  did  not  leave  San 
Francisco  until  October  4th.  Gillispie  held  out  bravely  for  seven  days,  then 
capitulated,  with  honorable  terms.  On  September  3Oth,  with  flags  flying,  drums 
beating  and  his  two  old  cannon  mounted  on  carretas,  he  began  his  march  to  San 
Pedro.  He  spiked  the  two  old  cannon  and  threw  them  in  the  bay,  then  went  on 
board  the  Vandalia.  a  merchant  ship  lying  at  anchor  in  the  harbor,  but  did  not 
leave  San  Pedro.  On  October  yth,  Mervine  entered  the  harbor.  At  6:30  a.m. 
of  the  8th,  he  landed  a  force  of  299  men,  which  included  Gillispie's  volunteers. 
A  small  force  of  the  enemy  appeared  and  Captain  Mervine  ordered  Lieut.  Hitch 
cock,  with  a  reinforcement  of  eighty  men  from  the  vessel,  to  attack;  but  the 
enemy  retreated  and  the  detachment  returned  to  the  ship.  Captain  Mervine  and 
his  men  then  started  for  the  pueblo.  They  took  no  cannon  and  had  no  horses. 
After  a  fatiguing  tramp  through  tall  mustard  and  clouds  of  dust  they  encamped 
at  the  Dominguez  rancho.  The  enemy,  under  the  command  of  Jose  Antonio 
Carrillo,  and  numbering  abort  eighty  men,  appeared  on  the  foothills  and  some 
skirmishing  at  long  range  took  place.  During  the  night,  Flores  arrived  from 
the  pueblo  with  a  reinforcement  of  about  sixty  men  and  the  "  old  woman's  "  gun. 
They  opened  fire  during  the  night  on  Mervine's  camp  with  this  cannon,  but  did 
no  damage.  The  next  morning  Mervine's  men  resumed  their  march  and  had 
not  proceeded  far  before  they  encountered  the  enemy.  The  Californians  opened 
fire  and  Mervine,  fearing  a  charge  from  their  cavalry,  formed  his  troops  in  a 


hollow  square  with  their  baggage  in  the  center.  A  running  fight  ensued  ;  the 
Californians  firing,  then  dragging  the  gun  back  with  riatas.  loading,  and  firing 
again.  Mervine,  finding  he  was  losing  men  without  injuring  the  enemy,  ordered 
a  retreat.  The  Californians  fired  a  parting  shot  or  two,  but  did  not  pursue  the 
Americans,  as  they  had  exhausted  their  ammunition.  Mervine  reached  San 
Pedro  that  evening  and  went  aboard  his  vessel.  His  loss  was  four  killed  and 
six  wounded.  The  dead  were  buried  on  the  Isla  de  los  Muertes,  or  Deadman's 
island.  The  Savannah  remained  in  the  harbor  and  the  Californians  kept  a  small 
detachment  at  Sepulveda's  ranch  and  another  at  Cerritos  to  watch  the  Americans. 

On  the  25th  Commodore  Stockton  arrived  at  San  Pedro  on  the  Congress 
and  remained  there  about  a  week.  Although  he  had  a  force  of  nearly  800  men, 
he  did  not  deem  this  sufficient  to  recapture  the  capital,  as  he  greatly  overestimated 
the  strength  of  the  enemy.  On  November  ist  he  sailed  for  San  Diego.  At 
the  time  of  Flores'  attack  on  Gillispie  the  American  garrisons  at  San  Diego  and 
Santa  Barbara  were  driven  out  of  these  towns.  The  force  at  San  Diego  went 
aboard  the  Stonington,  a  whale  ship  lying  in  the  harbor.  Lieut.  Talbot  with 
ten  men  was  stationed  at  Santa  Barbara.  When  called  upon  to  surrender,  this 
party  fell  back  into  the  hills  and  reached  the  head  of  the  San  Joaquin  river, 
where  they  obtained  food  from  the  Indians ;  then  traveled  down  the  valley,  sub 
sisting  on  the  flesh  of  wild  horses  and  finally,  by  way  of  Pacheco's  pass,  they 
crossed  over  to  the  coast  and  joined  Fremont's  battalion  at  Monterey. 

The  departmental  assembly,  having  been  called  together  by  Flores,  met  at 
Los  Angeles,  October  26th.  The  members  were  all  from  the  south.  The  first 
business  in  order  was  to  fill  the  offices  of  governor  and  commandante-general 
left  vacant  by  the  flight  of  Pico  and  Castro.  It  was  decided  to  combine  the  two 
offices  in  one  person  and  Jose  Maria  Flores  was  chosen  commander-in-chief  and 
governor  ad  interim.  He  took  the  oath  of  office  November  ist  and  was  really 
the  last  Mexican  governor  of  California.  Flores  and  the  members  of  the  as 
sembly  made  some  provisions  for  continuing  the  war,  but  their  resources  were 
very  limited.  Their  recent  successes  over  the  Americans  hid  somewhat  encour 
aged  them  and  they  hoped  to  be  able  to  hold  out  until  reinforcements  arrived 
from  Mexico. 

Stockton,  on  his  arrival  at  San  Diego,  had  set  to  work  to  organize  an  expe 
dition  against  Los  Angeles.  The  Californians  had  driven  the  cattle  and  horses 
back  into  the  mountains  and  the  Americans  found  great  difficulty  in  procuring 
animals.  Frequent  forays  were  made  into  Lower  California  and  horses,  cattle 
and  sheep  procured.  The  remnant  of  Fremont's  battalion,  after  taking  from 
it  garrisons  for  San  Diego,  Los  Angeles  and  Santa  Barbara,  had  returned  to  the 
Sacramento  valley  in  September.  Here  it  was  recruited  to  160  men,  and  on 
October  I3th  sailed  from  San  Francisco  on  a  merchant  vessel,  with  orders  to 
operate  against  the  rebels  in  the  south ;  but  between  Monterey  and  Santa  Barbara 
they  met  the  Vandalia  and  learned  of  Mervine's  defeat,  and  of  the  impossibility 



of  procuring  horses  in  the  lower  country.  They  put  about  and  the  battalion 
landed  at  Monterey  October  28th.  Vigorous  efforts  were  at  once  made  to  recruit 
men  and  horses.  A  number  of  immigrants  had  arrived  from  the  states.  These 
were  induced  to  enlist  on  the  promise  of  $25  per  month  pay.  Horses  were  pur 
chased,  or  where  owners  refused  to  sell,  were  confiscated.  A  company  of  Walla 
Walla  Indians  was  enlisted — these  were  known  as  the  "  Forty  Thieves."  Sut- 
ter's  "warriors  in  bronze"  (Indians)  were  also  enrolled  for  service.  In  the 
latter  part  of  November,  the  recruits  were  collected  at  San  Juan.  They  num 
bered  about  450  riflemen  and  40  artillerymen,  representing  many  nations  and 
many  different  kinds  of  arms,  and  were  divided  into  ten  companies.  Fremont 

had  been  commissioned  as  lieutenant-colonel  in  the 
regular  army  and  was  commander-in-chief  of  the 
battalion.  While  Fremont's  officers  and  men  were 
engaged  in  collecting  horses,  an  engagement  took 
place  between  a  detachment  numbering  about  60 
men,  under  Captains  Burroughs  and  Thompson,  and 
the  Ca'.ifornians  under  Manuel  Castro,  who  had 
been  made  commandant  of  the  Californian  forces  in 
the  north.  The  Americans  had  gathered  several 
hundred  horses  and  were  taking  them  to  the  camp 
at  San  Juan.  The  advance  guard,  consisting  of 
eight  scouts,  encountered  the  Californians  near  Na- 
tividad.  They  posted  themselves  in  an  "encinalito"', 
or  grove  of  little  oaks,  and  a  fight  ensued.  The 
main  body  of  the  Americans  coming  up,  a  reckless 
charge  was  made.  Captain  Burroughs  and  four  or 
five  others  were  killed  and  five  or  six  were  wounded. 
The  Californians  lost  about  the  same  number ;  the  result  was  a  drawn  battle. 
The  American  consul,  Thomas  O.  Larkin,  had  started  for  San  Francisco 
and  had  stopped  at  Gomez's  ranch  overnight.  A  squad  of  Californians,  under 
Lieut.  Chavez,  surrounded  the  house  about  midnight  and  made  him  prisoner;  he 
was  held  until  the  close  of  the  war.  The  only  other  engagement  in  the  north 
was  the  so-called  "  Battle  of  Santa  Clara  ",  which  took  place  between  a  force 
of  about  TOO  Americans  under  Captains  Weber,  Marston  and  Aram,  and  an 
equal  number  of  Californians  under  Francisco  Sanchez.  Fighting  was  at  long 
range  with  artillery  and  so  far  as  known  there  were  no  fatalities  on  either  side. 
In  the  south  the  garrison  at  San  Diego,  after  it  had  remained  on  the  Stoning- 
ton  about  ten  days,  stole  a  march  on  the  Californians  by  landing  at  night  and 
recapturing  the  town  and  one  piece  of  artillery.  A  whaleboat  was  sent  up  to 
San  Pedro  with  dispatches  and  an  earnest  request  for  reinforcements.  It  reached 
San  Pedro  October  I3th.  Lieut.  Miner  and  Midshipmen  Duvall  and  Morgan, 
with  35  sailors  of  Mervine's  force  and  15  of  Gillispie's  volunteers,  were  sent  to 



reinforce  Merritt  at  San  Diego.  This  force  upon  arrival  set  to  work  to  build 
a  fort  and  mount  the  cannon  taken  from  the  old  presidio.  Although  continually 
harassed  by  the  Californians,  they  succeeded  in  this. 

About  the  first  of  November,  Commodore  Stockton  arrived  at  San  Diego. 
He  began  fortifications  on  the  hill  and  built  a  fort  out  of  casks  filled  with  earth, 
on  which  he  mounted  guns.  The  whole  work  was  completed  in  three  weeks. 
Provisions  ran  short  and  frequent  forays  were  made  into  the  surrounding  country 
for  supplies.  'About  December  ist  word  reached  Stockton  that  Gen.  Kearney 
with  100  dragoons  was  at  Warner's  pass,  about  eighty  miles  from  San  Diego. 
Stockton  sent  a  force  of  fifty  men  and  one  piece  of  artillery,  under  Captain  Gil- 
lispie  to  conduct  this  force  to  San  Diego.  On  their  return  march  the  entire  force 
was  surprised,  on  the  morning  of  December  6th,  by  about  90  Californians  under 
Captain  Andres  Pico,  near  the  Indian  village  of  San  Pasqual.  Pico  had  been 
sent  into  that  part  of  the  country  to  intercept  and  capture  squads  of  Americans 
sent  out  after  horses  and  cattle.  The  meeting  was  a  surprise  on  both  sides. 
The  Americans  foolishly  charged  the  Californians  and  in  doing  so  became  strung 
out  in  a  long  irregular  line.  The  Californians  rallied  and  charged  in  turn.  The 
Americans  lost  in  killed,  Captains  Johnston  and  Moore,  Lieut.  Hammond  and 
sixteen  dragoons ;  Captains  Gillispie  and  Gibson  and  seventeen  dragoons  were 
wounded.  The  Californians  escaped  with  three  men  slightly  wounded.  Three 
of  Kearney's  wounded  died,  making  the  total  American  death  list  twenty-one. 
Less  than  one-half  of  Kearney's  force  were  engaged  in  the  battle. 

After  the  engagement,  Kearney  took  position  on  a  barren  hill,  covered  with 
rocks.  The  enemy  made  no  attack,  but  remained  in  the  neighborhood  and 
awaited  a  favorable  opportunity  to  renew  the  assault.  The  night  after  the  attack, 
Lieut.  Godey,  Midshipman  Beale  and  Kit  Carson  managed  to  pass  through  the 
pickets  of  the  enemy  and  eventually — by  different  routes — reached  San  Diego 
with  the  news  of  the  disaster.  On  December  gth  detachments  of  sailors  and 
marines,  numbering  in  all  about  200,  from  the  Congress  and  the  Portsmouth  and 
under  the  immediate  command  of  Captain  Zielin,  began  a  march  to  relieve  Gen. 
Kearney.  They  marched  at  night  and  camped  in  the  chapparal  by  day.  Early 
in  the  morning  after  the  second  night  they  reached  Kearney's  camp,  taking  him 
by  surprise.  Godey,  who  had  been  sent  ahead  to  inform  Kearney  of  the  relief, 
had  been  captured  by  the  Californians.  Gen.  Kearney  had  destroyed  all  of  his 
baggage  and  camp  equipage,  saddles,  bridles,  clothing,  etc.,  preparatory  to  forcing 
his  way  through  the  enemy's  lines.  But  the  enemy  disappeared  on  the  arrival 
of  reinforcements,  and  Gen.  Kearney  and  the  relief  expedition  reached  San  Diego 
after  a  march  of  two  days. 

It  is  necessary  to  explain  how  Gen.  Kearney  came  to  be  in  California  with 
so  small  a  force.  In  June,  1846,  Gen.  Stephen  W.  Kearney,  commander  of  the 
Army  of  the  West,  left  Fort  Leavenworth  with  a  force  of  regulars  and  volun 
teers  to  take  possession  of  New  Mexico.  The  conquest  of  that  territory  was 


accomplished  without  a  battle.  Under  orders  from  the  War  Department,  Kear 
ney  began  his  march  to  California  with  a  part  of  his  force,  in  order  to  co-operate 
with  the  naval  force  already  there.  Near  Socorro,  New  Mexico,  October  i6th, 
he  met  Kit  Carson  with  an  escort  of  fifteen  men,  en  route  from  Los  Angeles  to 
Washington  with  dispatches  from  Commodore  Stockton,  giving  a  report  of  the 
conquest  of  California.  Gen.  Kearney  selected  120  men  from  his  force,  sent  the 
remainder  back  to  Santa  Fe,  and  compelled  Carson  to  turn  back  as  his  guide. 
After  a  toilsome  journey  across  the  arid  plains  of  Arizona  and  the  Colorado 
desert,  they  reached  the  Indian  village  where  the  engagement  took  place,  desti 
tute  of  provisions  and  with  men  and  horses  worn  out. 

Stockton  had  been  actively  pushing  preparations  for  his  expedition  against 
Los  Angeles.  His  force  now  numbered  600  men,  mostly  sailors  and  marines ; 
but  he  had  been  drilling  them  in  military  evolutions  on  land.  On  the  iQth  of 
December  this  army  started  on  its  march  for  the  capital.  Gen.  Kearney  was 
made  second  in  command.  The  baggage  and  artillery  was  hauled  on  carretas, 
but  the  oxen  being  ill-fed  and  unused  to  long  journeys,  gave  out  on  the  way  and 
the  marines  had  to  assist  in  dragging  the  carts.  Near  San  Juan  Capistrano,  a 
commission,  bearing  a  flag  of  truce,  met  Stockton  with  proposals  from  Gov. 
Flores,  asking  for  a  conference.'  Stockton  replied  that  he  knew  no  "  Gov. 
Flores  ",  that  he  (Stockton)  was  governor  of  California.  "He  knew  a  rebel 
by  the  name  of  Flores  and  if  the  people  of  California  would  give  him  up,  he 
would  treat  with  them."  The  embassy  replied  that  they  preferred  death  to  sur 
render  under  such  terms.  On  January  8th,  1847,  Stockton's  army  encountered 
the  Californians  at  El  Paso  de  Bartolo  on  the  San  Gabriel  river  and  a  battle  was 
fought.  The  Californians  had  planted  four  pieces  of  artillery  on  the  bluff  above 
the  river  with  the  design  of  preventing  the  Americans  from  crossing.  In  the 
face  of  the  artillery  fire,  the  Americans  crossed  the  river,  dragging  with  them 
through  the  quicksands  two  nine-pounders  and  four  smaller  guns.  They  placed 
their  guns  on  a  battery  on  the  river  bank  and  opened  fire  on  the  Californians 
with  such  telling  effect  that  one  of  their  guns  was  disabled  and  the  gunners  were 
driven  away  from  the  others.  The  California  cavalry  made  a  charge  on  the 
rear,  but  were  repulsed  by  Gillispie's  riflemen.  The  Americans  charged  the  Cali- 
fornian  center,  advanced  their  artillery  in  battery.  The  enemy  was  driven  from 
the  heights,  but  succeeded  in  taking  their  artillery  with  them.  The  battle  lasted 
about  one  and  a  half  hours,  the  Americans  losing  two  killed  and  eight  wounded. 
The  loss  of  trie  Californians  was  about  the  same.  The  Americans  encamped  on 
the  battlefield  while  the  Californians  fell  back  toward  the  city  and  camped  in 
plain  view  of  their  opponents ;  but  they  moved  their  camp  during  the  night. 

Stockton  resumed  his  march  on  the  morning  of  the  9th,  moving  in  a  north 
westerly  direction  across  the  plains.  The  Californians  had  posted  themselves  in 
Canada  de  los  Alisos  (Canyon  of  Sycamores)  near  the  main  road.  As  the  Amer 
ican  column  appeared  they  opened  fire  with  their  artillery  at  long  range,  and 


continued  it  for  several  hours.  Finally  the  Californians,  concentrating  all  their 
efforts  into  one  grand  charge,  dashed  down  upon  the  American  column.  A  volley 
from  the  rifles  of  Stockton's  men  checked  their  advance,  and  turning,  they  fled 
in  every  direction,  leaving  a  number  of  their  horses  dead  upon  the  field.  The 
"  Battle  of  the  Plains  ",  as  Stockton  calls  it,  was  over.  The  loss  on  the  American 
side  was  five  wounded;  on  the  other  side  one  man  was  killed  and  an  unknown 
number  wounded.  Stockton's  force  numbered  about  600  men,  but  not  all  of 
them  took  part  in  the  engagement.  The  Californians  had  about  300.  The  small 
loss  on  the  American  side  was  due  to  the  inefficient  weapons  with  which  the 
Californians  were  armed  and  to  the  poor  quality  of  their  home-made  gun  powder, 
manufactured  at  San  Gabriel.  The  small  loss  of  the  Californians  was  due  to 
the  long  range  at  which  most  of  the  fighting  was  done  and  to  the  execrable 
marksmanship  of  Stockton's  sailors  and  marines.  After  the  battle,  Stockton 
continued  his  march  and  crossed  the  river  below  the  city,  where  he  encamped 
on  the  right  bank. 

On  the  morning  of  the  loth,  as  he  was  about  to  resume  his  march,  a  flag 
of  truce,  borne  by  De  Cells  and  Alvarado,  Californians,  and  Wm.  Workman,  an 
Englishman,  came  into  camp.  The  commissioners  offered  the  peaceful  surrender 
of  the  city  on  condition  that  the  Americans  should  respect  the  rights  of  property 
and  protect  citizens.  The  terms  were  agreed  to  and  Stockton's  army  marched 
into  the  city.  The  Americans  met  with  no  hostile  demonstrations,  but  it  was 
very  evident  that  they  were  not  welcome  visitors.  The  better  class  of  the  native 
inhabitants  closed  their  houses  and  took  refuge  with  friendly  foreigners  or  retired 
to  ranches  in  the  country ;  the  fellows  of  the  lower  class  exhausted  their  vocabu 
laries  against  the  "  gringoes."  Flores,  after  the  "  Battle  of  La  Mesa  ",  retreated 
up  the  Arroyo  Seco  to  the  San  Pasqual  ranch,  where  he  established  his  camp. 
Stockton,  not  'aware  of  the  location  of  the  enemy  and  fear.ful  of  an  attack,  deter 
mined  to  fortify  the  town.  On  the  nth,  Lieut.  Emory  of  Kearney's  staff  sketched 
the  plan  of  a  fort;  on  the  I2th,  the  site  was  selected  on  what  is  now  Fort  Hill, 
and  work  was  begun  and  continued  on  the  I5th  and  i6th. 

We  left  Fremont's  battalion  on  its  march  down  the  coast  from  Monterey. 
The  rains  set  in  early  and  were  heavy ;  the  roads  were  almost  impassable  and  the 
men  suffered  from  the  inclemency  of  the  weather  and  from  lack  of  supplies. 
The  horses  nearly  all  died  and  part  of  the  artillery  had  to  be  abandoned.  On 
January  nth  the  battalion  reached  San  Fernando  valley,  where  Fremont  received 
a  note  from  Gen.  Kearney  informing  him  of  defeat  of  the  Californians  and  the 
capture  of  the  city.  The  battalion  advanced  and  occupied  the  mission  buildings. 
Jesus  Pico  had  been  arrested  near  San  Luis  Obispo,  having  broken  his  parole. 
He  was  tried  by  court-martial  and  sentenced  to  be  shot ;  but  Fremont  pardoned 
him  and  he  became  in  consequence  a  most  devoted  friend.  He  now  volunteered 
to  find  the  California!!  army  and  induce  them  to  surrender  to  Fremont.  He 
found  a  part  of  the  force  encamped  at  Verdugo  and  urged  Flores,  who  in  response 



to  a  message  had  come  from  the  main  camp  at  San  Pasqual,  to  capitulate  to 
Fremont,  claiming  that  better  terms  could  be  secured  from  the  latter  than  from 
Stockton.  A  council  was  held  and  the  Californians  decided  to  appeal  to  Fremont, 
but  Flores  resolved  to  quit  the  country  and  started  that  same  night  for  Sonora. 
Before  leaving  he  transferred  the  command  of  the  army  to  Gen.  Andres  Pico. 
Gen.  Pico,  on  assuming  command,  appointed  Francisco  Rico  and  Francisco 
de  la  Guerra  to  go  with  Jesus  Pico  and  confer  with  Col.  Fremont.  Fremont 
appointed  as  commissioners  to  negotiate  a  treaty,  Major  P.  B.  Reading,  Major 
W.  H.  Russell  and  Captain  Louis  McLane.  On  the  return  of  Rico  and  de  la 

Guerra  to  the  California  camp,  Gen.  Pico 
appointed  as  commissioners  Jose  Anto 
nio  Carrillo  and  Augustin  Olvera  and 
then  moved  his  army  to  a  point  near  the 
river  at  Cahuenga.  On  the  I3th,  Fre 
mont  moved  his  camp  from  San  Fer 
nando  to  Cahuenga.  The  commission 
ers  met  in  a  deserted  ranch  house  at  that 
place  and  the  treaty,  or  capitulation,  of 
Cahuenga  was  drawn  up  and  signed. 
The  principal  stipulations  of  the  treaty 
\vere  that  the  Californians  should  sur 
render  their  arms  and  agree  to  conform 
to  the  laws  of  the  United  States.  They 
were  to  be  given  the  same  privileges  as 
citizens  of  the  United  States  and  were 
not  to  be  required  to  take  an  oath  of  al 
legiance  until  a  treaty  of  peace  was 
signed  between  the  United  States  and 
Mexico.  General  Pico  surrendered  two 
pieces  of  artillery  and  a  few  muskets 
and  disbanded  his  men. 
On  January  I4th,  Fremont's  battalion  marched  through  the  Cahuenga  pass 
and  entered  Los  Angeles,  four  days  after  its  surrender  to  Stockton.  Commodore 
Stockton  approved  the  treaty,  although  it  was  not  altogether  satisfactory  to  him. 
and  on  the  i6th  he  appointed  Col.  Fremont  governor  of  the  territory.  Gen. 
Kearney  claimed  that  under  his  instructions  from  the  War  Department,  he  should 
be  recognized  as  governor.  For  some  time  there  had  been  ill  feeling  between 
Stockton  and  Kearney.  This  precipitated  a  quarrel.  Gen.  Kearney  and  his 
dragoons  left  Los  Angeles  on  the  i8th  for  San  Diego  and  on  the  2Oth  Commo 
dore  Stockton  and  his  sailors  and  marines  left  the  city  for  San  Pedro,  where 
they  embarked  on  a  man-of-war  to  rejoin  their  ships  at  San  Diego.  Stockton 
was  shortly  after  this  superseded  in  the  command  of  the  Pacific  squadron  by 



Commodore  Shubrick.  Col.  Fremont  was  left  in  command  at  Los  Angeles. 
Col.  P.  St.  George  Cooke  arrived  on  January  27th,  with  his  Mormon  battalion, 
at  San  Luis  Rey.  This  force  consisted  of  five  companies  of  Mormons  who,  after 
a  long  march  by  way  of  New  Mexico  and  Arizona  had  reached  California  too 
late  to  assist  in  its  conquest.  From  San  Diego,  Gen.  Kearney  sailed  to  San 
Francisco  and  from  there  went  to  Monterey,  where  he  established  his  governor 
ship.  California  now  had  a  governor  in  the  north  and  one  in  the  south.  Col. 
Cooke  was  appointed  military  commander  of  the  south  and  brought  his  Mormon 
troops  to  Los  Angeles.  Fremont's  battalion  was  mustered  out  and  he  was  or 
dered  to  report  to  Gen.  Kearney  at  Monterey.  He  did  so  and  passed  out  of 
office  after  a  nominal  service  of  two  months.  Gen.  Kearney  turned  over  the 
command  of  the  troops  in  California  to  Col.  R.  B.  Mason,  who  became  military 
governor  of  the  territory. 

The  First  New  York  Infantry  had  been  recruited  in  Eastern  New  York  in 
the  summer  of  1846  for  the  double  purpose  of  conquest  and  colonization.  It 
came  to  the  coast  well  supplied  with  provisions  and  with  implements  of  hus 
bandry.  On  its  arrival  November  6th,  1847,  the  regiment  was  divided  up  and 
sent  to  different  places  on  guard  duty.  Two  companies,  A.  and  B.,  under  Lieut. - 
Col.  Burton,  were  sent  to  Lower  California,  where  they  saw  some  hard  service 
and  took  part  in  several  engagements.  Col.  Cooke  resigned  his  position  as  com 
mandant  of  the  south  and  Col.  J.  D.  Stevenson  of  the  New  York  Volunteers 
was  assigned  to  the  command.  The  Mormon  battalion  was  mustered  out  in 
July  and  Companies  E.  and  G.  of  the  New  York  Volunteers  and  a  company  of 
United  States  dragoons  did  guard  duty  at  Los  Angeles.  Another  military  or 
ganization  that  reached  California  after  the  conquest  was  Company  F  of  the  Third 
United  States  Artillery.  It  landed  at  Monterey,  January  27th,  1847,  under  com 
mand  of  Captain  C.  Q.  Thompkins.  With  it  came  Lieut.  E.  G.  C.  Ord.  William 
T.  Sherman  and  H.  W.  Halleck,  all  of  whom  were  prominent  afterward  in  Cali 
fornia  and  attained  national  reputation  during  the  civil  war. 

During  1847-48  until  the  treaty  of  peace  between  the  United  States  and 
Mexico  was  proclaimed,  garrisons  were  kept  in  all  of  the  principal  towns  and  the 
government  of  the  territory  was  quasi-military.  Attempts  were  made  to  estab 
lish  municipal  governments  in  the  towns,  which  were  successful  in  the  north  ; 
but  in  Los  Angeles  there  was  some  clashing  between  Col.  Stevenson  and  the 
"  hijos  del  pais."  There  were  rumors  of  uprisings  and  of  Mexican  troops  on 
the  way  to  recapture  the  place.  Col.  Stevenson  completed  the  fort  on  the  hill, 
begun  by  Lieut.  Emory,  and  named  it  Fort  Moore.  There  were  no  hostile  acts 
by  the  citizens  and  the  asperities  of  war  were  soon  forgotten,  as  the  natives  became 
reconciled  to  the  situation. 

The  treaty  of  Guadalupc  Hidalgo  was  concluded  on  February  2nd,  1848. 
It  was  ratified  at  Washington  March  loth ;  at  Querataro  May  3Oth,  and  was  pro 
claimed  by  the  President  of  the  United  States  July  4th.  The  news  reached  Cali- 


fornia  August  6th  and  was  proclaimed  next  day  by  Gov.  Mason.  The  war  was 
over  and  California  had  now  become  a  territory  of  the  United  States.  Gov. 
Pio  Pico  returned  to  California  from  Mexico  in  August,  1847.  Col.  Stevenson, 
fearing  that  lie  might  incite  rebellion,  placed  him  under  arrest,  but  he  was  soon 
convinced  that  Pico's  intentions  were  harmless  and  gave  him  his  liberty. 

A  large  overland  immigration  from  the  United  States  arrived  in  California 
in  1846  and  1847.  The  Donner  party,  made  up  principally  of  immigrants  from 
Illinois,  were  caught  in  the  snows  of  the  Sierra  Nevada  in  October,  1848,  and 
wintered  at  a  lake  since  known  as  Donner 's  Lake.  Of  the  original  party,  num 
bering  eighty-seven,  thirty-nine  perished  of  starvation  and  exposure ;  the  remain 
der  were  brought  to  Sutler's  Fort  by  rescuing  parties  sent  out  from  California. 



WHILE  the  treaty  negotiations  were  pending  between  the  United  States 
and  Mexico,  an  event  occurred  in  California  that  ultimately  changed 
the  destinies  of  the  territory.  This  was  the  discovery  of  gold,  January 
24th,  1848.  at  what  is  now  known  as  Coloma,  on  the  American  river,  in  the  foot 
hills  of  the  Sierra  Nevada  mountains,  about  thirty-five  miles  above  Sutler's  Fort. 
Gold  had  previously  been  discovered  on  the  San  Francisquito  Rancho,  about  forty- 
five  miles  northwesterly  from  Los  Angeles,  in  the  spring  of  1841.  Placers  had 
been  worked  here,  principally  by  Sonoran  miners,  up  to  the  breaking  out  of 
the  Mexican  war.  But  the  gold  fields  were  of  limited  extent,  water  was  scarce, 
the  methods  of  mining  crude  and  wasteful  and  this  discovery  created  little  ex 
citement.  Both  discoveries  were  purely  accidental.  The  first  discoverer,  Lopez, 
was  hunting  for  stray  horses.  While  resting  under  an  oak  tree  and  amusing 
himself  by  digging  wild  onions  with  his  sheath  knife,  he  turned  up  a  nugget 
of  gold.  He  made  known  his  discovery  and  a  number  of  persons  came  from 
Santa  Barbara  and  Los  Angeles  to  work  in  these  placers.  John  W.  Marshall, 
who  made  the  second  discovery,  was  engaged  in  building  a  sawmill  for  Captain 
Sutter,  proprietor  of  Slitter's  Fort  and  owner  of  an  extensive  grant  at  the  junction 
of  the  American  and  Sacramento  rivers.  Marshall,  to  deepen  the  race,  turned 
a  head  of  water  through  it.  The  next  morning  while  examining  the  effect  of 
the  water,  he  picked  up  in  the  race  a  round  piece  of  yellow  metal,  which  he 
thought  might  be  gold.  Searching  further  he  found  several  of  these  nuggets. 
He  went  to  the  fort  to  notify  Sutter  of  his  discovery.  Sutter  tested  the  metal 
with  aqua  fortis,  pronounced  it  gold,  and  returned  with  Marshall  to  the  mill  to 


make  further  investigations.  The  men  working  on  the  mill  had  discovered  the 
nature  of  the  metal  and  had  also  been  collecting  it.  Sutter  found  several  nuggets 
and  before  leaving  the  mill  exacted  a  promise  from  the  men  to  keep  the  discovery 
a  secret  for  six  weeks.  Beside  the  sawmill  he  was  building  a  large  flouring  mill 
near  the  fort  and  he  feared  all  of  his  men  would  desert  for  the  mines.  But  the 
secret  could  not  be  kept.  Mrs.  Wimmer,  who  did  the  cooking  for  the  men  at 
the  mill,  told  a  teamster  and  he  told  the  men  at  the  fort.  The  news  spread  slowly 
at  first  and  there  were  many  who  would  not  believe  the  report.  It  was  three 
months  before  the  rush  began.  Kemble,  the  editor  of  the  California  Star,  visited 
the  mines  two  months  after  their  discovery  and  upon  his  return  to  San  Francisco 
pronounced  them  a  sham  and  advised  people  to  stay  away.  During  April  con 
siderable  quantities  of  gold  were  received  in  San  Francisco  and  the  excitement 
became  intense.  The  city  had  been  building  up  rapidly  since  the  conquest ;  but 
now  the  rush  to  the  mines  almost  depopulated  it.  Houses  were  left  tenantless, 
business  was  suspended,  ships  were  left  in  the  bay  without  sailors,  soldiers  de 
serted  from  the  forts  and  rancheros  left  their  grain  unharvested. 

The  news  did  not  spread  abroad  in  time  to  bring  many  gold-seekers  into 
California  during  1848.  In  the  spring  of  1849,  tne  great  rush  from  the  outside 
world  began — both  by  land  and  by  sea.  Gold  had  now  been  discovered  over 
an  area  of  more  than  two  hundred  miles  and  new  fields  were  constantly  being 
opened.  San  Francisco,  which  was  the  great  entrepot  for  commerce  and  travel 
by  sea,  grew  with  astonishing  rapidity.  At  the  time  of  the  discovery  of  gold  the 
population  of  San  Francisco  was  about  800  and  the  white  population  of  California 
about  6000.  At  the  close  of  1849  the  population  of  the  territory  numbered  one 
hundred  thousand,  four-fifths  of  which  had  reached  it  in  that  one  year.  During 
1848  Slitter's  Fort  was  the  great  distributing  point  for  the  mines.  Sacramento 
was  laid  out  in  1849  anc'  soon  became  the  chief  commercial  city  of  the  interior. 
At  the  end  of  the  year  its  population  had  reached  $000. 

California,  in  1848,  was  still  held  as  a  conquered  country.  The  Mexican 
laws  were  in  force  and  the  government  was  half  civil  and  half  military.  The 
rapid  influx  of  population  brought  complications.  After  the  treaty  was  pro 
claimed  in  California,  August  7th,  1848,  Cov.  Mason  promulgated  a  code  of  laws 
that  were  intended  to  tide  over  affairs  until  a  territorial  government  could  be 
established  by  Congress.  It  was  not  satisfactory  to  Americans.  Gov.  Mason 
was  a  faithful  and  conscientious  military  officer  with  but  little  knowledge  of  civil 
affairs.  He  did  the  best  he  could  under  the  circumstances,  but  he  was  able  to 
exercise  very  little  authority,  either  civil  or  military.  His  soldiers  deserted  to 
the  gold  fields  and  the  municipal  governments  were  anomalous  affairs,  generally 
recognizing  no  authority  above  themselves.  Having  been  in  the  military  service 
for  thirty  years,  he  asked  to  be  relieved.  April  I2th,  1849,  Brigadier-General 
Bennett  K.  Riley  arrived  at  Monterey  and  the  next  day  entered  upon  the  duties 
of  his  office  as  governor.  Brig.-Gen.  Persifer  F.  Smith  was  made  military  com- 



mander  of  the  United  States  troops  on  the  Pacific  coast.     Most  of  the  troops 
he  brought  with  him  deserted  at  the  first  opportunity  after  their  arrival 

A  year  had  passed  since  the  treaty  of  peace  was  signed,  but  Congress  had 
done  nothing  for  California.  The  pro-slavery  element  in  that  body  was  deter 
mined  to  fasten  the  curse  of  slavery  on  a  portion  of  the  territory  acquired  from 
Mexico  and  all  legislation  was  at  a  standstill.  The  people  were  becoming  restive 
under  the  mixed  military  and  civil  government.  The  question  of  calling  a  con 
vention  to  form  a  state  constitution  had  been  agitated  for  some  time.  Conform 
ing  to  the  expressed  wish  of  many  leading  men  of  the  territory,  Governor  Riley 
called  an  election  August  ist,  1849,  to  elect  delegates  to  form  a  state  constitution, 
or  a  territorial  government,  if  that  should  seen  best,  and  to  elect  judges,  prefects 
and  alcaldes  for  the  principal  municipal  districts.  The  convention  was  to  consist 

of  thirty-seven  delegates, 
but  forty-eight  were 
elected,  and  when  it  met 
at  Monterey,  September 
ist,  1849,  m  Colton  Hall, 
this  number  was  seated. 
Colton  Hall  was  a  stone 
building  erected  by  Al 
calde  Walter  Colton  for  a 
town  hall  and  school- 
house.  The  money  to 
build  it  was  derived 
partly  from  fines  and 
partly  from  subscription? 
and  the  greater  part  of  the  construction  work  was  done  by  prisoners.  It  was  at 
that  time  the  most  commodious  public  building  in  the  territory. 

Of  the  forty-eight  delegates,  twenty-two  were  from  the  northern  states, 
fifteen  from  the  slave  states,  four  were  of  foreign  birth  and  seven  were  native 
Californians.  Several  of  the  latter  neither  spoke  nor  understood  English  and 
Wm.  E.  P.  Hartnell  was  appointed  interpreter.  Dr.  Robert  Semple  of  Bear  Flag 
fame  was  elected  president ;  Wm.  G.  Marcy  secretary,  and  J.  Ross  Browne  re 
porter.  Early  in  the  session  the  slavery  question  was  disposed  of  by  adopting 
a  section  declaring  that  "  neither  slavery  nor  involuntary  servitude,  unless  for 
the  punishment  of  crimes,  shall  ever  be  tolerated  in  this  state."  The  question 
of  fixing  the  boundaries  of  the  future  state  excited  the  most  discussion.  The 
pro-slavery  faction  was  led  by  Wm.  M.  Gwin,  who  had  recently  come  to  the 
territory  with  the  avowed  intention  of  representing  the  new  state  in  the  United 
States  senate.  The  scheme  of  Gwin  and  his  southern  associates  was  to  make 
the  Rockv  mountains  the  eastern  boundary.  This  would  create  a  state  with  an 





area  of  about  four  hundred  thousand  square  miles.  They  reasoned  that  when 
the  admission  of  the  state  came  before  Congress  the  southern  members  would 
oppose  the  admission  of  so  large  a  territory  under  a  free  state  constitution  and 
that  ultimately  a  compromise  would  be  affected.  California  would  be  split  in 
two  from  east  to  west,  the  old  dividing  line,  the  parallel  of  36°  30"  would  be 
established,  and  Southern  California  would  come  into  the  Union  as  a  slave  state. 
There  were,  at  this  time,  fifteen  free  and  fifteen  slave  states.  If  two  states,  one 
free  and  one  slave,  were  made  out  of  California  territory,  the  equilibrium  would 
be  preserved.  The  Rocky  mountain  boundary  was  adopted  at  one  time,  but  in 
the  closing  days  of  the  session  the  free  state  men  discovered  Gwin's  scheme 
and  it  was  defeated.  The  present  boundaries  were  established  by  a  majority 
of  two. 

A  committee  had  been  appointed  to  receive  propositions  and  designs  for  a 
state  seal.  But  one  design  was  received,  presented  by  Caleb  Lyon,  but  drawn 

by    Robert    S.    Garnett.     It   contained   a   figure    of 

Minerva:  a  grizzly  bear  feeding  on  a  bunch  of 
grapes ;  a  miner  with  his  gold  rocker  and  pan ;  a 
view  of  the  Golden  Gate  with  ships  in  the  bay  and 
])c;iks  of  the  Sierra  Nevada  in  the  distance ;  thirty- 
one  stars  and  above  all  the  word  "  Eureka."  The 
convention  adopted  the  design  as  presented.  The 
constitution  was  completed  on  October  loth  and  an 
election  was  called  by  Gov.  Riley  for  November 
1 3th,  to  ratify  the  constitution,  elect  state  officers, 
a  legislature  and  members  of  Congress.  At  the 
election  Peter  H.  Burnett  was  chosen  governor ; 
John  McDougall,  lieutenant-governor ;  George  W. 
Wright  and  Edward  Gilbert,  members  of  congress. 
During  the  session  of  the  legislature,  Wm.  M.  Gwin 
and  John  C.  Fremont  were  elected  to  the  United 
States  Senate. 

San  Jose  had  been  designated  as  the  state  capital.  On  December  I5th  the 
state  government  was  inaugurated  there.  The  legislature  consisted  of  sixteen 
senators  and  thirty-six  assemblymen.  On  the  22nd  the  legislature  elected  the 
remaining  state  officers,  viz.:  Richard  Roman,  treasurer;  John  S.  Houston,  con 
troller  ;  E.  J.  C.  Kewen,  attorney-general ;  Charles  J.  Whiting,  surveyor-general ; 
S.  C.  Hastings,  chief  justice;  Henry  A.  Lyons  and  Nathaniel  Bennett,  associate 
justices.  The  legislature  continued  in  session  until  April  22nd,  1850.  Although 
this  law-making  body  was  named  the  ''  Legislature  of  a  thousand  drinks  ",  it  did 
a  vast  amount  of  work  and  did  most  of  it  well.  It  divided  the  state  into  twenty- 
seven  counties  and  provided  for  county  government.  It  also  provided  for  the 

HON.    WM.     M.    GWIN. 



incorporation  of  cities  and  towns ;  passed  revenue  and  other  necessary  laws,  both 
civil  and  criminal. 

California  was  a  self  constituted  state.  It  had  organized  a  state  government 
and  put  it  into  operation  without  the  sanction  of  Congress.  It  had  not  been  ad 
mitted  into  the  union  and  it  actually  enjoyed  the  privileges  of  statehood  for  nine 
months  before  it  was  admitted.  When  the  question  of  admission  came  before 
congress  it  evoked  a  bitter  controversy.  The  senate  was  equally  divided — thirty 
members  from  slave  states  and  thirty  from  the  free  states.  There  were  among 

the  southern  senators  some  broad- 
minded  men,  but  there  were  many 
extremists  on  the  subject  of  slavery — 
men  who  would  sacrifice  their  coun 
try  in  order  to  extend  and  per 
petuate  that  sum  of  all  villainies — 
slavery.  This  faction  resorted  to 
every  known  parliamentary  device 
to  prevent  the  admission  of  Cali 
fornia  under  a  free  state  constitu 
tion.  On  August  1 3th  the  bill  for 
admission  finally  came  to  a  vote ;  it 
passed  the  senate — thirty- four  ayes 
to  eighteen  nays.  Even  then  the 
opposition  did  not  cease.  Ten  of 
the  southern  extremists  joined  in  a 
protest  against  the  action  of  the 
majority.  In  the  house  the  bill 
passed  by  a  vote  of  one  hundred  and 
fifty  to  fifty-six.  It  was  approved 
and  signed  by  President  Fillmore 
September  9th,  1850.  On  the  nth  of  September  the  California  senators  and 
congressmen  presented  themselves  to  be  sworn  in.  The  southern  faction  of  the 
senate,  headed  by  Jefferson  Davis,  who  had  been  one  of  the  most  bitter  opponents 
to  admission,  objected.  But  their  protest  came  too  late. 

The  news  of  the  admission  of  California  as  a  state  reached  San  Francisco 
on  the  morning  of  October  i8th,  by  the  mail  steamer  Oregon.  Business  was  at 
once  suspended,  courts  adjourned  and  the  people  went  wild  with  delight.  Mes 
sengers  mounted  on  fleet  horses  spread  the  news  through  the  state.  Everywhere 
there  was  rejoicing.  For  ten  months  the  state  government  had  been  in  full  oper 
ation  ;  its  acts  were  now  legalized  and  it  continued  in  power  without  change  or 

HON.    PETER    H.    BURNETT, 
First  Constitutional  Governor  of  California. 



interruption  under  the  officers  elected  in  1849  for  two  years.  The  first  state 
election  after  admission  was  held  in  October,  1851.  John  Bigler  was  elected 




THE  tales  of  the  fabulous  richness  of  the  California  gold  fields  were  spread 
throughout  the  civilized  world  and  drew  to  the  state  all  classes  and 
and  conditions  of  men — the  bad  as  well  as  the  good.  They  came  from 
Europe,  from  South  America  and  from  Mexico ;  from  far  Australia  and  Tas 
mania  came  the  ex-convict  and  the  "  ticket-of-leave  "  man ;  and  from  Asia  came 
the  "  Chinee."  In  1851  the  criminal  element  became  so  dominant  as  to  seri 
ously  threaten  the  existence  of  the  chief  city  of  the  state — San  Francisco.  Ter 
rible  conflagrations  swept  over  the  city  that  year  and  destroyed  the  greater  part 
of  the  business  portion.  The  fires  were  known  to  be  of  incendiary  origin. 
The  bold  and  defiant  attitude  of  the  lawless  classes  led  to  the  organization  of 
the  better  element  into  a  tribunal  known  as  the  "  Vigilance  Committee,"  which 
disregarded  the  legally  constituted  authorities,  who  were  either  too  weak  or  too 
corrupt  to  control  the  law-defying  element  and  took  the  power  in  its  own  hands. 
It  tried  and  executed,  by  hanging,  four  notorious  criminals — Jenkins,  Stuart, 
Whitaker  and  McKenzie.  Such  vigorous  measures  adopted  by  the  Committee 


soon  purified  the  city  from  the  worst  class  that  preyed  upon  it.  Several  of  the 
smaller  towns  and  some  of  the  mining  camps  also  formed  "  vigilance  commit 
tees  "  and  a  number  of  the  rascals  who  had  fled  from  San  Francisco  met  a 
deserved  fate  in  these  places. 

During  the  early  fifties  the  better  elements  in  the  population  of  San  Fran 
cisco  were  too  much  engrossed  in  the  rushing  business  affairs  of  that  period 
of  excitement,  to  give  time  or  thought  to  political  affairs  and  consequently  the 
government  of  the  city  gradually  drifted  into  the  hands  of  vicious  and  corrupt 
men.  Many  of  the  city  authorities  had  obtained  their  offices  by  fraud  and  bal 
lot  stuffing  and  instead  of  protecting  the  community  against  scoundrels,  they 
protected  the  scoundrels  against  the  community.  James  King,  an  ex-banker 
and  a  man  of  great  courage  and  persistence,  started  a  small  paper  called  the 
Daily  Evening  Bulletin.  He  vigorously  assailed  the  criminal  elements  and  the 
county  and  city  officials.  His  denunciations  at  last  aroused  public  sentiment. 
The  murder  of  United  States  Marshal  Richardson  by  a  gambler  named  Cora 
further  inflamed  the  public  mind.  It  was  feared  that,  by  the  connivance  of  the 
county  officials,  Cora  would  escape  punishment.  The  trial  resulted  in  a  hung 
jury  and  there  were  strong  suspicions  that  some  of  the  jury  had  been  bribed. 
King  continued  through  the  Bulletin  to  hurl  his  most  bitter  invectives  against 
the  corrupt  officials.  He  published  the  fact  that  James  Casey,  a  supervisor  from 
the  twelfth  ward,  was  an  ex-convict  from  Sing  Sing  prison.  Casey  waylaid 
King,  May  I4th,  1856,  at  the  corner  of  Montgomery  and  Washington  streets, 
and  in  a  cowardly  manner  shot  him  down.  Casey  immediately  surrendered 
himself  to  a  deputy  sheriff,  Lafayette  McByrne,  who  was  near.  King  was  not 
killed  outright,  but  the  physicians,  after  an  examination,  pronounced  the  case 
hopeless ;  Casey  was  confined  in  the  city  jail  and  as  a  mob  began  to  gather  there, 
he  was  taken  to  the  county  jail  for  greater  safety.  A  crowd  pursued  him,  cry 
ing,  "  Hang  him,  kill  him."  At  the  jail  the  mob  was  stopped  by  an  array  of 
deputy  sheriffs,  police  officers  and  a  number  of  Casey's  personal  friends — all 
armed.  The  excitement  spread  throughout  the  city.  The  old  Vigilance  Com 
mittee  of  1851,  or  rather  a  new  organization  out  of  the  remnants  of  the  old  one, 
was  formed.  Five  thousand  men  were  enrolled  within  a  few  days,  arms  were 
procured  and  headquarters  secured  on  Sacramento  street  between  Davis  and 
Front.  William  T.  Coleman,  chairman  of  the  old  vigilantes,  was  made  the  pres 
ident  and  Isaac  Bluxon,  Jr.,  was  the  secretary;  Chas.  Doane  was  elected  chief 
marshal  of  the  military  division. 

The  San  Francisco  Herald,  edited  by  John  Nugent,  then  the  leading  paper 
of  the  city,  came  out  with  a  scathing  editorial  denouncing  the  vigilance  commit 
tee.  The  merchants  at  once  withdrew  advertising  patronage.  The  next  morn 
ing  the  paper  appeared  reduced  from  forty  columns  to  a  single  page,  but  still 
hostile  to  the  committee.  It  finally  died  from  lack  of  patronage.  Sunday,  Mav 


i8th,  1856,  the  military  division  was  ready  to  storm  the  jail  if  necessary  to 
obtain  possession  of  the  prisoners,  Casey  and  Cora.  The  different  companies, 
1500  strong  and  with  two  pieces  of  artillery  marched  from  their  headquarters 
and  completely  invested  the  jail.  One  of  these  guns  was  planted  to  command 
the  door  of  the  jail,  and  a  demand  was  made  on  Sheriff  Scannell  for  the  pris 
oners.  The  prison  guards  made  no  resistance ;  the  prisoners  were  surrendered 
at  once  and  taken  to  the  headquarters  of  the  vigilantes.  On  May  2Oth,  while 
the  murderers  were  on  trial  the  death  of  King  was  announced.  Both  men  were 
convicted  and  sentenced  to  be  hanged.  King's  funeral,  the  largest  and  most 
imposing  ever  seen  in  San  Francisco,  took  place  on  the  23rd.  While  the 
funeral  cortege  was  passing  through  the  streets,  Casey  and  Cora  were  hanged 
in  front  of  the  windows  of  the  vigilantes'  headquarters.  About  an  hour  before 
his  execution  Cora  was  married  to  a  notorious  courtesan,  Arabella  Ryane,  better 
known  as  Bell  Cora. 

Governor  J.  Neely  Johnson  at  first  seemed  inclined  not  to  interfere  with 
the  vigilance  committee;  but  afterward,  acting  under  the  advice  of  Volney  E. 
Howard,  David  S.  Terry  and  others  of  the  dominant  pro-slavery  faction,  he 
issued  a  proclamation  commanding  the  committee  to  disband — to  which  no 
attention  was  paid.  The  governor  then  appointed  William  T.  Sherman,  major- 
general.  Sherman  called  for  recruits  to  suppress  the  uprising.  Seventy-five 
or  a  hundred — mostly  gamblers — responded.  Gen.  Wool,  in  command  of  the 
troops  in  the  Department  of  the  Pacific,  refused  to  loan  Gov.  Johnson  arms  to 
equip  his  "  Law  and  Order  "  recruits  and  Gen.  Sherman  resigned.  Volney  E. 
Howard  was  then  appointed  major-general.  A  squad  of  the  vigilance  commit 
tee  was  appointed  to  arrest  a  man  named  Maloney  who  was  at  the  time  in  the 
company  of  David  S.  Terrey  (then  chief  justice  of  the  state)  and  several  other 
members  of  the  "  Law  and  Order  "  party.  They  resisted  the  police  and  in  the 
melee  Terrey  stabbed  the  sergeant  of  the  party,  Sterling  A.  Hopkins,  and  then 
he  and  his  associates  made  their  escape  to  the  armory  of  the  San  Francisco 
Blues,  one  of  their  strongholds.  When  the  report  of  the  stabbing  reached 
headquarters  the  great  bell  sounded  the  alarm  and  the  vigilantes,  in  a  very 
short  space  of  time,  surrounded  the  armory  and  had  their  cannon  planted  to 
batter  it  down ;  Terrey,  Maloney  and  the  others  of  their  party  in  the  building, 
considering  discretion  the  better  part  of  valor,  surrendered  and  were  at  once 
taken  to  Fort  "  Gunnybags,"  so  known  on  account  of  a  breastwork  made  of 
gunnybags  filled  with  sand  which  the  vigilantes  had  placed  about  the  building 
used  as  headquarters.  The  arms  of  the  "  Law  and  Order "  party  at  their 
various  rendezvous  were  surrenderd  to  the  vigilantes  and  the  companies 

Terrey  was  closely  confined  in  a  cell  at  the  headquarters  of  the  committee. 
He  was  tried  for  assault  upon  Hopkins,  who  finally  recovered,  and  upon  sev- 



eral  other  parties  and  was  found  guilty ;  but  after  he  had  been  held  a  prisoner 
for  some  time,  he  was  released.  He  was  forced  to  resign  his  office  as  chief 
justice,  however,  and  joined  Johnson  and  Howard  in  Sacramento,  where  he  felt 
safer  than  in  San  Francisco. 

On  July  29th,  Hethrington  and  Brace  were  hanged  from  a  gallows  erected 
on  Davis  street  between  Sacramento  and  Commercial.  Both  of  these  men  had 
committed  murder.  The  committee  transported  from  the  state  some  thirty  dis 
reputable  characters  and  a  number  of  others  deported  themselves.  A  few, 
among  them  the  notorious  Ned  McGowan,  managed  to  keep  concealed  until 
the  storm  was  over.  A  few  of  the  exiles  returned  after  the  committee  was  dis 
banded  and  began  suit  for  damages,  but  failed  to  secure  anything.  The  com 
mittee  finished  its  labors  and  dissolved  with  a  grand  parade,  August  i8th,  1856, 
after  doing  a  most  valuable  work.  For  several  years  afterwards  San  Francisco 
was  one  of  the  best  governed  cities  in  the  United  States.  It  is  a  noticeable  fact 
that  the  vigilance  committee  was  largely  made  up  of  men  from  the  northern 
and  western  states,  while  the  so-called  "  Law  and  order  "  party  was  composed 
mostly  of  the  pro-slavery,  office-holding  faction  which  then  ruled  the  state.  The 
rush  of  gold-seekers  to  California  in  the  early  fifties  had  brought  to  the  state 
a  certain  class  of  adventurers — many  of  whom  were  too  lazy  or  too  proud  to 
work.  They  were  ready  to  engage  in  almost  any  lawless  undertaking  that 
promised  plunder  and  adventure.  The  defeat  of  the  pro-slavery  politicians  in 
their  attempt  to  fasten  their  "peculiar  institution''  upon  any  part  of  the  terri 
tory  acquired  from  Mexico  made  them  very  bitter.  The  more  unscrupulous 
among  them  began  to  look  about  for  new  fields  over  which  slavery  might  be 
spread.  As  slavery  could  only  be  made  profitable  in  southern  lands,  Cuba, 
Mexico  and  Central  America  became  the  arena  for  enacting  that  form  of  piracy 
known  as  "  filibustering."  Although  the  armed  invasion  of  countries  with  which 
the  United  States  was  at  peace  was  in  direct  violation  of  international  laws, 
yet  the  federal  office-holders  in  the  southern  states  and  in  California,  all  of 
whom  belonged  to  the  pro-slavery  element,  made  no  attempt  to  prevent  these 
invasions,  but  instead  secretly  aided  them,  or  at  least  sympathized  with  them 
to  the  extent  of  allowing  them  to  recruit  men  and  depart  without  molestation. 
One  of  the  leading  filibusters  from  California  was  a  Tennesseean  by  the  name 
of  Walker.  His  first  attempt  was  against  Lower  California.  He  captured  La 
Paz  and  established  what  he  called  the  Republic  of  Lower  California  and  pro 
claimed  it  slave  territory.  He  and  his  army  plundered  and  robbed  wherever 
there  was  anything  to  be  obtained.  The  country  was  so  poor  and  his  army  so 
mutinous  that  he  was  compelled  to  abandon  his  so-called  republic,  after  shoot 
ing  several  of  his  dupes  for  desertion.  After  this  he  had  a  varied  career  as  a 
filibuster  in  Central  America.  He  was  captured  in  Honduras  in  1860,  court- 
martialed  and  shot. 




As  has  been  previously  stated,  the  constitutional  convention  of  1849  met 
in  Colton  Hall  in  Monterey.  During  its  sessions  the  question  of  locating  the 
capital  carrie  up.  San  Jose  offered  to  donate  a  square  of  thirty-two  acres  val 
ued  at  $60,000  for  capital  grounds  and  give  the  free  use  of  a  building  for  meet 
ings  of  the  Legislature.  The  offer  was  accepted  and  the  first  Legislature  con 
vened  there,  December  I5th,  1849.  The  first  capital  of  the  state  was  a  two- 
story  adobe  building,  40  by  60  feet,  which  had  been  built  for  a  hotel.  This 
building  was  destroyed  by  fire  April  29th,  1853.  The  accommodations  at  San 

Jose  were  not  satisfac 
tory.  The  Legislature 
next  accepted  a  proposi 
tion  from  Gen.  M.  G.  Val- 
lejo  to  locate  the  capital 
at  his  new  town  of  Val- 
lejo.  He  offered  to  do 
nate  156  acres  of  land  for 
a  site  and  within  two 
years  to  give  $370,000  in 
money  to  be  expended  in 
the  erection  of  public 
buildings.  When  the 
members  of  the  Legisla 
ture  met  at  the  new  cap 
ital  January  2nd,  1852, 
they  found  a  large,  un 
furnished  and  partly  unfinished  wooden  building  for  their  reception.  Accommo 
dations  were  very  poor  and  even  food  was  wanting  for  the  hungry  law 
makers.  Sacramento  then  offered  its  new  court  house  as  a  meeting  place  and 
on  the  i6th  the  Legislature  convened  in  that  city.  The  great  flood  of  1852 
inundated  the  town  and  the  lawmakers  were  forced  to  reach  the  halls  of  legis 
lation  in  boats — again  there  was  dissatisfaction. 

Benicia  now  came  to  the  front  with  the  offer  of  her  new  city  hall  which 
was  assuredly  above  high  water  mark.  Gen.  Vallejo  had  become  financially 
embarrassed  and  could  not  carry  out  his  contract,  so  it  was  annulled.  The 
offer  of  Benicia  was  accepted  and  on  May  i8th,  1853,  that  town  was  declared 
the  permanent  capital. 

In  the  Legislature  of  1854  the  capital  question  again  came  to  the  front. 
Proposals  were  received  from  several  aspiring  cities,  but  Sacramento  won  with 
the  offer  of  her  new  court  house  and  a  block  of  land  between  I  and  J,  Ninth 




and  Tenth  streets.  Then  the  question  of  locating  the  capital  got  into  the  courts. 
The  supreme  court  decided  in  favor  of  Sacramento.  Before  the  Legislature 
met  again  the  court  house  burned  down.  A  more  commodious  one  was  at  once 
erected  and  rented  to  the  state  at  $12,000  a  year.  Then  Oakland  made  an 
unsuccessful  attempt  to  secure  the  capital.  Finally  a  bill  was  passed  author 
izing  the  erection  of  a  capitol  building  in  Sacramento  at  a  cost  not  to  exceed 
$500,000.  Work  was  begun  on  the  foundation  in  October,  1860.  The  great 
flood  of  1861-62  inundated  the  town  and  ruined  the  foundations  of  the  capitol. 
San  Francisco  made  a  vigorous  effort  to  secure  the  seat  of  government,  but 
was  not  successful.  Work  was  resumed  on  the  building,  the  plans  were  changed, 

the  edifice  enlarged  and 
finally  after  many  delays 
it  was  ready  for  occu 
pancy  in  December,  1869. 
From  the  original  limit 
of  half  a  million  dollars, 
its  cost  when  completed 
had  reached  a  million  and 
a  half.  The  amount  ex 
pended  on  the  building 
and  the  grounds  to  date 
is  $2,972,925. 

State     Senator    E.     C. 
Seymour,     representing 
Orange  and  San  Bernar 
dino  counties  in  the  Thir- 
STATE   CAPITOL.    sACRAMENTTo.  tietn  and  Thirty-first  ses 

sions,  introduced  a  bill  to  remove  the  capital  to  San  Jose.  The  bill  passed,  but 
the  scheme  was  defeated  in  the  courts. 


The  Civil  War  (1861-65)  did  not  seriously  affect  the  prosperity  of  Cali 
fornia.  During  its  progress  about  16,000  volunteers  enlisted  in  the  Union 
Arm}-.  Much  to  their  disappointment  these  men  were  retained  on  the  Pacific 
coast  to  fight  Indians  and  keep  the  disloyal  element  in  check.  One  battalion 
of  five  companies  paid  its  own  passage  to  the  east  and  joined  the  Second  Mass. 
Cavalry  in  which  it  did  splendid  service  in  Virginia  and  Maryland.  Quite  a 
number  of  Confederate  sympathizers  from  California  joined  the  Southern  armies 
during  the  war.  Those  who  remained  in  the  state  were  closely  watched  by 
the  federal  authorities  and  were  not  able  to  render  much  assistance  to  their 
friends  of  the  South. 



Previous  to  1860  the  chief  industry  of  the  state  was  mining-.  During  the 
decade  between  1850  and  1860  a  number  of  rushes  were  made  to  new  diggings 
reputed  to  be  rich  in  the  precious  metals.  The  most  famous  of  these  were  the 
Kern  river  in  1855  and  the  Frazer  river  in  1857 — both  ended  in  disaster  to 
those  engaged  in  them.  In  1859  the  silver  mines  of  Washoe  were  discovered 
and  a  great  rush  made  to  these.  The  Comstock  lodes  were  very  rich  and  many 
fortunes  were  made.  Stock  gambling  became  a  mania  in  San  Francisco  in 
which  fortunes  were  lost. 


The  southern  part  of  the  state  was  devoted  to  cattle  raising  which  in  the 
early  sixties  was  immensely  profitable.  The  land  was  held  in  large  ranches 
and  at  the  time  of  the  discovery  of  gold  was  mostly  owned  by  native  Califor- 
nians.  The  sudden  influx  of  population  consequent  on  the  discovery  of  gold 
greatly  increased  the  value  of  the  cattle  and  made  the  stock  owners  rich.  With 
wealth  came  extravagant  habits  and  when  the  decline  began  they  borrowed 
money  at  usurious  rates  and  the  high  interest  ruined  them.  The  terrible  dry 
years  of  1863-64,  when  thousands  of  cattle  starved  to  death,  put  an  end  to 
cattle  raising  as  the  distinctive  industry  of  the  south.  The  decadence  of  cattle 
growing  brought  about  the  subdivision  of  the  large  ranches  and  the  develop 
ment  of  grain  growing  and  fruit  culture.  In  the  southern  part  of  the  state 
the  culture  of  citrus  fruits — the  orange  and  lemon — has  become  the  leading 
industry.  In  favorable  localities  in  the  central  and  northern  sections  of  the  state 
the  production  of  deciduous  fruits — the  apple,  peach,  prune,  pear,  etc.,  takes 
precedence ;  while  the  great  valleys  of  the  Sacramento  and  the  San  Joaquin 
are  vast  wheat  fields. 


Several  schemes  for  the  building  of  a  trans-continental  railroad  were 
promulgated  in  California  during  the  fifties.  The  first  railroad  built  in  the 
state  was  the  Sacramento  Valley  road,  which  was  completed  to  Folsom  in  Feb 
ruary,  1856,  and  was  twenty-two  miles  in  length.  The  next  was  the  road  from 
San  Francisco  to  San  Jose,  fifty-one  miles  long,  completed  January  i6th,  1864. 
On  June  28th,  1861,  at  Sacramento  the  Central  Railroad  of  California  was 
organized,  with  Leland  Stanford,  president ;  C.  P.  Huntington,  vice-president ; 
Mark  Hopkins,  treasurer ;  James  Baily,  secretary ;  and  T.  D.  Judah,  chief  engi 
neer.  The  capital  stock  of  the  company  was  fixed  at  $8,50x2,000.  The  whole 
amount  of  stock  subscribed  by  its  promoters  would  not  have  built  five  miles  of 
road ;  none  of  the  men  at  that  time  connected  with  the  road  were  rich  and  the 
whole  affair  was  regarded  in  the  nature  of  a  joke.  On  July  1st,  1862,  the 



Pacific  railroad  bill  was  passed  by  Congress,  authorizing  the  issuance  of  gov 
ernment  bonds  to  the  amount  of  $16,000  per  mile  to  the  foot  of  the  mountains 
and  of  $48,000  per  mile  through  the  mountains.  Forty  miles  had  to  be  built 
and  equipped  before  any  bonds  were  issued.  In  addition  to  this  there  was  a 
government  land  subsidy  of  12,800  acres  per  mile.  Ground  was  broken  for  the 
road  at  Sacramento,  February  22nd,  1863.  The  Union  Pacific  was  built  west 
ward  from  Omaha.  On  May  loth,  1869,  the  two  roads  met  at  Promontory, 
near  Salt  Lake,  and  were  united. 

The  first  road  built  in  the  southern  part  of  the  state  was  the  Los  Angeles 
and  San  Pedro,  completed  to  Wilmington,  in  October,  1869.  This  connected  Los 
Angeles  with  a  sea-port  and  greatly  facilitated  commerce.  The  Southern  Pacific 
Railroad  was  completed  to  Los  Angeles,  September  5th,  1877.  It  had,  in  1872, 
obtained  a  subsidy  from  Los  Angeles  county  of  about  $fxx>,ooo ;  $225,000  being 
the  Los  Angeles  and  San  Pedro  Railroad.  For  this  it  was  to  build  twenty-five 
miles  of  road  north  of  Los  Angeles  and  the  same  distance  to  the  east.  The 
northern  end  met  the  extension  of  the  road  south  from  Lathrop  on  the  Central 
Pacific  in  the  Soledad  canyon  on  September  5th,  1876,  when  the  last  tie  was 
laid  and  the  golden  spike  driven.  The  eastern  end  was  completed  in  1883  to 
El  Paso,  where  it  met  the  Texas  Pacific  and  thus  gave  California  a  second  trans 
continental  line. 

The  Atlantic  and  Pacific  uniting  with  the  Atchison,  Topeka  and  Santa  Fe, 
built  jointly  their  main  line  from  Albuquerque  to  the  Colorado  at  the  Needles. 
From  there  the  Atlantic  &  Pacific  built  to  Barstow  about  eighty  miles  north 
east  of  San  Bernardino;  thence  the  California  Southern  continued  the  line  to 
San  Diego.  The  road  was  completed  to  Colton  in  August,  1882,  and  opened 
from  San  Diego  to  San  Bernardino  September  I3th,  1883.  In  1887  the  road 
was  built  westward  from  San  Bernardino  until  it  met  the  San  Gabriel  Valley 
line — which  was  built  eastward  from  Los  Angeles  to  Mud  Springs.  The  dif 
ferent  divisions  of  the  road  were  united  under  one  management  with  its  west 
ern  terminus  at  Los  Angeles,  thus  giving  California  its  third  transcontinental 
line.  The  growth  of  the  state  and  particularly  of  the  southern  part  of  the  state 
since  the  advent  of  the  railroads  has  been  phenomenal. 


The  first  public  school  in  California  was  opened  at  San  Jose  in  December, 
1794,  seventeen  years  after  the  founding  of  that  pueblo.  The  pioneer  teacher 
was  Manuel  de  Vargas,  a  retired  sergeant  of  infantry.  Jose  Manuel  Toca,  a 
ship  boy,  opened  the  first  school  in  Santa  Barbara,  in  1795.  Maximo  Pifia,  an 
invalid  soldier,  was  the  first  schoolmaster  of  Los  Angeles,  teaching  in  1817  and 
1818.  During  the  Spanish  era  the  schoolmasters  were  mostly  invalid  soldiers 
— men  of  little  learning — about  all  they  could  teach  was  reading  and  writing 



and  the  doctrina  Christiana.  They  were  brutal  tyrants  and  their  school  gov 
ernments  military  despotisms.  The  people  were  indifferent  to  education  and  as 
the  schoolmasters  were  paid  by  rate  bills  the  terms  were  short  and  the  vacations 
long.  Mexico  did  somewhat  better  for  public  education  than  Spain.  The  school 
terms  were  a  little  longer  and  the  vacations  proportionately  shorter,  but  it  was 
not  uncommon  then  for  a  vacation  to  last  two  or  three  years. 

During  the  war  of  American  conquest  the  schools  were  all  closed.  After 
the  cessation  of  hostilities  in  1847,  a  school  under  army  regulations  was  estab 
lished  in  Los  Angeles — or  rather  it  was  under  the  superintendency  of  Col.  J. 
D.  Stevenson,  the  military  commander  of  the  Department  of  the  South.  Dr. 
William  B.  Osburn  was  appointed  teacher.  This  was  the  first  English  com 
mon  school  established  in  California.  After  peace  was  declared  and  the  munic 
ipal  governments  organized,  schools  were  opened  in  the  large  towns.  These 
were  subscription  schools,  although  in  some  cases  the  town  council  appropri 
ated  public  funds  for  the  education  of  a  certain  number  of  poor  children  who 
were  entitled  to  attend  some  private  school. 

The  first  act  to  establish  a  common  school  system  in  California  was 
approved  May  3rd,  1852.  Great  advance  was  made  in  perfecting  and  building 
up  this  system  from  1863  to  1869  under  the  administration  of  State  School 
Superintendent  John  Swett,  who  has  been  called  the  "  Horace  Mann  of  Cali 
fornia."  The  first  state  Normal  School  for  "  the  training  of  teachers "  was 
established  in  San  Francisco  in  1863.  It  was  afterwards  removed  to  San  Jose. 
There  are  now  five  Normal  Schools  in  the  state.  The  public  school  system  and 
the  public  schools  of  California  rank  among  the  best  in  the  United  States. 

Governors  of  California. 


Caspar  de  Portala ..  .  1767-1771  Jose  Joaquin  de  Arrillaga.  .  1792-1794 

Felipe  de  Barri 1771-1774  Diego  de  Borica 1794-1800 

Felipe  de  Neve 1774-1782  Jose  Joaquin  de  Arrillaga.  .  1800-1814 

Pedro  Pages 1782-1790  Jose  Dario  Arguello 1814-1815 

Jose  Antonio  Romeu 1790-1792  Pablo  Vicente  de  Sola 1815-1822 


Luis  Antonio  Arguello 1822-1825      Jose  Castro 1835-1836 

Jose  Maria  de  Echandia.  .  .  1825-1831       Nicolas   Guiterrez    1836 

Manuel  Victoria    1831-1832      Juan  Bautista  Alvarado 1836-1842 

Pio  Pico 1832-1833       Manuel  Micheltorena   1842-1845 

Jose  Figueroa   1833-1835      Pio  Pico  1845-1846 


Commodore  Robert  F.  Stockton Aug.  17,  i846-Jan.  16,  1847 

Captain  John  C.  Fremont Jan.  i6-March  i,  1847 

General  Stephen  W.  Keirnev March  i-May  31,  1847 

Colonel  Richard  B.  Mason May  31,  i847-April  13,  1849 

General  Bennett  Rilcy April  13,  i849-Nov.  13,  1849 


Pether  H.   Burnett 1849-1851  Romualdo  Pacheco   1875 

John  McDougal 1851-1852  William  Irwin   1875-1880 

John  Bigler 1852-1855  George  C.  Perkins 1880-1883 

J.  Neely  Johnson 1855-1858  George  Stoneman    1883-1887 

John  B.  Wellcr 1858-1860  Washington  Bartlett 1887 

Milton    S.    Latham 1860  Robert  W.  Waterman 1887-1891 

John  G.  Downey 1860-1862  Henry  H.  Markham 1891-1895 

Leland  Stanford    1862-1863  James  H.  Budd 1895-1899 

Frederick  F.  Low 1863-1867  Henry  T.  Gage 1899-1903 

Henry  H.  Haight 1867-1871  George  C.  Pardee 1903-1907 

Newton  Booth  1871-1875  J.  N.  Gillett 1907 

92                             BRIEF  HISTORY  OF  CALIFORNIA 







Aguaje  de  la  Centinela  

.  B.  Abila  


Aug.  23,  1872 

Loa  Alamitos   

.  A.  Stearns  


Aug.  29,  1874 


.  A.  Duarte   


June    6,  1878 


.  Henry  Dalton  


May   29,  1876 

La  Ballona  

.  A.  Machado  et  al  


Dec.     8,  1873 

Boca  de  Santa  Monica  

.  Ysidro  Reves  et  al  


July    21,  1882 

Boca  de  la  Plava  

.  E.  Vejar  


Mar.     i,  1879 

La  Brea  

.  A.  Rocha  et  al  


April  1  5,  1873 

Las  Bolsas    

.  R.  Yorba  and  M.  C.  Nieto. 


June  19,  1874 


.  D.  W.  Alexander  et  al  


Aug.    2,  1872 

La  Canada  

.  J.  R.  Scott  et  al  


Aug.     i,   1866 

Canada  de  los  Alisos  

.  J.  Serrano  


June  27,  1871 

Canada  de  los  Nogales  

.  J.  M.  Aguilar  


May     4,  1882 

Los  Cerritos   

.  Juan  Temple  


Dec.     7,   1867 

Paso  de  la  Tijera  

.  T.  Sanchez  et  al  


•   May  22,   1873 

Las  Cienegas  

.  J.  Abila  et  al  


June  15,  1871 

El  Conejo  

.  J.  de  la  G.  y  Noriega  


Jan.     8,  1873 

Los  Coyotes  

.  Andreas  Pico  et  al  


Mar.    9,  1875 

El  Encino    

.  V.  de  la  Osa  et  al  


Jan.      8,  1876 

El  Escorpion  

.  Urbano  et  al_  


Dec.   n,  1883 

Los  Feliz  

.  M.  Y.  Verdugo  


April  18,  1871 

Lomas  de  Santiago  

.  T.  Yorba   


Feb.     i,  1868 

La  Habra  

.  Andreas  Pico  et  al  


Dec.     4,  1882 

Huerta  de  Cuati  

.  V.  Reid  


June  30,  1859 

Island  de  S.  Catalina  

.  J.  M.  Covarrubias  


April  20,  1867 

La  Liebre  

.  J.  M.  Flores  


June  21,  -1879 

i  Aug.    9,   1866 

Los  Angeles  City  lands.  .  .  . 

.  Citv  of  Los  Angeles  


}  Aug.    4,  1875 

La  Merced  

.F.  P.  F.  Temple  


Feb.    13,  1872 

Mission   San  Gabriel,  lot.  . 

.  J.  S.  Alemany  


Dec.     4,  1875 

Mission  San  Fernando,  lot.  . 

.  Bp.  J.  S.  Alemany  


May  31,   1864 

Mission  San  Gabriel,  lot.  ... 

.  Bp.  J.  S.  Alemany  


Nov.  19,  1859 

Mission  Vieja  

.  Juan  Foster  


Aug.    6,  1866 

Ex-mission  San  Fernando.  . 

.  .F.  deCelis  


Jan.     8,  1873 

Los  Nogales  

.  Maria  de  J.  Garcia  et  al  .  .  . 


June  29,   1882 

El  Niguil  

.  Juan  Abila    


April    5,   1873 

Los  Palos  Verdes  

.  J.  L.  Sepulveda  et  al  


June  23,  1880 

Paso  de  Bartolo,  part  

.  B.  Guirado  


Sept.  27,  1867 

Paso  de  Bartolo,  part  

.  Joaquin  Sepulveda  


Mar.  17,   1  88  1 



Tracts  near  San  Gabriel . 

Paso  de  Bartolo,  part Pio  Pico 8,991  Aug.    6,  1881 

Potrero  de  Felipe  Lugo Morilla  &  Romero 2,042  June  15,   1871 

Potrero  Grande    J.  M.  Sanchez 4,431  July    19,  1859 

Prospero  tract R.  Valenzuela  et  al 23  Dec.     4,  1875 

Providentia ,D.  W.  Alexander  et  al.  . .  .     4,064  Aug.    6,  1872 

La  Puente Workman  &  Roland 48,790  April  19,   1867 

Rincon  de  la  Brea G.  Ybarra 4,452  Nov.  14,  1864 

Rincon  de  los  Bueyes F.  Higuera  et  al 3>I27  Aug.  27,  1872 

San  Antonio   A.  M.  Lugo 29,513  July    20,  1866 

Rodeo  de  las  Aguas M.  R.  Yaldez 4,419  June  27,   1871 

San  Francisco Jacobo  Feliz  et  al 48,61 1  Feb.    12,   1875 

f  Juan  Silva 50  

H.  P.  Dorsey 50  

Michael  White   78  Aug.  26,  1871 

Jose  Ledesma 22  June  17,   1871 

Daniel  Sexton 227  May   16,  1871 

J.  P.  de  Courtney 49  Jan.    20,  1871 

Francisco  Sales 19  June  20,   1871 

^  Jose  Domingo 22  Aug.  23,  1871 

San  Francisquito Henry  Dalton 8,893  May  30,  1867 

San  Joaquin  . . Jose  Sepulveda 48,893  Sept.  19,  1867 

San  Jose    Dalton,  Palomares  &  Vejar.    22,340  Jan.    20,  1875 

San  Jose  de  Buenos  Ayres.  . .  B.  D.  Wilson 4438  July      5,  1866 

San  Juan  Cajon  de  Sta.  Ana.  J.  P.  Ontiveras 35,97°  May  21,  1877 

San  Jose,  addition  to Dalton,  Palomares  &  Vejar.      4,430  Dec.     4,   1875 

San  Pasqual 15.  D.  Wilson 708  Feb.    12,   1881 

San  Pasqual Manuel  Garfias 13,693  April    3,  1863 

San  Pasqual Juan  Gallardo 700  

San  Pedro M.  Dominguez  et  al 43>rl9  Dec.    18,   1858 

San  Rafael Julio  Yerdugo  et  al 36,403  Jan.    28,  1882 

San  Yicente  y  Santa  Monica.  .R.  Sepulveda 30,259  July   23,  1881 

Santa  Anita Henry  Dalton I3,3r9  Aug-    9,  lg66 

Santa  Gertrudes T.  S.  Colima 3,696  July    17,  1877 

Santa  Gertrudes Mcfarland  &  Downey 17,602  Aug.  19,  1870 

Santiago  de  Santa  Ana B.  Yorba  et  al 78,941  Dec.   21,   188.5 

Sausal  Redondo  A.  L.  Abila 22,458  Mar.  22,  1875 

Simi J.  de  la  G.  y  Noriega 113,009  June  29,  1865 

Tajauta E.  Abila 3,559  Jan.     8,  1873 

Temescal E.  de  la  Cuesta 13,339  Sept.  13,  1871 

Topanga  Malibu  Sequit M.  Keller 13,315  Aug.  29,   1872 

Tejunga    D.  W.  Alexander  et  al 16,609  Oct-    J9>  l874 

LasVirgenes M.  A.  Machado 8,885  Sept.    5.1883 

Condensed  History  of  Los  Angeles  County. 



THE  history  of  "  el  pueblo  de  Los  Angeles  ",  as  the  central  point  of  the 
southern  district  of  the  territory  of  Alta  California,  has  already  been  given 
in  the  state  history.     We  have  followed  the  growth  of  the  town  from  its 
founding,  in  1781,  to  its  final  conquest  and  occupation  by  the  United  States  troops 
in   1847.     We  have  seen  the  rise  and  the  fall  of  the  mission  establishments  of 

ORIGINAL    CHURCH    OF    OUR    LADY    OF    THE    ANGELS.     1822. 

San  Gabriel,  San  Fernando  and  San  Juan  Capistrano,  and  the  occupation  of 
the  fertile  valleys  and  mesas  by  the  great  ranches  granted  to  settlers  of  Spanish, 
Mexican  and  Californian  birth  and  to  a  few  Americans.  At  the  time  of  the 
state  organization,  the  territory  included  in  Los. Angeles  county  was  distributed 
in  large  tracts  ranging  from  a  few  thousand  to  more  than  a  hundred  thousand 


acres.  The  oldest  of  these  grants  was  occupied  as  early  as  1784,  that  being 
the  date  assigned  for  San  Rafael  rancho,  granted  to  the  Verdugos.  Santa  Ana 
was  granted  to  the  Yorbas  and  Simi  to  the  Noriegas  among  the  earliest  allotments. 

The  government  of  the  United  States  early  appointed  commissioners  to 
examine  into  land  titles  in  California  and  for  a  number  of  years  investigations 
were  made  and  patents  issued  or  refused  to  the  claimants.  There  was  much 
confusion  and  no  little  fraud  connected  with  the  final  allotment  of  titles,  although 
there  were  not  so  many  disputed  claims  in  this  district  as  in  the  north.  About 
seventy-five  patents  were  issued  to  lands  in  the  county. 

Los  Angeles  was  one  of  the  twenty-seven  counties  created  by  act  of  the 
first  California  legislature,  April  i8th,  1850.  Its  boundaries  as  first  indicated 
were  very  indefinite,  extending  from  San  Diego  county  on  the  south  to  Santa 
Barbara  on  the  north  and  from  the  Pacific  to  "  the  top  of  the  coast  range."  The 
second  legislature  amended  the  act  by  making  the  boundaries  more  exact  and 
extending  them  to  the  eastern  state  line.  The  area  of  the  original  county  was 
about  34,000  square  miles,  almost  as  large  as  the  state  of  Indiana.  In  1851 
the  Mormon  colony  purchased  the  San  Bernardino  grant  and  established  their 
colony  of  San  Bernardino.  In  consequence  San  Bernardino  county  was  set 
off  from  Los  Angeles  April  26th,  1853,  taking  an  area  of  20,055  square  miles 
from  the  mother  county.  In  1866  Kern  county  was  created,  taking  part  of  its 
territory  from  this  county.  After  long  discussion  and  dissension,  Orange  county 
was  created,  March  nth,  1889,  taking  780  square  miles,  which  leaves  Los  An 
geles  with  a  present  area  of  3957  square  miles.  Pomona  county  has  been  several 
times  proposed  and  strong  efforts  have  been  made  to  secure  its  creation  from 
Los  Angeles  and  San  Bernardino  territory  but,  thus  far,  the  movement  has  not 
been  successful. 

The  first  county  election  took  place  April  ist,  1850.  The  census  for  this 
year  gives  the  county  a  population  of  3530;  377  votes  were  cast  and  the  officers 
chosen  were:  Judge,  Augustin  Olivera ;  clerk,  B.  D.  Wilson;  attorney,  Benjamin 
Hayes ;  surveyor,  J.  R.  Conway ;  treasurer,  Manuel  Garfias ;  assessor,  Antonio 
F.  Coronel ;  recorder,  Ignacio  del  Valle ;  sheriff,  George  T.  Burrell ;  coroner, 
Charles  B.  Cullen.  August  yth,  1851,  the  county  was  divided  into  six  townships, 
Los  Angeles,  San  Gabriel,  San  Jose,  San  Bernardino,  Santa  Ana,  San  Juan 
Capistrano.  The  supervisors  were  not  elected  until  June  I4th,  1852,  civil  affairs 
in  the  meantime  being  administered  by  the  "  court  of  sessions  ",  appointed  by 
the  military  governor.  The  first  supervisors  were  Jefferson  Hunt,  Julian  Chavez, 
F.  P.  F.  Temple,  Manuel  Requena  and  Samuel  Arbuckle ;  the  board  was  organ 
ized  with  Arbuckle  as  chairman  and  B.  D.  Wilson,  county  clerk,  clerk.  The 
office  of  juez  de  campo,  judge  of  the  plains,  was  continued  for  a  number  of 
years  after  the  American  occupation,  as  late  as  1872,  although  it  was  a  part 
of  the  machinery  of  the  Mexican  administration.  It  was  the  duty  of  this  officer 
to  attend  rodeos,  settle  all  questions  relating  to  brands  and  to  the  handling  and 



division  of  stock.  They  were  appointed  to  different  districts  and  were  given 
large  jurisdiction. 

One  of  the  first  important  political  questions  discussed  in  the  southern 
district  was  that  of  forming  a  separate  state.  In  1850,  before  California  had 
been  received  into  the  union,  a  petition  requesting  that  the  southern  district  be 
left  out  of  the  state  was  prepared.  It  was  felt  that  the  rancheros  of  the  south, 
thinly  populated  as  it  was,  would  receive  but  small  favor  from  the  north,  which 
held  the  bulk  of  the  population,  and  would  have  to  pay  an  undue  proportion  of 
the  expenses  of  state  government.  In  1859,  an  act  was  passed  by  the  state 
legislature  permitting  a  vote  upon  a  proposal  to  divide  the  state ;  but  it  failed 
to  go  through.  State  division  has  been  a  topic  for  much  discussion  and  news 
paper  wisdom  since  that  time,  a  bill  for  division  being 
introduced  in  1888;  but  has  never  since  become  a 
serious  issue. 

The  first  state  senator  from  this  county  was  Dr. 
A.  W.  Hope,  succeeded  by  Stephen  C.  Foster,  one  of 
the  earliest  and  most  prominent  of  American  settlers. 
The  first  assemblymen  were  A.  P.  Crittenden  and 
Montgomery  Martin,  who  were  succeeded  by  Don 
Abel  Stearns  and  Ignacio  del  Valle.  Los  Angeles 
county  and  Southern  California  bore  little  part  in  the 
active  government  of  the  state  during  the  first  three 
or  four  decades  of  its  existence.  The  first  governor 
elected  from  the  south  was  John  G.  Downey,  inaug 
urated  January  I4th,  1860.  He  was  long  one  of  the 
leading  citizens  of  Los  Angeles  and  had  served  as  as 
semblyman  and  lieutenant-governor  also.  Since  that 
time  this  county  has  furnished  three  governors — 

George  Stoneman,  Henry  H.  Markham  and  Henry  T.  Gage.  As  United  States 
senators,  Cornelius  Cole,  Stephen  M.  White  and  Frank  P.  Flint  have  been  resi 
dents  of  Los  Angeles  county. 

The  discovery  of  gold  brought  wealth  to  Southern  California,  as  well  as 
to  the  north.  J.  J.  Warner  in  his  "  Centennial  History  "  says :  "  The  discovery 
of  the  '  mines  '  in  the  year  1848  carried  away  many  of  the  native  population ; 
created  a  new  demand  for  the  horses  and  cattle  which  the  southern  rancheros 
could  so  easily  supply ;  brought  a  multitude  of  emigrants  from  Sonora,  as  well 
as  from  the  United  States;  left  the  people  at  home  here  (in  Los  Angeles)  in 
a  state  of  perpetual  excitement  and  exultation.  During  the  summer  of  1849  and' 
the  year  of  1850,  Los  Angeles  was  a  thoroughfare  of  travel.  With,  or  without 
means,  the  incomers  crowded  on ;  seldom  destitute,  for  their  needs  were  supplied, 
when  known,  by  generous  hospitality  from  the  Lugos  of  San  Bernardino;  Isaac 
Williams  of  Chino ;  Rowland  and  Workman  at  Puente  and  the  liberality  of  native 

HON.    JOHN    G.    DOWNEY. 



Californians.  With  the  people  of  Los  Angeles,  1850  was  a  year  of  enjoyment, 
rather  than  an  earnest  pursuit  of  riches.  Money  was  abundant.  All  sought 
to  make  the  most  of  the  pleasures  of  life."  A  strong  contrast  here  to  the  mad 
rush  for  gold  in  the  placer  mines.  The  prosperity  of  the  rancheros  continued 
for  several  years.  In  1857  a  drought  retarded  the  progress;  but  the  increased 
market  for  stock  and  the  importation  of  stock  from  the  states  had  greatly  in 
creased  the  wealth  of  the  county.  The  population  of  the  county  was  11,333  'm 
1860.  The  floods  and  the  long  drought  of  the  early  sixties;  the  disturbed  condi 
tion  of  the  country  and  the  cessation  of  immigration  made  the  increase  slow 
during  the  next  ten  years.  The  census  of  1870  shows  only  15,309  inhabitants. 
The  first  court  house  of  Los  Angeles  was  the  adobe  house  which  had  been 
used  as  a  government  building  during  the  later  days  of  the  Mexican  rule.  In 
1859  the  offices  were  removed  to  the  Temple  building,  which  was  known  for 
many  years  as  the  "  court  house  " ;  this  was  located  on  the  block  where  the 

Bullock  block  now  stands. 
During  the  sixties  the 
county  purchased  the 
building  and  it  was  occu 
pied  until  the  erection  of 
the  present  fine  building 
in  1890,  at  a  cost  of 

The  first  school  in  Los 
Angeles,  taught  in  the 
English  language,  was 
under  the  instruction  of 
Rev.  Dr.  Wicks  and  J.  G. 
Nichols,  in  1850.  In  1854 
there  were  four  schools 
in  the  county,  two  of 
them  being  taught  in 
English.  In  1855  there 

were  three  school  districts,  Los  Angeles,  San  Gabriel  and  El  Monte,  with 
1 191  school  children.  Antonio  F.  Coronel  acted  as  first  superintendent  of  schools, 
succeeded  in  1855  by  Dr.  John  S.  Griffin1.  In  1856  there  were  seven  schools, 
four  of  them  being  in  the  city.  In  1866  the  county  had  12  school  districts  and 
in  1876  123  teachers  with  a  total  valuation  of  school  property  of  $202,262.  In 
1906  the  county  had  1616  teachers  and  school  property  amounting  to  $4,715,015. 
Many  of  the  earlier  settlers  of  the  county  were  southern  in  sentiment  and 
as  the  question  of  slavery  began  to  threaten  difficulties,  there  was  much  unrest 
and  dissension.  Another  element  of  the  population  came  from  the  mining  dis 
tricts  of  the  north— mostly  of  those  who  had  failed  to  find  wealth.  The  spirit 
of  lawlessness  which  prevailed  in  the  state  was  not  absent  in  this  county.  Crime 




was  rampant  and  robbery  and  murders  were  every-day  occurrences.  The  courts 
seemed  unable  to  meet  the  situation  and  the  best  citizens  were  uneasy.  The 
pro-slavery  sentiment  led  to  the  attempt  at  state  division  in  1859;  but  on  the 
breaking  out  of  the  war,  the  people  generally  rallied  to  the  Union  and  there 
was  no  open  disloyalty  in  this  county.  In  1861  a  union  club  was  organized  and 
a  regiment  of  volunteers  was  raised.  Camps  were  maintained  at  Drum  Bar 
racks,  Wilmington,  and  at  Camp  Latham  on  the 
Ballona  grant,  and  troops  were  stationed  in  the  city 
at  times,  and  at  Fort  Tejon.  The  agitation  against 
the  Chinese  was  not  as  aggressive  in  this  county  as 
in  the  north,  the  celestials  were  too  useful  in  the 
vineyards  and  orchards ;  yet  there  was  much  discus 
sion  and  public  meetings  were  held  to  uphold  the 
anti-Chinese  movement.  The  terrible  Chinese  mas 
sacre  of  October  24th,  1871,  was  not  a  direct  result 
of  feeling  against  the  race ;  but  originated  in  a  quar 
rel  between  two  Chinese  factions  over  a  woman. 
In  an  attempt  to  quell  the  disturbance  an  officer  and 
two  citizens  were  wounded  by  the  Chinese.  This 
aroused  a  mob,  who  rushed  into  the  Chinese  quarter 
and  slaughtered  right  and  left,  without  regard  to 
right  or  mercy.  Their  houses  were  looted  by  the 
mob  and  nineteen  deaths  resulted  from  the  affair. 

The  population  of  the  county  more  than  doubled  during  the  seventies,  the 
census  of  1880  showing  33,454  souls.  The  completion  of  transcontinental  lines 
and  the  "boom"  swelled  the  population  to  101,381  in  1890,  despite  the  13,000 
taken  out  by  Orange  county  the  previous  year.  Since  that  date  Los  Angeles 
county  has  rapidly  advanced  until  now  she  stands  second  in  the  state,  and  is 
a  power  to  be  reckoned  with  in  all  political  questions. 


GOVERNOR    JANUARY,     1«5.i?.     TO    MNUAWl.     IH 
FEBRUARY,     1'HV    TO   AUGUST,    1B4B 



ST(  >CK  raising,  which  was  practically  the  only  industry  of  Southern  Califor 
nia  at  the  time  the  country  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  United  States, 
continued  to  be  the  chief  source  of  wealth  for  Los  Angele&  county  until 
the  severe  drought  of  1863-4.  According  to  the  census  report  of  1850,  the  great 
county  of  Los  Angeles  had  but  2648  acres  of  improved  land  and  in  1860  but  20,000 
acres  was  under  cultivation.  The  great  influx  of  gold-seekers  provided  a  new 
market  for  cattle  and  horses,  which  largely  increased  prices,  and  the  rancheros  of 
Southern  California  were  as  "  flush  "  as  the  miners  of  the  north,  for  a  time.  The 
value  of  live  stock  steadily  increased  and  in  1860  it  is  given  as  $1,451,000,  although 
there  had  been  heavy  losses,  many  cattle  dying  of  starvation  during  the  drought 
of  1857.  But  the  long  dry  spell,  lasting  two  years  and  over,  almost  wrecked 
the  business.  Stock  died,  or  was  killed  to  save  the  hides,  until  almost  none  was 
left.  After  this  time,  the  rancheros  devoted  more  attention  to  sheep  and  the 
flocks  were  greatly  increased,  while  cattle  were  handled  in  smaller  bunches  and 
improved  stock  was  introduced  by  the  Americans.  The  breaking  up  of  the 
big  ranches  began  and  a  number  of  new  settlements  were  made  during  the 
seventies.  As  early  as  1844  Jose  Palomares,  owner  of  the  San  Jose  rancho, 
where  Pomona  is  now  located,  sold  off  a  number  of  small  tracts  of  land  to  Mex 
icans,  who  took  water  from  the  San  Jose  creek  and  formed  a  prosperous  little 
settlement.  About  the  same  time  Juan  Bandini  induced  a  party  of  New  Mex 
icans  to  settle  on  his  Jurupa  grant,  now  the  site  of  Riverside,  and  the  village 
of  Agua  Mansa,  with  flourishing  orchards  and  grain  fields  resulted.  In  1851 
the  Mormon  settlement  of  San  Bernardino  was  begun  and  these  industrious 
people  soon  demonstrated  that  small  farms  could  be  made  profitable  in  this 
country.  In  1851  a  number  of  immigrants,  mostly  from  the  southern  states, 
settled  at  El  Monte.  Here  was  a  natural  cienega  and  the  low  damp  lands  were 
especially  adapted  to  the  growing  of  corn  and  hogs.  In  1860  this  settlement 
had  a  population  of  over  one  thousand  and  was  a  noted  place  in  the  early  history 
of  the  county.  In  1874  it  had  a  newspaper,  the  Observer,  and  a  hotel.  At 
Spadra,  Ruebottom's  hotel  was  a  stopping  point  for  all  stages  to  the  east  and 
a  noted  hostelry  in  the  sixties.  This  was  also  one  of  the  earliest  American  set 
tlements.  About  1865  Governor  Downey  began  to  break  up  his  Santa  Gertrudes 
rancho  and  the  settlement  of  Downey  followed.  Here,  too,  corn  yielded  mar 
velous  crops  and  the  raising  of  hogs  and  of  dairy  cattle  was  profitable.  Thus 
gradually  small  farms,  with  diversified  farming,  took  the  place  of  the  old-time 
exclusive  stock  raising  and  Los  Angeles  county  lost  her  distinction  as  a  "  cow  " 
county ;  although  the  raising  of  stock  and  dairying  is  still  a  profitable  business. 


Much  attention  in  later  years  has  been  given  to  the  production  of  blooded  stock, 
especially  horses;  while  the  value  of  the  dairy  products  for  1905,  according  to 
the  state  agricultural  report,  reached  a  million  dollars. 

In  1857  a  party  of  Germans,  mostly  artisans  resident  in  San  Francisco, 
purchased  a  tract  of  land  near  the  Santa  Ana  and  established  the  settlement  of 
Anaheim.  At  first  most  of  the  tract  was  set  to  vineyards  and  the  colonists  en 
gaged  extensively  in  wine  making.  This  was  the  first  horticultural  settlement. 
Mission  grapes  had  been  set  extensively  during  the  sixties  and  seventies  and 
wine-making  became  one  of  the  most  important  resources  of  the  county.  In 
1879  two  million  gallons  were  produced  beside  50,0x20  gallons  of  brandy.  There 
were  then  thirty  distilleries  in  the  county.  The  cultivation  of  the  wine  grape 
began  with  the  "  mother "  vineyard  at  San  Gabriel,  which  was  planted  from 
slips  brought  from  Lower  California.  In  1831  Los  Angeles  city  had  over  100 
acres  of  grapes  and  there  were  50,000  vines  growing  on  Los  Nietos  rancho. 
The  Californians  began  early  to  manufacture  wines  and  aguadiente  and  in 
1850  the  county  is  credited  with  57,000  gallons  of  wine.  This  was  shipped  to 
San  Francisco  and  brought  good  prices.  In'  1855  Sansevaine  brothers  shipped 
the  first  California  wine  to  New  York  city  and  by  1861  L.  J.  Rose,  B.  D.  Wilson 
and  the  Sansevaines  were  making  large  shipments  to  the  east.  L.  J.  Rose,  Don 
Mateo  Keller,  Kohler  and  Frohling,  and  others  were  among  the  earlier  manu 
facturers  who  spent  much  time  and  money  in  experimenting,  introducing  new 
varieties  of  grapes  and  improved  methods  of  wine  making.  The  cultivation  of 
the  white  muscat  grape  for  raisins  began  about  1877-78  and  for  a  time  this  grape 
was  planted  very  widely  and  raisins  promised  to  become  one  of  the  greatest  crops 
of  the  county,  but  the  appearance  of  the  vine  disease  about  1885  destroyed  many 
vineyards  and  greatly  discouraged  both  wine  and  raisin  makers. 

In  the  early  seventies  attention  was  turned  to  wheat  raising  on  an  extensive 
scale.  J.  B.  Lankershim  was  one  of  the  first  growers,  planting  a  large  acreage 
on  the  San  Fernando  rancho.  He  was  also  one  of  the  owners  of  the  first  large 
flour  mill  erected  in  the  county.  Dan  Freeman  was  another  large  wheat  grower, 
on  the  Centinela  rancho.  In  1879  Los  Angeles  county  produced  752,000  bushels 
of  wheat,  from  22,000  acres  of  land,  according  to  Bancroft.  Corn  was  also 
Irrgely  cultivated  and  barley  was  raised  for  hay  on  a  large  scale.  But  as  the 
possibilities  of  irrigation  and  horticulture  developed,  land  became  too  valuable 
for  wheat  culture,  as  it  had  already  advanced  beyond  the  possibility  of  profitable 
use  for  grazing  purposes. 

During  the  eighties  the  chief  feature  of  agricultural  development  was  the 
extension  of  irrigation  systems.  Irrigation  had  been  practiced  to  some  extent 
since  the  first  settlement  of  the  country.  The  San  Gabriel  and  San  Fernando 
missions  and  the  settlers  of  Los  Angeles  had  irrigated  considerable  areas  and 
built  somewhat  elaborate  works.  The  waters  of  the  San  Gabriel  and  Los  Angeles 
rivers  had  been  utilized  by  means  of  open  ditches  for  many  years ;  but  now 


began  the  formation  of  water  companies  who  improved  upon  the  old  crude 
methods  and  developed  water  from  unused  sources.  In  1867  the  first  artesian 
well  was  put  down  by  Downey  and  Hellman  about  six  miles  from  Wilmington. 
Artesian  water  was  found  to  be  available  in  many  districts  and  has  been  devel 
oped  until  now  probably  half,  at  least,  of  the  water  used  for  irrigation  in  this 
county  comes  from  this  source.  In  1876  the  land  under  irrigation  in  the  county 
was  estimated  at  26,900  acres;  in  1890  70,164  acres  were  under  irrigation,  mostly 
devoted  to  citrus  culture. 

The  mission  fathers  planted  orange  trees  at  San  Gabriel  soon  after  its 
establishment.  In  1834  Louis  Vignes,  a  Frenchman,  who  was  one  of  the  first 
foreigners  to  locate  in  Los  Angeles,  planted  an  orange  garden  on  his  place, 
known  at  that  time  as  "  El  Aliso."  This  garden,  surrounded  by  a  high  adobe 
wall,  contained  not  only  oranges,  but  all  the  fruits  then  known  in  the  country. 
He  also  had  a  considerable  vineyard  and  established  a  winery,  under  the  great 
sycamore  tree,  which  gave  the  name  of  "  El  Aliso  "  to  the  place.  In  1841  Wil 
liam  Wolfskill  set  out  two  acres  of  oranges,  procuring  the  stock  from  Sart 
Gabriel.  These  trees  bore  the  first  oranges  that  were  ever  put  on  the  market 
in  this  state  and  yielded  such  large  profits  that  in  1858  Mr.  Wolfskill  set  out 
thirty  acres  on  land  lying  between  Alamecla  and  San  Pedro,  Third  and  Seventh 
streets.  In  1852  B.  D.  Wilson  set  a  grove  at  San  Gabriel;  but  in  1856  there 
were  only  100  orange  bearing  trees  in  the  country,  these  surrounded  by  walls 
to  keep  out  wandering  cattle.  The  total  yield  was  100,000  oranges,  which  were 
sold  by  the  hundred  and  brought  a  net  income  of  $100  per  tree,  so  Mr.  Wolfskill 
stated.  From  this  time  the  planting  went  on  rapidly.  About  1873  Thomas  A. 
Garey,  the  pioneer  nurseryman  of  the  county,  and  L.  J.  Rose,  B.  D.  Wilson  and 
others  began  to  introduce  different  varieties  of  citrus  fruit,  importing  them  from 
Europe,  South  America  and  Florida.  The  most  valuable  of  these  varieties  proved 
to  be  the  Mediterranean  Sweet.  About  1880  the  Washington  Navel  was  brought 
into  the  county  from  Riverside  and  its  excellent  qualities  soon  made  it  the  favorite. 
Between  1880  and  1890  the  planting  of  citrus  fruit  was  at  its  height.  Stimulated 
by  the  ready  money  and  the  exuberant  hopes  of  boom  times,  large  areas  were 
put  under  irrigation  and  planted  out.  Pomona,  Alhambra,  Whittier,  Sierra 
Madre  and  many  other  districts  were  thus  started  by  people  who  looked  forward 
to  making  an  easy  fortune  from  citrus  culture.  In  1874  there  were  34,700 
bearing  orange  trees  in  the  county;  in  1880,  192,000  bearing  trees,  and  in  1892 
1,500,000  trees  were  growing. 

In  1857  scale  made  its  first  appearance;  but  its  inroads  were  not  serious 
until  the  appearance  of  the  cottony  cushion  scale  about  1890.  This  especially 
affected  trees  near  the  coast  and  in  a  single  year  the  crop  in  Los  Angeles  county 
fell  from  2212  cars  to  718  cars.  But  the  introduction  of  the  Australian  "lady- 
bug  "  proved  an  effectual  remedy  and  the  groves  were  saved  by  this  parasite. 
Many  of  the  earliest  seedling  orchards  have  now  passed  out  of  existence,  the 


land  being  used  for  town  lots,  or  for  alfalfa  or  truck  farming.  Yet  Los  Angeles 
county  still  leads  in  the  production  of  citrus  fruits,  the  value  of  the  crop  for  1906 
being  estimated  at  $4,000,000  and  there  being  1,738,213  bearing  orange  trees 
in  the  county. 

The  introduction  of  alfalfa  from  San  Bernardino  county  in  the  later  fifties 
gave  a  valuable  crop  for  suitable  lands  and  proved  a  great  boon  to  the  dairy 
farmer.  The  culture  of  the  sugar  beet  was  attempted  about  1879  and  in  1880 
Messrs.  Nadeau  and  Gemmert  planned  to  build  a  sugar  factory  at  Florence. 
This  did  not  materialize,  but  later  the  location  of  sugar  factories  at  Chino,  Ala- 
mitos  and  Oxnard  supplied  a  market  and  a  considerable  acreage  is  annually 
planted  to  beets.  The  growing  of  vegetables  and  small  fruits  has  become  an 
important  branch  of  our  agriculture  and  large  quantities  are  raised  for  home 
use  and  for  shipping. 

Diversified  farming  and  the  small  farm,  intensively  cultivated,  is  the  rule 
in  the  vicinity  of  Los  Angeles  now.  Oranges,  lemons,  walnuts,  olives  and  decid 
uous  fruits  are  raised  with  profit  in  many  districts ;  grain  and  hay  are  produced 
on  "  dry  "  farms  and  the  northern  portion  of  the  county  still  furnishes  range  for 
cattle  and  sheep.  Los  Angeles  is  now  one  of  the  leading  agricultural  counties 
in  the  state,  her  horticultural  and  garden  products,  in  1902,  being  valued  at 
$10,307,290,  and  her  cereals  and  hay  at  over  $1,000,000,  with  dairy  produces  of 
equal  value.  And  the  possibilities  are  by  no  means  exhausted.  There  is  yet 
much  valuable  land  which  can  be  utilized  and  much  room  for  increased  produc 
tion  in  lands  already  under  cultivation. 



ALTHOUGH  the  first  gold  discovered  in   California   was   found   in  this 
county,  Los  Angeles  has  never  ranked  high  in  gold  production.     In  1852 
placer  mines  were  found  in  the  San  Gabriel  canon  and  quite  an  excite 
ment  followed.     Considerable  gold  dust  was  taken  from  these  mines  which  con 
tinued  to  yield  for  many  years  in  paying  quantities.     Gold  was  found  on  the  Santa 
Anita  ranch  in  1856  and  there  was  a  rush  in  that  direction ;  some  mines  were  also 
located  on  Catalina  island  and  gold  mines  have  been  claimed  at  some  other  points 
in  the  county.     But  the  only  paying  claims  were  those  of  the  San  Gabriel.    Silver 
and  other  minerals  have  been  found  at  various  points ;  but  no  very  rich  mines 
have  been  uncovered. 

The  mineral  wealth  of  the  county  is,  however,  large ;  it  produces  a  large 
quantity  of  petroleum — which  is  quite  as  valuable,  in  its  way,  as  gold.     It  is 


said  that  Andreas  Pico  used  to  supply  the  priests  at  San  Fernando  mission  with 
oil  from  Pico  canon,  and  it  was  from  this  district  that  the  first  oil  was  taken. 
In  iS-;<)  the  Pioneer  Oil  Co.  was  formed  and  wells  were  bored  on  the  La  Brea 
ranclio  and  in  other  districts  where  brea  or  asphaltum  indicated  petroleum ; 
but  no  oil  in  merchantable  quantity  was  found  until  about  1865,  when  wells 
were  bored  in  Pico  canon  and  a  considerable  oil  excitement  prevailed.  The 
first  shipment  of  crude  oil  was  made  from  these  wells  in  1867.  But  no  very 
active  progress  was  made  until  improved  machinery  for  drilling  and  pumping 
came  into  use  about  1877.  Then  the  Pico  and  Xewhall  wells  became  large 
producers  and  the  refinery  at  Xewhall  was  built  and,  for  a  number  of  years, 
was  successfully  operated.  The  demand  for  the  petroleum  was  not  very  active 
until  about  1885,  when  a  company  was  formed  to  foster  its  use  as  a  fuel  and 
produced  a  distillate  which  could  be  used  for  domestic  and  manufacturing  pur 
poses  in  a  suitable  burner.  The  Puente  oil  fields  were  exploited  during  the 
eighties :  but  the  pre-eminence  of  this  county  as  an  oil  producer  did  not  com 
mence  until  the  discovery  of  oil  in  Los  Angeles  city.  In  1892,  Messrs.  Doheny 
and  Conner  drilled  a  well  in  the  old  West  Second  street  park  which  proved  to 
be  a  gusher.  At  once  other  wells  were  put  down  in  this  district  and  soon  a 
forest  of  derricks  had  arisen.  By  1895  over  3°°  wells  were  in  operation  in,  or 
near,  the  city  and  their  yield  is  put  at  730,000  barrels.  About  this  time  an  oil 
burner  for  use  in  locomotives  was  perfected  and  the  Santa  Fe  road  began  to 
use  crude  oil  as  fuel.  Manufacturing  plants  and  steam  vessels  found  oil  from 
30  to  60  per  cent,  cheaper  than  coal.  This  fuel  also  presented  many  other  ad 
vantages  and  rapidly  grew  in  favor,  so  that  in  spite  of  the  greatly  increased 
output,  the  price  rose.  An  oil  "  boom  "  naturally  resulted.  Oil  companies  were 
numerous  and  prospecting  was  done  in  all  sorts  of  likely  and  unlikely  districts. 
The  Whittier  field,  the  Sespe  and  other  districts  in  Ventura  county  were  devel 
oped.  There  are  now  several  refineries  in  the  county  and  in  1905  over  1200 
wells  were  yielding,  their  product  reaching  4,000,000  barrels,  valued  at  $1,755,000. 
The  cheapness  and  abundance  of  oil  has  been  one  of  the  leading  factors  in  the 
rapid  progress  of  our  county,  giving  a  possibility  of  meeting  eastern  competition 
in  manufacturing,  and  being  a  large  element  in  the  development  of  our  electric 
railway  systems  and  electrical  power  plants.  Not  its  least  benefit  is  in  the  im 
provement  of  our  public  roads  through  the  use  of  crude  oil.  We  have  now 
about  7000  miles  of  public  roads  in  the  county.  These,  when  properly  treated 
with  oil,  become  almost  dustless  and  as  hard  as  macadamized  roads,  an  advantage 
of  incalculable  benefit  in  this  country. 

Second  in  our  list  of  mineral  wealth  comes  the  clay  products  of  the  county. 
Nearly  all  of  the  Californian  dwellings  and  of  the  missions  were  built  of  un- 
burned  brick.  Tiling,  ollas  and  clay  utensils  were  made  by  the  Indians  and 
Mexicans.  The  first  kiln-dried  brick  were  made  in  Los  Angeles  in  1852  by 



Captain  Jesse  Hunter  of  the  Mormon  battalion,  and  used  to  build  a  house  at 
the  corner  of  Third  and  Main.  In  1855  Mullaly,  Porter  and  Aver  started  a 
brick  yard  and  in  1858  manufactured  2,000,000  brick.  It  was  known  that  a 
number  of  valuable  clay  beds  existed  and  several  brick  yards  utilized  the  clay ; 
but  it  was  not  until  the  nineties  that  the  business  assumed  large  proportions. 
With  the  steadily  growing  demand  for  building  material,  not  only  brick,  but 
artificial  stone,  concrete  blocks  and  many  other  forms  of  manufactured  clay 
products  for  building  purposes  have  been  devised.  Water  pipe  was  first  made 
at  Santa  Monica  in  1877.  The  manufacture  of  water  and  sewer  pipe  is  now 
a  large  business.  There  are  eighteen  or  twenty  establishments  manufacturing 

brick,  pipe,  pottety,  concrete,  and  so 
on  and  their  annual  production  runs 
into  the  millions.  An  art  tile  factory 
has  lately  been  established  at  Tropico. 
The  first  carriage  in  California. 
P>ancroft  states,  was  purchased  by 
Temple  and  Alexander  of  San  Pedro 
in  1849,  *ne  price,  including  horses, 
being  $1000.  Its  appearance  created 
a  sensation  in  Los  Angeles.  In  1853 
Anderson  and  Mathews  advertised  as 
carriage  makers,  and  soon  afterward 
John  Goller  began  business  as  a  black 
smith  and  wagon  maker.  Warner 
says  that  his  first  wagon  remained  on 
hand  a  good  while,  the  native  people 
gazing  on  it  with  curiosity  and  dis 
trust  and  then  going  back  to  their 
carretas.  A  number  of  firms  now 
turn  out  vehicles — to  the  amount  of 

DON   ABEL   STEARNS.  $7<I.72°.    >»    I£O6. 

In  1851  the  first  flour  mill  was  put 

up  in  Los  Angeles;  there  had  long  been  "el  Molino  "  at  San  Gabriel.  In  1855 
Don  Abel  Stearns  and  Jonathan  R.  Scott  built  a  brick  flour  mill.  About  the  same 
time  Henry  Dalton  had  a  flour  mill  on  his  Azusa  rancho.  The  Eagle  mills  were 
built  in  Los  Angeles  in  1865  and  destroyed  by  fire  in  1874.  There  are  now  a 
number  of  flouring  and  grist  mills  in  the  county  and  their  product  for  1906  is 
given  as  $3,038,855. 

In  1857  James  Woodworth  started  a  broom  factory ;  in  1861  Perry  and 
Woodworth  established  their  planing  mill  and  also  manufactured  beehives,  furni 
ture,  etc.  In  1873  Barnard  brothers  built  a  woolen  mill  on  Pearl  street.  At 
this  time  the  annual  wool  clip  was  very  large  and  for  some  years  this  mill  made 


blankets  and  woolen  cloth ;  but  it  seems  never  to  have  been  very  successful  and 
at  last  shut  down,  while  the  mill  was  used  for  the  first  ice  plant  in  the  city. 

Within  the  last  few  years  many  new  ventures  in  the  way  of  manufactures 
have  been  made.  In  1903  the  model  town  of  Dolgeville  was  established.  Here 
felt  is  made  and  piano  hammers  and  other  articles  for  which  felt  is  used.  There 
are  now  several  shoe  factories  in  the  county,  one  being  located  at  San  Pedro 
and  one  at  Venice.  The  meat  packing  industry  is  one  of  the  most  important  in 
the  county,  the  product  of  packed  meats,  lard  and  by-products  reaching  $4,000,000. 

I.os  Angeles  does  not  claim  pre-eminence  as  a  manufacturing  region,  yet 
the  last  report  of  the  state  agricultural  board  lists  her  manufactured  products 
as  reaching  a  total  of  $20,000,000,  which  is  not  bad  for  a  beginning. 



TRADING  vessels  had  entered  the  port  of  San  Pedro  from  the  earliest  his 
tory  of  California,  and  the  port  had  been  a  busy  place  in  the  forties.  In 
August,  1840,  according  to  Henry  Mellns,  thirteen  vessels  touched  at  this 
port.  In  1849  the  first  steamer,  the  Goldhunter,  entered 
the  port.  The  first  steamer  to  make  regular  trips  was 
the  Ohio,  which  carried  passengers  to  San  Francisco, 
charging  "  $55  for  cabin  passage,  the  bill  of  fare  consist 
ing  of  salt  beef,  hard  bread,  potatoes  and  coffee,  without 
milk  or  sugar."  Freight  was  $25  per  ton.  In  1872  the 
Pacific  Mail  Steamship  Company  put  on  its  service,  with 
passenger  fare  at  $15  and  freight  $5  per  ton.  Before 
the  building  of  the  railroad  in  1869  freight  was  hauled 
to  the  city  by  carts  or  wagons  at  the  rate  of  $1.00  per 
hundredweight  in  the  fifties.  In  1852  Alexnnder  &• 
Banning  put  on  the  first  stage,  fare  to  the  city  $10;  in 
1867  J.  J.  Tomlinson  established  a  rival  stage  line  and 
Benjamin  Hayes  writes :  "  I  vividly  remember  stand 
ing  in  front  of  the  United  States  Hotel  in  1868,  one 
night  of  a  steamer's  arrival,  and  hearing  the  rival  stages 
of  Banning  and  Tomlinson  come  up  Main  street,  racing 
to  get  in  first,  the  horses  on  the  gallop  and  in  the  darkness  a  man  on  each  stage 
blowing  a  horn  to  warn  people  in  the  street  to  clear  the  track:" 

In  1855  fifty-nine  vessels  landed  at  San  Pedro;  in  1865  101  vessels  touched 
at  the  port  and  in  1875  426  vessels  entered ;  in  1906  1700  vessels  arrived  bringing 
imports  to  the  value  of  $15,000,000.  In  1858  the  port  was  changed  from  San 
Pedro  to  Wilmington,  through  the  action  of  Col.  Phineas  Banning  in  building 
up  that  town.  In  1871  the  government,  after  several  preliminary  surveys,  made 




an  appropriation  and  began  improving  the  harbor.  From  that  date  to  the 
present  work  has  continued  more  or  less  intermittently,  and  a  very  large  sum 
has  been  expended  in  carrying  out  the  extensive  plans  for  the  improvement  of 
the  inner  harbor  and  the  construction  of  an  outer  harbor. 

We  have  seen  the  Californians  galloping  from  San  Diego  to  Monterey  on 
their  tough  little  horses,  the  best  saddle  horses  in  the  world,  all  early  visitors 
agree.  Enroute  they  stopped  at  missions  or  ranches  and  received  entertainment 
and  found  fresh  horses  furnished  them  at  every  stopping  place.  Or,  if  a  party 

were  traveling,  it  might  be  accompanied 
by  two  or  three  Indian  servants,  driving 
a  band  of  horses  which  supplied  fresh 
mounts  each  day.  Their  women,  and 
their  baggage  or  freight,  were  trans 
ported  in  carretas,  the  framework  made 
of  poles  and  hides  and  mounted  on 
wooden  wheels.  The  earliest  mails  were 
delivered  more  or  less  regularly  by  post 
riders.  Even  after  the  American  occu 
pation  Los  Angeles  had  no  regular  mails 
and  no  stages  for  several  years. 

In  1851,  Gregory's  Great  Atlantic  and 
Pacific  Express  arrived  in  Los  Angeles, 
bringing  the  first  direct  overland  mail  to 
the  town,  forty-nine  days  from  St.  Louis. 
But  one  trip  seems  to  have  finished  the 
Great  Atlantic,  etc. ;  we  hear  no  more  of 
it.  In  1852  a  stage  line  was  established 
between  Los  Angeles  and  the  north,  but 
it  does  not  seem  to  have  been  main 
tained  regularly  until  about  1857,  when 

David  Smith  established  a  bi-monthly  route  via  Visalia.  In  1862  a  reg 
ular  tri-weekly  stage  ran  from  San  Jose  to  Los  Angeles.  In  the  early 
fifties  stages  ran  to  San  Bernardino,  and  Phineas  Banning  put  on  a  regular 
stage  between  the  city  and  San  Pedro.  In  1859  a  weekly  stage  made  trips  to 
San  Diego.  In  1858  the  Butterfield  stage  route  was  established.  This  carried 
the  mails  from  St.  Louis  via  the  southern  route  through  Los  Angeles  to  San 
Francisco  and  gave  the  first  regular  overland  mails ;  the  distance  was  2880  miles 
and  the  shortest  time  made  was  twenty-one  days.  This  service  was  a  great 
advance  over  any  previous  one  and  was  greatly  appreciated;  but  in  1861  it  was 
replaced  by  the  pony  express,  which  traveled  the  central  route.  In  1857  Wells 
Fargo  opened  an  office  in  Los  Angeles.  For  years  this  company  did  the  banking 
of  the  country  as  well  as  the  express  business. 



In  1866  Banning  &  Co.  put  on  a  fast  coach  from  Wilmington  to  Fort  Yuma, 
giving  a  seventy-two-hour  ride,  which  was  considered  a  feat  in  those  days. 
Tin'  advertisement  for  this  line  reads :  "  Leave  for  Fort  Yuma  at  4  o'clock  every 
Monday,  passing  through  Los  Angeles  and  San  Bernardino.  Returning,  leave 
Fort  Yuma  every  Sunday  at  3  o'clock  a.m."  In  1867  a  daily  mail  stage  was 
maintained  between  Los  Angeles  and  San  Jose,  then  the  terminus  of  the  railroad. 
At  the  same  time  regular  stage  lines  were  operated  between  Los  Angeles  and 
Tucson,  Arizona,  and  another  line  went  to  Prescott. 

As  the  central  point  for  so  many  stage  lines,  and  as  the  outfitting  point  for 
a  large  trade  carried  on  by  wagon  trains,  Los  Angeles  was  not  altogether  dull 
in  the  days  before  the  railroad  came.  In  the  fifties  the  trade  with  Salt  Lake 
was  established  and  for  many  years  large  quantities  of  freight  were  hauled  to 
Salt  Lake,  to  Arizona,  and  even  as  far  north  as  Idaho  and  Montana.  In  March, 
1859,  the  Shir  reports  150  wagons  leaving  with  goods  to  the  amount  of  $180,000. 
This  freighting  business  was  of  such  importance  and  profit  that  when  a  railroad 
from  San  Pedro  to  Los  Angeles  was  first  proposed,  there  was  decided  opposition 
to  it ;  and  the  Southern  Pacific  met  the  same  obstacle  when  it  made  its  first  pro 
posals  in  this  section.  A  bill  for  a  railroad  between  the  port  and  the  city  was 
proposed  in  1861,  but  although  the  county  was  granted  permission  to  vote  bonds 
for  the  road,  nothing  was  done  until  1867,  when  the  question  of  granting  the 
directors  a  subsidy  of  $150,000  from  the  county  and  $75,000  from  the  city  was 
submitted  to  the  people  and  was  carried  by  a  vote  of  672  to  700 — a  close  shave. 
The  road  was  completed  in  1869  and,  despite  the  gloomy  forebodings  of  many 
citizens,  soon  proved  itself  a  valuable  asset  to  the  county.  In  1872  the  Southern 
Pacific  was  building  its  line  southward  through  the  San  Joaquin  valley ;  two 
routes  were  surveyed,  one  through  the  Soledad  pass  and  San  Fernando  valley 
to  Los  Angeles,  with  heavy  grades  and  costly  tunnels ;  the  other  crossed  the 
Mojave  desert  to  Needles,  a  comparatively  easy  route.  After  much  discussion 
and  negotiation,  the  railroad  company  agreed  to  take  the  Los  Angeles  route, 
provided  the  county  would  vote  bonds  to  the  amount  of  $500,000,  including  its 
holding  in  the  Los  Angeles  and  San  Pedro  road.  The  railway  company  on  its 
part  agreed  to  construct  fifty  miles  of  track  within  the  county  inside  of  eighteen 
months  and  within  two  years  should  connect  Los  Angeles  and  Anaheim  by  rail 
and  should  carry  its  ntain  trunk  line  on  its  way  to  connect  with  any  southern 
transcontinental  line,  through  Los  Angeles  valley.  The  company  carried  out 
its  agreement  and  completed  its  line  north  to  San  Fernando  and  east  to  Spadra, 
the  first  train  going  over  the  road  April  4,  1874.  The  construction  of  the  San 
Fernando  tunnel  required  more  than  a  year  and  the  cost  is  reported  at  two  and 
a  half  millions.  The  connection  between  Los  Angeles  and  San  Francisco  was 
made  September  8th,  1876 — a  great  day  in  the  annals  of  this  county.  The 
Southern  Pacific  was  completed  to  its  eastern  connection  in  March,  1881,  thus 


giving  a  through  southern  route — a  consummation  which  had  been  talked  of  since 
the  early  fifties. 

The  building  of  the  Los  Angeles  and  Independence  road  from  Santa  Monica 
to  Los  Angeles  has  been  gone  into  in  the  Santa  Monica  history.  It  was  fully 
believed  at  the  time  that  this  line  would  be  continued  to  Independence  and  pos 
sibly  to  a  connection  with  the  Central  Pacific  in  Utah.  In  1884  the  Los  Angeles 
and  San  Gabriel  Valley  road  was  constructed  to  Pasadena,  its  opening  being 
celebrated  by  an  enthusiastic  excursion  party,  September  I7th,  1885.  Later  it 
was  completed  to  the  San  Gabriel  river  and  in  1887  taken  over  by  the  Santa  Fe 

In  1879  representatives  of  a  new  corporation,  the  Atchison,  Topeka  and 
Santa  Fe,  which  was  building  a  transcontinental  line,  visited  California  and 
decided  upon  San  Diego  as  the  terminus  and  the  Cajon  pass  as  the  gateway  for 
their  road.  In  1885  the  Santa  Fe  company  purchased  the  Southern  Pacific 
branch  already  built  from  Needles  to  Mojave  and  built  the  connection  between 
Barstovv  and  San  Bernardino,  thus  completing  its  line  and  giving  Southern  Cal 
ifornia  a  second  transcontinental  line.  November  29th,  1885,  its  trains  began 
running  into  Los  Angeles,  using  the  Southern  Pacific  tracks  from  Colton  until 
the  completion  of  its  own  line  in  1887. 

The  completion  of  the  Santa  Fe  led  to  a  rate  war  which  was  the  first  cause 
of  the  "  boom  "  of  1886-7.  At  first  the  passenger  rate  from  Chicago  was  dropped 
from  $115  to  $70,  while  freight  rates  were  mercilessly  slashed.  On  February 
2ist,  1886,  tickets  between  the  coast  and  the  Missouri  river  were  sold  for  $25  ; 
March  6th  the  prices  dropped  to  $20  from  Chicago  and  $35  from  New  York. 
For  a  few  hours  on  March  8th  tickets  were  sold  in  Los  Angeles  by  the  Southern 
Pacific  for  a  flat  rate  of  $1.00  to  Missouri  river  points.  This  was  the  culmination. 

Naturally,  such  an  opportunity  was  seized  by  thousands  of  people  who  had 
hitherto  never  dreamed  of  seeing  California ;  and  during  the  year  thav  rates  were 
below  the  normal,  the  rush  continued.  At  first  the  newcomers  looked  around 
and  purchased  improved  property,  at  reasonable  figures ;  as  the  influx  continued, 
prices  rose  and  property  in  and  about  Los  Angeles  changed  hands  at  figures 
which  astonished  old  timers ;  then  the  speculative  fever  seized  old  residents  and 
new  comers  alike ;  and  professional  boomers  and  real  estate  sharks  helped  to 
feed  it.  Townsites  were  laid  out  anywhere ;  at  first  a  business  block,  a  hotel 
and  water  pipe  and  sidewalks  were  supplied ;  later  the  bare  ground  staked  off, 
was  sold  at  the  price  of  city  lots.  Advertising,  auctions,  bands  and  excursions 
helped  the  excitement  and  sold  the  property  to  people  who  confidently  expected 
to  make  from  fifty  to  five  hundred  per  cent,  on  their  deals — as  had  been  actually 
done  in  some  cases.  Many  of  the  present  thriving  towns  of  this  county  were 
thus  born  and,  having  real  merit  in  spite  of  the  wild  methods  and  hopes,  they 
have  survived  their  flimsy  foundation.  Such  are  Glendale,  "  Garvanzo  ",  "  Ah- 
susah  ",  Glendora,  Alhambra,  University,  and  others.  While  the  real  estate 


boom  had,  of  course,  a  tremendous  reaction  anci  there  were  many  losses,  there 
was  also  large  gain.  Substantial  improvements  were  made  as  a  result  which 
greatly  enhanced  the  value  of  property  and  prepared  the  way  for  a  more  solid 
advance.  Many  water  companies  organized  during  this  time  developed  the 
water  supply ;  many  orchards  set  out  as  a  speculative  venture,  proved  to  be  solid 
investments ;  many  buildings  which  were  put  up  under  the  influence  of  inflated 
values,  helped  to  create  confidence  and  soon  became  fitted  to  the  demand.  At 
the  height  of  the  boom,  in  May,  June  and  July,  1887,  usually  the  dullest  months 
in  the  year,  the  real  estate  sales  in  this  county  reached  $35,067,830,  for  the  three 
months.  After  this  sales  began  to  drop  off.  Yet  during  1887-8  nearly  $20,- 
000,000  was  expended  in  building.  A  large  number  of  dummy,  or  narrow-guage 
roads  were  built  during  this  period  and  many  branches  of  the  railway  lines  were 
completed.  The  cable  system  of  Los  Angeles  was  one  result  of  the  sudden  ex 

In  1886  a  narrow-gauge  line  was  built  between  Los  Angeles  and  Glendale 
and  in  1887  another  narrow-gauge  road  was  built  to  Pasadena.  This  road, 
known  as  the  "  Cross  "  road,  absorbed  the  Glendale  branch.  In  1890  the  "  Ter 
minal  "  Company,  an  organization  of  eastern  capitalists,  purchased  the  Cross 
roads  and  built  a  line  to  San  Pedro.  It  was  then  believed  that  this  was  a  move 
to  secure  terminal  facilities  at  San  Pedro  for  the  Union  Pacific ;  but  the  plans 
for  the  completion  of  the  line  failed  to  materialize  and  it  was  not  until  1900, 
when  Senator  W.  A.  Clark  of  Montana  secured  a  controlling  interest  in  the  Ore 
gon  Short  Line,  that  active  work  began  in  carrying  out  the  long-talked-of  con 
nection  between  Los  Angeles  and  Salt  Lake.  In  1906  the  San  Pedro  and  Salt 
Lake  railway  was  completed,  thus  giving  Southern  California  another  transcon 
tinental  line  and  opening  up  a  new  and  rich  territory  tributary  to  Los  Angeles. 
Los  Angeles  county  now  has  nearly  700  miles  of  steam  railway  within  her  bor 
ders  ;  she  has  three  transcontinental  lines  centering  within  her  limits ;  she  has 
the  fine  harbor  of  San  Pedro,  beside  ports  at  Port  Los  Angeles,  Redondo  and 
Long  Ueach.  She  is  thus  fully  equipped  to  hold  her  place  as  the  distributing 
point  for  a  very  large  territory  and  has  at  her  command  ample  and  easily  reached 
markets  for  all  of  her  surplus  products. 



FROM  the  shrieking,  log-wheeled,  ox-drawn  carretas,  moving  at  the  rate  of 
two  miles,  or  less,  an  hour  to  the  broad  gauge  passenger  coach,  speeded 
by  electric  motive  power  at  the  rate  of  sixty  miles  an  hour,  is  a  transfor 
mation  that  some  citizens  of  Los  Angeles  have  seen.  The  changes  in  the  business 
and  social  life  of  the  people,  in  the  building  and  the  general  aspect  of  the  country 
are  scarcely  less  amazing.  The  city  of  Los  Angeles,  which  in  1880  had  a  pop 
ulation  of  n,ooo  and  was  still  for  the  most  part  made  up  of  one-story  adobes, 
has  become  a  metropolitan,  modern  city,  with  a  population  of  250,000  and  with 
twelve  and  fourteen  story  buildings  equal  to  any  in  the  United  States.  And 
the  county  has  kept  pace  with  the  city.  The  assessment  for  1880  for  the  county 
gave  a  total  valuation  of  $18,593,773,  while  the  assessment  for  1907  was 
$375,719,358.  In  1880  there  were  but  three  banks  in  the  county,  all  in  the  city ; 
there  are  now  about  sixty  banks  doing  business,  nearly  half  of  them  in  outside 
towns.  In  1880  the  county  reported  192,000  bearing  orange  trees;  the  latest 
report  of  the  State  Board  of  Agriculture  gives  this  county  over  1,500,000  bear 
ing  orange  trees  and  over  3,000,000  bearing  fruit  trees  of  all  varieties.  These 
figures  are  but  indications  of  the  tremendous  changes  brought  about  in  the  past 
quarter  of  a  century  by  the  development  of  our  natural  resources,  the  exploita 
tion  of  our  incomparable  climate  and  the  influx  of  eastern  capital  which  has 
built  up  our  railway  systems.  There  can  be  no  question  that  a  large  credit  for 
our  prosperity  is  due  to  our  transportation  facilities.  The  advance  movement 
in  the  county  began  with  the  entry  of  the  Souhern  Pacific  and  Santa  Fe  roads ; 
during  the  boom  years  a  number  of  "  dummy  "  roads  were  built,  connecting 
the  city  with  Pasadena,  Glendale,  Hollywood  and  Norwalk,  and  a  broad  gauge 
road  to  Santa  Monica.  During  these  years  the  Santa  Fe  and  Southern  Pacific 
built  many  branch  roads — Pasadena,  Santa  Ana,  and  intermediate  points ; 
Redondo ;  Ballona  and  Santa  Monica ;  Long  Beach,  and  Orange.  Many  new 
town  sprang  up  along  these  lines  and  older  places,  like  Downey,  Compton, 
Florence,  and  a  dozen  other  farming  communities,  took  on  a  new  aspect  under 
the  stimulus  of  the  railroad. 

In  1874  the  first  street-car  line  in  the  city  of  Los  Angeles  was  built,  run 
ning  down  Spring  street  to  Sixth.  Horses,  or  more  likely  mules,  were  the 
motive  power.  A  number  of  other  horse-car  lines  followed  and  it  was  consid 
ered  in  those  days  that  Los  Angeles  was  very  well  provided  for  in  the  way  of 
transportation.  In  1884  the  first  cable  line  was  built,  out  West  Second  street 
to  Belmont  hill.  This  did  not  prove  a  successful  venture  and  was  aban- 


doned,  as  was  an  electric  line  attempted  that  same  year,  running  out  Pico  street. 
During  the  boom  a  company  was  organized  and  plans  were  laid  for  a  cable 
system  which  should  give  rapid  transit  to  all  parts  of  the  city.  Under  the  super 
vision  of  Col.  J.  C.  Robinson,  an  experienced  engineer,  these  plans  were  carried 
out  and  Tune  8th,  1889,  the  first  division  of  the  new  service,  the  line  starting  at 
the  Grand  Avenue  power  house,  now  the  postoffice,  down  Seventh  and  "  Fort  " 
streets  to  the  Baker  block,  was  put  in  operation.  The  Temple  street,  Boyle 
Heights  and  Downey  avenue  divisions  followed. 

In  189^  the  West  Second  street  electric  line  was  built  and  the  first  car  went 
over  it  July  1st.  This  line  over  the  heaviest  grades  in  the  city  was  looked  upon 
with  very  serious  doubts  at  first.  But  when  its  success  was  assured,  develop 
ments  were  rapid.  In  1892  the  Pasadena  and  Mount  Wilson  Company  was 
organized  by  T.  S.  C.  Lowe,  and  this,  at  the  time  the  most  remarkable  moun 
tain  road  in  the  world,  was  completed  in  1893. 

In  1895  Messrs.  Sherman  and  Clark  built  the  electric  line  to  Pasadena. 
This  was  the  first  inter-urban  street-car  line  and  it  was  freely  predicted  that 
"  it  would  never  pay.1'  Yet  the  next  year  the  same  gentlemen  announced  their 
intention  of  building  an  electric  line  to  Santa  Monica,  and  carried  out  their 
purpose.  In  1895  the  Traction  Company  entered  the  field  and  built  their  Uni 
versity  line. 

But  the  trolley  history  of  the  county  really  began  when  the  Cable  Railway 
system  was  sold  under  foreclosure  to  the  Electric  Street  Railway  Company,  in 
1898,  for  $1,344,320.  The  company  was  at  once  reorganized  and  in  1901  H. 
E.  Huntington  was  announced  as  its  head.  The  extension  of  lines  in  the  city 
since  that  date  has  gone  steadily  on.  But  the  greatest  work  has  been  in  the 
building  of  suburban  lines.  First  the  Pasadena  line  was  extended  to  Altadena 
and  the  foot  of  the  Mt.  Lowe  Incline ;  lines  were  built  to  Alhambra  and 
San  Gabriel,  to  Hollywood  and  Glendale.  Then  Long  Beach,  San  Pedro, 
Rcdondo,  and  Newport  were  reached.  These  lines  were  constructed  by  the 
Pacific  Electric  Company  and  the  Los  Angeles  Pacific.  Within  the  past  two 
or  three  years,  roads  have  been  built  to  Whittier,  Monrovia,  Covina,  and  Santa 
Ana.  In  1903  the  Pacific  Electric  constructed  its  building  in  Los  Angeles, 
which  gives  a  central  point  for  its  suburban  lines.  A  number  of  elaborate  and 
costly  power  plants  supply  the  motive  power  and  a  large  number  of  sub-stations 
distribute  it.  The  expenditure  of  the  many  millions  of  dollars  necessary  to  build 
and  maintain  this  network  of  railways  has  been  no  small  factor  in  our  general 

The  extension  of  these  roads  with  their  frequent  and  comfortable  service 
caused  an  expansion  of  the  beach  towns.  Long  Beach,  San  Pedro,  Redondo 
and  Santa  Monica  experienced  a  sudden  rise  in  values  that  recalled  the  days 
of  '87.  New  beach  settlements,  Ocean  Park,  Venice,  Playa  del  Rey,  Manhat- 


tan,  Hermosa,  and  half  a  dozen  others  were  platted  and  put  on  the  market.  The 
quick  transit  brought  new  settlers  to  the  beach ;  it  also  brought  crowds  of 
pleasure  seekers ;  and  at  once  new  bathhouses  and  pavilions,  hotels  and  piers 
were  provided.  It  is  probably  safe  to  say  that  the  population  of  our  beach 
towns  has  been  more  than  doubled  during  the  past  seven  years. 

But  the  suburban  lines  have  created  many  new  settlements  between  the 
city  and  the  beach.  People  who  could  never  hope  to  own  a  home  within  the 
city  have  been  able  to  purchase  a  lot  or  a  tract  outside  of  the  city,  and  at  the 
same  time  be  within  easy  reach  of  their  places  of  business,  or  of  labor.  Many 
handsome  homes  have  been  built  along  the  electric  lines  and  such  residence 
districts  as  Beverly  Hills,  Brentwood,  Hollywood,  South  Pasadena,  Hunting- 
ton  Park,  and  others,  have  shown  that  there  is  a  demand  for  high  class  sub 
urban  property. 

The  electric  lines  also  carry  the  mails,  express  and  freight.  So  satisfac 
tory  has  their  freight  service  proved  that  the  older  steam  lines  cannot  compete 
with  them..  They  are  now  handling  carload  lots  which  are  transferred  direct 
to  the  steam  lines.  The  fact  that  they  can  give  a  frequent  service  and  stop 
wherever  freight  or  express  matter  is  to  be  handled  has  been  of  great  benefit 
to  the  dairymen  and  small  farmers.  They  are  thus  able  to  put  their  vegetables, 
berries  and  produce  on  the  market  with  an  ease  and  a  promptness  which  adds 
largely  to  their  profits. 

Los  Angeles  county  increased  in  population  at  the  rate  of  67  per  cent,  be 
tween  1890  and  1900.  And  her  progress  in  the  present  decade  has  been  accel 
erated  and  will  doubtless  show  an  even  greater  gain  in  1910.  And  we  cannot 
question  that  there  is  a  relation  between  the  mileage  of  our  electric  railways, 
now  about  700  miles  in  the  county,  and  our  growing  population. 



THE  history  of  the  city  of  Los  Angeles  is  so  closely  interwoven  with  that  of 
the  county  that  the  two  can  hardly  be  separated.     Although  Monterey 
was  the  capital  most  of  the  time  during  the  early  history  of  the  country, 
Los  Angeles  had  more  inhabitants  and  was  the  center  of  a  larger  settled  district. 
After  the  gold  rush  of  the  early  fifties,  San  Francisco,  Sacramento,  and  a  number 
of  northern  towns  exceeded  Los  Angeles  in  population ;  but  within  the  past  three 
decades  Los  Angeles  has  steadily  passed  its  rivals  until  now  it  is  the  second  county 
and  the  second  city  in  the  state.     During  the  past  twenty-six  years  Los  Angeles 
has  made  the  most  rapid,  as  well  as  the  most  constant,  growth  in   population 


of  any  important  city  in  the  United  States,  the  population  now  being  estimated 
at  300,000. 

There  are  now  twenty-seven  incorporated  cities  in  the  county,  of  which 
Pasadena,  after  Los  Angeles,  is  the  first  in  size. 


In  August,  1873,  a  number  of  people,  residents  of  Indiana,  sent  a  committee 
to  California  to  look  over  the  country  and  select  a  tract  for  colonization,  to  be 
devoted  to  citrus  and  fruit  culture.  After  traveling  over  Southern  California 
these  gentlemen  decided  upon  a  body  of  4000  acres  of  the  San  Pasqual  rancho. 
This  grant  had  been  made  to  Manuel  Garfias  in  1843  and  was  at  this  time  owned 
by  Dr.  John  S.  Griffin  and  B.  D.  Wilson.  The  beautiful  and  highly  improved 
ranches  of  L.  J.  Rose  and  Mr.  Wilson,  in  this  vicinity,  showed  what  might  be 
accomplished  here.  There  were  about  fifty  people  in  the  original  Indiana  colony ; 
but  many  of  these  were  unable  to  carry  out  their  agreement  and  in  consequence 
the  purchase  of  the  land  was  completed  by  a  new  organization,  the  Orange 
Grove  Association.  Each  shareholder  received  a  fifteen-acre  tract  while  the 
balance  of  the  land  was  held  for  the  benefit  of  the  company.  In  1875  the  name 
of  Pasadena,  meaning  "  Crown  of  the  Valley  ",  taken  from  some  Indian  dialect, 
was  adopted  in  place  of  "  Indiana  Colony." 

The  original  irrigation  system  of  the  Orange  Grove  Association  was  the 
first  in  California  to  distribute  water  under  pressure,  through  iron  pipe.  The 
plan  was  such  a  radical  change  from  the  old  system  of  earthen  ditches  and 
little  wooden  flumes  that  it  was  much  commented  upon  and  criticised;  but  it 
has  since  then  been  largely  imitated. 

The  settlers  built  homes  and  started  a  school,  in  1874,  in  a  private  house. 
The  first  church,  the  Presbyterian,  was  built  in  1875-6  at  a  cost  of  $4200.  In 
March,  1880,  Pasadena  held  a  citrus  fair  which  attracted  many  visitors  and 
showed  the  quality  of  fruit  that  could  be  produced.  At  this  time  the  town  had 
a  tri-wcekly  stage  and  mail  service.  In  1882  the  Pasadena  Land  and  Water 
Company  was  formed  and  took  over  the  rights  and  properties  of  the  Orange 
Grove  Association.  The  Lake  Vineyard  Company  had  been  formed  in  1874 
and  had  purchased  land  adjoining  that  of  the  Orange  Grove  Company,  secur 
ing  their  water  rights  from  the  heirs  of  B.  D.  Wilson.  They  had  sold  a  con 
siderable  area  which  was  tinder  irrigation  and  was  known  as  the  "  east  side  ", 
while  the  settlement  of  the  Indiana  Colony  was  the  "  west  side."  A  conflict 
grew  out  of  the  adjustment  of  the  water  rights  of  these  two  associations  which, 
after  a  number  of  years  of  uncertainty,  was  settled  by  a  compromise  satisfactory 
to  all. 

In   1884  the  Los  Angeles  and  San  Gabriel  road  was  built  to  Pasadena;  in 

1887  this  became  a  part  of  the  Santa  Fe  system.     The  Cross  "  dummy  ''  road 

reached  the  town  in  1887,  and  the  first  street  car  line  was  built  this  year.     The 

•old  Raymond  hotel  was  built  in   1886  and  first  drew  the  attention  of  the  tourist 


world  to  the  attractions  offered  by   Pasadena  and   its  environs.     The  burning 
of  this  hotel  in  1895  was  a  severe  blow. 

The  town  was  incorporated  in  1886.  In  1901  it  adopted  a  freeholder's 
charter.  It  is  known  as  one  of  the  best  governed  and  most  orderly  towns  of 
the  country ;  while  its  municipal  improvements  are  unexcelled.  In  Throop 
College,  established  in  1894,  it  has  the  only  strictly  technical  school  in  Southern 
California.  Pasadena  is  a  city  of  beautiful  homes  and  magnificent  hotels.  It 
is  now  a  mecca  for  the  wealthy  easterner  who  wishes  to  escape  winter  severities. 
The  perfection  of  the  trolley  lines  enables  its  people  to  do  business  in  Los  Angeles 
and  has  practically  given  the  smaller  city  all  the  advantages  of  the  larger  place 
while  still  maintaining  her  own  restful  distinctiveness. 


The  town  of  Long  Beach  was  started  about  1882  and  had,  at  first,  a  very 
gradual  growth.  It  was  first  known  as  a  summer  resort  for  those  wishing  a 
quiet,  orderly  place.  Its  fine  beach  gave  it  a  strong  attraction.  For  many  years 
the  Methodists  held  their  annual  campmeeting  here.  The  Chautauqua  Associa 
tion  adopted  it  as  their  center,  also,  and  a  large  pavilion  to  accommodate  their 
summer  assemblies  was  erected  about  1890.  The  town  has  always  been  a  "  no 
license  ''  place  and  still  remains  so.  It  was  incorporated  in  1888  and  disincor 
porated  in  1896.  The  following  year  it  was  reincorporated  and  in  1907  adopted 
a  freeholder's  charter.  In  1900  it  had  a  population  of  2252;  in  1906  when  the 
census  was  taken  for  the  charter  election,  the  population'  was  12,591,  and  15,000 
is  now  claimed.  The  town  has  taken  on  new  life  since  the  completion  of  the 
trolley  line  and  has  made  a  record  for  building  and  improvements  of  every 

An  inland  harbor  is  being  constructed  here  and  a  large  shipping  plant 
is  in  course  of  construction.  With  the  completion  of  these  improvements  Long 
Beach  will  become  an  important  shipping  center. 


In  1874  the  Los  Angeles  Land  and  Water  Company,  of  which  Thomas 
A.  Garey,  C.  E.  White,  L.  M.  Holt,  Milton  Thomas,  R.  M.  Town  and  H.  G. 
Crow  were  members,  purchased  from  J.  S.  Philips,  a  tract  of  land  which  had 
been  a  part  of  the  San  Jose  grant,  made  to  Jose  Palomares.  The  company 
secured  water  rights  from  the  Palomares  heirs  and  also  put  down  four  artesian 
wells  from  which  a  considerable  flow  was  obtained.  A  town  site  was  laid 
out  and  the  land  surrounding  it  was  divided  into  tracts.  In  February,  1876. 
an  auction  sale  of  these  lots  was  held  which  resulted  in  disposing  of  $19,000 
worth  of  land — a  surprising  feat  for  that  time.  A  number  of  houses  were 
built  and  orchards  set  out  and  a  little  town  grew  up.  In  1877  a  fire  almost 
destroyed  the  settlement  and  for  some  time  the  place  did  not  recover  itself. 


The  Southern  Pacific  reached  the  town  in  1876.  In  1882  the  Pomona  Land 
and  \Yuter  Company  was  formed  and  by  vigorous  action  placed  the  irrigation 
system  upon  a  sounder  basis  and  secured  an  increased  supply  of  water.  Like 
all  Southern  California  towns,  Pomona  experienced  rapid  growth  during  the 
years  of  1886-1887,  and  many  new  buildings  were  put  up  at  that  time.  A 
handsome  hotel,  the  Palomares,  was  built ;  banks,  school  houses  and  street 
improvements  added.  The  town  was  incorporated  in  1888.  Claremont  was 
started  in  1887,  its  chief  inducement  for  the  prospective  buyer  being  a  very 
handsome  "  boom  "  hotel.  This  was  later  made  the  seat  of  Claremont  College, 
one  of  thy  largest  preparatory  schools  in  this  part  of  the  state.  The  town  is 
practically  a  part  of  Pomona. 

In  1889  the  beautiful  statue  of  Pomona  was  presented  to  the  city  by  one 
of  her  pione<  r  residents,  Rev.  C.  F.  Loop.  Pomona  is  the  center  of  a  very  rich 
farming  section  and  of  the  finest  citrus  orchards  in  the  country.  Its  shipments 
of  fruit,  both  fresh  and  canned  or  dried,  is  very  large. 


About  1887  a  colony  of  Friends  from  Indiana  located  on  a  tract  of  the 
Paso  de  Bartolo  rancho,  near  Ranchita,  as  the  ranch  house  of  Pio  Pico  was 
known.  The  settlers  at  first  devoted  themselves  almost  exclusively  to  citrus 
culture  and  the  little  village  prospered  as  its  orchards  came  into  bearing. 
About  1890  it  was  chosen  as  the  site  of  the  State  Industrial  Home,  for  the 
accommodation  of  which  buildings  to  the  value  of  nearly  a  million  dollars 
have  been  erected.  About  1895  the  Whittier  oil  fields  were  developed  and 
since  that  date  a  very  large  amount  of  high-grade  oil  has  been  annually  pro 
duced  by  this  section.  It  is  estimated  that  the  product  for  the  last  year  brought 
$1,000,000  into  the  community.  In  1898  the  town  was  incorporated.  In  1900 
the  census  gave  it  a  population  of  1,590,  but  it  has  grown  very  rapidly, 
especially  since  the  completion  of  the  electric  line  and  there  are  now  between 
five  and  six  thousand  inhabitants.  A  Friends'  college,  with  an  endowment  of 
§150,000,  is  maintained. 


In  1886  \Y.  X.  Monroe  laid  out  the  townsite  of  Monrovia.  Its  beautiful 
location  in  the  foothills  of  the  Santa  Anita  rancho,  attracted  a  number  of  wealthy 
families  who  built  handsome  homes.  A  large  number  of  orange  groves  were 
set  out ;  water  was  procured  from  Sawpit  Canyon,  and  the  town  grew  rapidly 
during  the  boom  years.  It  was  incorporated  December  I2th,  1887.  Like  all 
Los  Angeles  county  towns  it  has  taken  on  a  new  lease  of  life  within  the  past 
few  years.  The  completion  of  the  electric  line  to  the  place  in  1906  gave  an 
added  impetus  to  its  growth.  It  now  claims  4,000  inhabitants. 



In  1849  but  a  single  building  stood  upon  the  bluff,  known  as  Timm's 
landing.  About  this  point  a  little  settlement  grew  up  in  the  early  fifties ;  a 
wharf  was  built  and  a  warehouse  and  some  stores  and  residences  followed. 
But  in  1858  General  Phineas  Banning,  who  handled  most  of  the  stage  and  freight- 


ing  business  from  the  port,  started  a  new  town  some  six  miles  to  the  north 
and  for  a  time  the  first  town  languished.  However,  after  the  building  of  the 
railroad  in  1869,  the  old  settlement  revived.  In  1888  the  town  was  incorporated. 
The  completion  of  the  Terminal  road  and  the  extension  of  the  Southern  Pacific 
service  gave  improved  facilities.  The  vast  sums  of  money  expended  by  the 
government  in  improving  the  harbor  have  also  been  of  great  benefit  in  building 
up  the  town  of  San  Pedro.  It  is  now  the  most  important  port  in  California. 
after  San  Francisco,  and  the  volume  of  business  carried  on  through  the  place  is 
constantly  increasing.  Since  the  building  of  an  electric  line  in  1905,  a  large 
addition  to  the  business  has  been  made  and  many  public  improvements  have 
been  undertaken. 


In  1858  Phineas  Banning,  J.  G.  Downey  and  B.  D.  Wilson  purchased  a 
tract  of  land  and  laid  out  the  town  of  "  New  San  Pedro."  A  wharf  and  ware 
house  was  built  here  and  all  the  business  of  the  Banning  Company  was  trans 
ferred  to  this  point.  A  reservation  was  donated  to  the  government  for  barracks. 
Here  Drum  Barracks  was  built,  and  from  the  beginning  of  the  civil  war  until  1865 
or  later,  large  numbers  of  troops  passed  through  this  port  and  were  garrisoned 
here.  It  was  the  miltary  headquarters,  at  that  time,  for  this  section  and  Arizona. 


In  1863  the  name  was  changed  by  act  of  the  legislature  to  Wilmington  and 
in  1874  the  government  changed  the  name  of  the  port  to  Wilmington,  which 
is  still  the  official  title  of  the  harbor.  In  1864  General  Banning  established  the 
ll'iliniiigton  Journal,  the  first  paper  in  the  county  outside  of  Los  Angeles. 
It  was  a  well  put  up  and  newsy  sheet.  As  the  starting  point  for  stages  for 
Los  Angeles,  San  Bernardino  and  Arizona  points,  Wilmington  was  a  lively 
place  during  the  later  sixties. 

In  1873  Wilson  College,  endowed  by  B.  D.  Wilson,  was  opened  and  for 
a  number  of  years  prospered,  under  the  Rev.  Dr.  Campbell.  The  building 
was  'a  large  two-story  house,  which  accommodated  a  number  of  boarding  pupils. 
The  rebuilding  of  "  Old  San  Pedro  "  took  away  the  prestige  of  Wilmington. 
The.  town  which  had  been  incorporated  in  1872,  repealed  its  incorporation  in 
1887  and  remained  a  village  until  1905,  when  it  was  reincorporated  as  a  city 
of  the  sixth  class. 

The  improvement  of  the  harbor  has  greatly  benefited  Wilmington  and  a 
large  amount  of  shipping  business  is  now  clone  at  its  wharves. 


The  town  of  Redondo  was  started  in  1887,  by  a  company  which  built  a 
very  large  and  handsome  hotel  and  also  supplied  a  wharf.  The  Santa  Fe,  after 
making  an  attempt  to  secure  suitable  terminal  facilities  at  Ballona  Port, 
determined  upon  Redondo  as  a  harbor  and  entered  the  town  with  its  railroad 
in  1888.  The  town  was  incorporated  in  1892.  It  was  Breached  by  an  electric 
line  in  1904  and  now  has  two  electric  lines  connecting  it  with  the  city.  The 
Pacific  Light  and  Power  plant,  one  of  the  largest  in  the  L^nited  States,  is  located 
here.  A  large  amount  of  freight  is  handled,  especially  lumber  from  the 
coastwise  steamers. 


Other  incorporated  towns  not  mentioned  are  Alhambra,  Arcadia,  Azusa, 
Claremont,  Compton,  Covina,  Glendale,  Hermosa  Beach,  Hollywood,  Hunt- 
ington  Park,  Sierra  Madre,  Vernon  and  Watts.  Many  of  these  have  grown  up 
within  the  past  four  or  five  years,  a  number  of  them,  as  Claremont,  Hermosa 
Beach,  Huntington  Park,  Sierra  Madre  and  Watts  have  been  incorporated 
within  the  past  year. 


History  of  Santa  Monica  Bay  Cities. 



THE  BAY  OF  SAXTA  MONICA  extends  along  the  coast  from  Point 
Vicente,  latitude  33°  40'  to  Point  Dume.  latitude  34°  a  distance  of  seven 
teen  miles,  north  by  west.  The  coast  line  of  the  bay  makes  an  inward 
sweep  which  is  some  ten  miles  deep  at  its  extreme  point,  in  the  neighborhood 
of  Port  Los  Angeles,  and  includes  an  area  of  25,000  miles.  The  waters  of  this 
bay  are,  ordinarily,  quiet  since  the  force  of  the  waves  is  broken  by  the  seaward 
islands  and  the  deep,  recessed  position  of  the  shore  line.  The  depth  of  the 
water  increases  from  the  beach  outward  with  an  easy  and  gradual  slope  for 
several  miles. 

The  shore  line  is  most  varied.  At  its  northern  extremity,  Point  Dume 
rises,  domelike,  to  a  height  of  200  feet,  and  back  of  it  the  Santa  Monica  range 
rises  abruptly  almost  from  the  waters  of  the  shore  to  a  height  of  2,000  feet 
and  forms  the  northern  border  of  the  bay.  Gradually  the  slope  falls  into  the 
palisades  and  sinks  to  the  sand  dunes  and  the  Ballona  lagoon,  then  rises  again 
into  low  hills  along  the  southern  rim.  Back  from  the  palisades  sweep  the  gently 
rising  plateaus  of  the  San  Vicente  and  San  Jose  de  Buenos  Ayres  ranches. 
Southward  extend  the  cienegas  and  pastures  of  the  Ballona  creek  district  and 
the  low,  rolling  ranges  of  the  Sausal  Redondo  and  San  Pedro  region. 

The  Santa  Monica  Bay  territory  thus  includes  a  large  variety  of  scenery, 
a  most  varied  topography  and  a  wide  range  of  resources.  Its  mountains  fur 
nish  an  invaluable  water  supply ;  the  greater  part  of  its  lower  lands  are  readily 
supplied  with  water  from  wells,  while  a  considerable  portion  of  the  region  needs 
no  irrigation  and  includes  some  of  the  most  valuable  farming  land  in  Los  An- 
geles  county.  The  distinctive  topography  of  this  district  accounts  for  a  climate 
which  is  incomparable,  since  it  has  all  the  advantages  of  both  coast  and  inland 
— the  freshness  of  the  ocean  air,  with  the  freedom  from  harsh  winds,  of  the 



The  first  explorer  of  the  California  coast,  Cabrillo,  after  spending  six  days 
in  San  Diego  Harbor,  which  he  named  San  Miguel,  sailed  along  "a  mountainous 
coast,  overhung  with  smoke,"  landed  at  Catalina  to  which  he  gave  the  name 
of  Victoria,  then  anchored  in  a  bay  which  he  called  "Bahia  de  Fumos''  (Bay  of 
smoke),  San  Pedro  Bay  and,  on  October  9,  1542  he  dropped  anchor  in  an 
"ensanada"  or  bight  which  is  generally  granted  to  have  been  Santa  Monica 
Bay.  At  just  what  point  he  anchored  is  not  known,  but  undoubtedly  Cabrillo 
was  the  first  European  to  observe  the  palisades,  the  fair  fields  and  gentle  rolling 
hills  that  mark  this  coast.  After  this  brief  visit  there  is  no  record  of  vessel 
or  visitor  to  this  region  for  more  than  two  hundred  years. 


The  waters  of  the  bay  were  sometimes  disturbed  by  the  rude  boats  of  the 
Santa  Barbara  Channel  and  Island  Indians ;  the  valleys  adjacent  to  the  coast 
and  the  Santa  Monica  mountains  were  the  homes  of  a  people  who  have  long 
since  disappeared  and  of  whose  existence  we  know  only  by  the  occasional  un 
covering  of  skeletons  and  relics.  Several  caves  and  mounds  containing  cur 
ious  collections  of  implements,  weapons  and  bones  have  been  found  on  the 
Malibu  ranch  at  various  times.  These  Indians  roamed  over  the  plains  and 
through  the  cienegas,  killing  rabbits  and  small  game  and  gathering  acorns  and 
grasses,  roots  and  berries.  They  also  fished  along  the  shore,  mostly  with  nets, 
and  gathered  shells — their  most  prized  possession.  It  is  said  that  these  shells 
were  particularly  abundant  along  the  shore  where  Ocean  Park  and  Venice  now 


stand  and  that  th<-  Indians  from  the  interior  and  from  Catalina  used  to  visit  this 
spot  to  secure  shells  which  took  the  place  of  money  with  them. 

Vizcaino  describes  the  Indians  seen  along  the  coast  of  California  during 
his  explorations  early  in  the  seventeenth  century  as  of  good  form  and  of  active 
character,  the  men  wearing  a  short  cloak  made  of  rabbit  or  deer  skins,  htavily 
fringed,  the  more  industrious  having  their  garments  embroidered  with  shells. 
He  describes  a  rancheria  seen  along  the  shore  in  this  vicinity  as  composed  of 
about  twenty  houses  made  of  rushes  over  a  frame  of  poles  driven  into  the  ground. 
These  were  very  like  the  brush  ramadas  still  constructed  by  the  Indians  of 
California.  Bancroft  states  that  the  Indians  of  Los  Angeles  county  ate  coyotes, 
skunks,  wildcats  and  all  sorts  of  small  animals.  They  would  not  eat  bear  meat 
or  the  flesh  of  large  game  for  superstitious  reasons.  They  were  poor  hunters 
having  no  effective  weapons,  and  hunted  deer  by  hiding  themselves  under  a 
skin  with  the  head  and  horns  intact,  until  they  were  within  bowshot.  They 
made  fishhooks,  needles  and  other  small  articles  of  bone  and  shell,  ground  their 
acorns  and  seeds  in  a  metate,  or  stone  mill,  and  constructed  wooden  boats  or 
tule  rafts  for  their  fishing  expeditions,  using  seines  made  of  tough  bark. 

THE  NAM  ic. 

The  Indians  were  the  only  occupants  of  the  coast  for  some  time  after  the 
beginnings  of  settlement  had  been  made  at  San  Gabriel  and  Los  Angeles.  It 
is  claimed  that  the  party  of  Captain  de  Portala,  which  made  the  first  overland 
expedition  through  California  in  1769  in  search  of  the  Bay  of  Monterey,  passed 
through  a  canada  near  the  present  location  of  the  Soldier's  Home  and  paused 
under  a  group  of  sycamores  while  Fathers  Crespi  and  Gomez,  the  priests  ac 
companying  the  expedition,  said  mass.  A  very  old  sycamore  tree  is  pointed 
out  as  the  one  where  the  service  was  performed  and  is  still  looked  upon  with 

\\"e  have  no  authentic  account  of  how  the  name  Santa  Monica  came  to  be 
applied ;  but  the  old  Spanish  settlers  have  a  legend  of  its  origin  which  may  be 
true.  The  story  is  that  a  couple  of  Spanish  soldiers  were  given  a  furlough  to 
explore  the  region  about  the  new  ."pueblo  de  Los  Angeles."  They  came  one 
day  to  a  couple  of  clear  bubbling  springs  near  the  ocean.  After  drinking,  they 
threw  themselves  upon  the  ground  between  the  springs  to  rest.  As  they  lay 
there  on  the  gently  sloping  hillside,  overlooking  the  wide,  green  plains  and  the 
ocean,  one  of  them  asked,  "And  what  shall  we  call  this  spot,  brother?" 

And  the  other,  turning  from  one  glistening  pool  to  the  other,  answered: 
"\Ye  will  call  it  Santa  Monica,  for  the  springs  resemble  the  tears  of  the  good 
Santa  Monica  shed  for  her  erring  son." 

The  legend  of  Santa  Monica  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  connected  with 
the  saints.  According  to  tradition  the  holy  woman  was  born  in  Africa  about 
332  A.  D.  She  was  brought  up  so  strictly  that  she  was  not  allowed  even  a 


drink  of  water  between  meals  and  was  early  married  to  Patricius,  a  gentleman 
of  hot  and  hasty  temper.  She  had  two  sons  and  one  of  them  Augustine,  to  the 
great  grief  of  his  mother,  would  not  yield  to  her  teachings  and  be  baptized  into 
the  church.  Instead,  he  was  carried  away  by  heresy  and  entered  upon  an 
immoral  life.  The  mother  spent  much  of  her  time  in  praying  for  and  weeping 
over  the  wayward  son.  For  many  years  she  sorrowed  and  once,  in  her  despair, 
she  went  to  a  good  bishop  and  related  her  woes.  "  Wait,"  the  bishop  told  her, 
"  and  keep  on  praying.  The  child  of  so  many  tears  cannot  perish." 

At  last  the  son  fell  ill  and  came  near  death.  He  recovered,  however,  in 
answer  to  his  mother's  prayers  and  this  so  softened  his  heart  that  at  last  he 
saw  the  error  of  his  ways  and  became  a  devout  believer,  finally  becoming  the 
great  Saint  Augustine. 

Whether  we  accept  this  legend  or  not,  the  bay  and  the  region  were  certainly 
named  for  the  good  Santa  Monica,  whose  day  in  the  calendar  was  May  4th. 
The  name  does  not  seem  to  appear  upon  record  until  the  petition  for  the  grant 
known  as  San  Vincente  y  Santa  Monica  was  made  by  Don  Francisco  Sepulveda 
and  Augustin  Machado  in  1827.  The  springs  mentioned  in  the  legend,  later 
known  as  San  Vincente  springs  were  included  in  this  grant. 


What  is  commonly  known  as  the  Santa  Monica  Bay  region  includes  por 
tions  of  four  land  grants,  Malibu— extending  twenty-two  miles  along  the  coast 
to  the  north ;  Boca  de  Santa  Monica,  including  the  mouth  of  Santa  Monica 
Canyon ;  San  Vicente  y  Santa  Monica,  which  had  an  ocean  frontage  of  a  mile 
and  a  half  and  extended  back  four  miles  from  the  coast,  covering  an  area  of 
about  40,000  acres ;  and  La  Ballona  rancho,  with  an  ocean  frontage  of  four 

For  nearly  three  quarters  of  a  century  after  the  first  settlement  was  made 
on  the  Malibu  tract  in  1804,  or  possibly  earlier,  this  entire  region  was  given 
over  to  grazing  herds  of  cattle  and  sheep  and  to  grain  raising,  on  a  small  scale. 
The  haciendas  of  the  grant  owners  were  each  a  little  community  in  itself  and 
the  simple,  pastoral  life  of  the  Spanish  occupation  lingered,  to  an  unusual  degree 
until  the  final  breaking  up  of  these  ranchos,  during  the  past  twenty-five  years. 

Bill  life  in  those  slow-moving  days,  while  not  as  strenuous  as  in  our  day 
of  perpetual  rush  and  change,  had  its  occupations,  its  interests  and  its  amuse 
ments.  Most  of  these  rancheros  were  also  residents  of  Los  Angeles  and  took 
an  active  part  in  municipal  and  territorial  affairs.  At  their  country  homes  they 
were  surrounded  by  a  large  retinue  of  relations,  retainers  and  servants,  the 
latter  mostly  Indians.  All  of  these  were  under  the  protection  and  command 
of  the  head  of  the  house  and  all  were  fed,  clothed,  and  provided  for.  The 
number  of  people  about  his  place  was  a  matter  of  pride  with  the  ranchero. 


And  the  days  on  one  of  these  large  stock  ranges  were  not  all  "siesta"  by 
any  means.  Herds  and  flocks  must  be  guarded  from  thieves  and  the  ravages 
of  wild  beasts ;  they  must  be  shifted  from  plain  to  valley,  from  coast  to  moun 
tain-side,  as  the  season  demanded.  There  were  rodeos,  the  annual  rounding-up 
of  stock,  to  attend  and  sometimes  a  large  cattle  owner  must  be  present  at  several 
of  these  affairs  in  order  to  secure  all  of  his  stock.  The  rnatanza,  or  slaughter 
ing,  was  a  busy  season  requiring  careful  selection  of  animals  and  good  judg 
ment  in  bargaining  with  the  traders  of  the  hide  droghers ;  sheep-shearing  was 
another  period  of  arduous  labor ;  the  tanning  of  hides,  the  rendering  of  tallow 
and  the  harvesting  of  grain  all  demand  due  attention.  There  were  dry  seasons 
when  losses  were  heavy,  and  cold,  wet  years  which  were  disastrous  to  cattle  and 
i->peeiaily  sheep. 

The  greater  part  of  the  necessary  supplies  were  raised  upon  the  rancho, 
but  yearly  the  hides  and  tallow  were  traded  with  the  sailing  vessels  that  put 
into  San  Pedro,  for  such  supplies  and  luxuries  as  were  brought  from  the  Orient, 
or  from  Boston.  Certainly  the  life  of  those  years  was  not  without  its  interests. 
The  instability  of  political  affairs  the  constaint  bickering  and  jealously  of 
Monterey  and  Santa  Barbara  on  the  one  hand,  and  Los  Angeles  and  San  Diego, 
on  the  other ;  the  frequently  changing  and  very  uncertain  orders  and  officials 
sent  from  Mexico,  all  of  these  afforded  pretty  steady  excitement  in  Los  Angeles. 
And  Los  Angeles  seems  never  to  have  been  a  really  dull  place — even  in  its 
sleepiest  days.  There  was  generally  something  doing — if  it  was  only  a  murder 
before  breakfast.  For  amusements  there  were  balls  and  weddings,  horse  races 
and  bull  fights  and  the  various  fiestas  of  the  church. 

The  ranches  near  the  coast  were  not  as  exposed  to  depredations  from  the 
dreaded  "desert"  Indians  as  were  the  more  interior  locations,  but  there  are  still 
traditions  of  lively  scraps  with  bands  of  thieving  Indians  on  the  Malibu  and  the 
San  Vicente,  and  there  is  at  least  one  "  encino  del  Indias "  located  on  the 
palisades  where  an  Indian  horse  thief  was  hanged  without  legal  preliminaries. 


The  first  land  grant  in  this  vicinity  was  that  known  as  Topanga  Malibu 
made  in  1805  to  Don  Jose  Bartolemeo  Tapia.  A  deed  executed  in  1845  anc^ 
recorded  in  the  county  records  states  that  July  12,  1805,  the  "Governor  o\  Loreto," 
then  Governor  of  California  decreed  that  certain  "  pasajes  "  which  are  called 
Malibu,  Topango,  Sottome,  Simi  and  Sequit,  be  granted  to  Jose  Bartolemeo 
Tapia.  This  deed  further  states  that  April  18,  1824,  the  property  passed  into 
hands  of  Seiior  Tapia's  heirs,  Tomaso,  Fernando,  Juan  Antonio  and  Tiburcio 
Tapia.  The  property  is  described  as  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  "  Sierra  Mayor, 
on  the  south,  F,l  Mar  Oceano  Pacifico;  the  east  by  Rancho  Santa  Monica  and 
the  west  by  el  Rio  de  San  Buena  Ventura."  In  1848  it  passed  into  the  pos- 



session  of  Maria  Villeboso  and  Victor  Leon  Pruclliomme  for  "  cuatro  cientos 
pesos  " — four  hundred  dollars. 

The  Malibu  grant,  with  its  almost  impassable  mountain  ranges,  extending; 
into  the  very  ocean,  its  inacessible  canyons,  its  hidden  mesas  and  wildernesses, 
has  always  been  a  land  of  mystery  and  many  romantic  stories  of  smuggling,  of 
buried  treasure,  of  robbery  and  murder  have  been  connected  with  it. 

The  first  grantee,  Jose  B.  Tapia,  must  have  stocked  the  place,  as  he  willed 
it  with  its  "ganado"  or  cattle,  to  his  heirs.  His  son  Tiburcio  occupied  the  place, 
probably  during  the  twenties  and  thirties  and  it  is  said  buried  a  couple  of  chests 
of  his  abounding  coin  somewhere  on  the  ranch.  Tiburcio  Tapia  was  one  of  the 

most  interesting  char 
acters  of  earlier  Los 
Angeles  history. 
Born  in  San  Luis 
Obispo,  w  here  his 
father  was  then  act 
ing  as  Alcalde,  in 
1789,  he  became  a 
soldier.  In  1824.  he 
was  a  corporal  of  the 
guard  at  Purisima  at 
the  time  of  an  In 
dian  uprising  which 
threatened  the  mas 
sacre  of  the  entire 
Spanish  population. 

With  four  or  five  men,  Tapia  defended  the  families  and  the  padres  during  the 
night  and  only  surrendered  when  the  powder  gave  out.  It  is  said  that  the  rebels 
offered  to  spare  Tapia,  if  he  would  give  up  his  arms,  but  he  declined  the  pro 

Soon  after  this  he  must  have  removed  to  Los  Angeles,  where  he  was  one 
of  the  earliest  merchants.  Alfred  Robinson  says  of  him,  "We  stopped  at  the 
house  of  Don  Tiburcio  Tapia,  the  Alcalde  Constitutional  (Constitutional  Judge) 
of  the  city,  who  was  once  a  common  soldier  but  who,  by  honest  and  industrious 
labor  has  amassed  so  much  of  this  world's  goods  as  to  make  him  one  of  the 
wealthiest  inhabitants  of  the  place.  His  strict  integrity  gave  him  credit  to  any 
amount  with  the  trading  vessels,  so  that  he  was  the  principal  merchant  and  the 
only  native  one  in  "el  Pueblo  cle  Los  Angeles." 

Don  Tiburcio  filled  many  positions  of  trust.  In  1827,  which  must  have 
been  soon  after  his  location  in  Los  Angeles,  he  was  chosen  with  Juan  Bandini, 
Romualdo  Pacheco  and  four  other  prominent  citizens  to  act  as  vocale  or  member 
to  represent  the  southern  district  in  the  territorial  diputacion  which  convened 



at  Monterey,  the  legislative  body  of  that  time.  Don  Tiburcio  was  mack  a  mem 
ber  of  the  committee  on  police  regulations,  which  must  have  been  one  of  the 
most  important  subjects  under  consideration  in  those  days.  His  record  makes 
it  appear  that  Serior  Tapia  was  something  of  a  politician,  or  so  it  would  seem 
now-a-days ;  but  we  are  assured  that  in  the  early  days  of  Los  Angeles  the  office 
had  to  seek  the  man  and  sometimes  went  begging  for  an  occupant,  so  we  must 
put  Senor  Tapia  down  as  one  of  the  most  self-sacrificing  and  public  spirited 
citizens  Los  Angeles  ever  had.  He  was  re-elected  vocale  twice.  In  1831  he 
was  alcalde  (mayor)  of  Los  Angeles;  in  1833  he  was  "sindico,"  recorder;  in 
1835  "encargado  cle  Indians";  1836,  alcalde — second  alcalde — it  took  two  mayors 
to  keep  things  moving;  In  1839  he  was  alcalde  again  and  was  also  confirmed  in 
the  grant  of  the  Cucamonga  Rancho  by  governor  Alvarado.  In  1840  he  was 
one  of  the  five  substitute  judges  elected  by  the  junta,  or  superior  court.  In 
1844  he  again  served  the  city  as  alcalde. 

He  must  have  been  a  busy  man,  as  the  leading  merchant  of  the  town  and 
as  one  of  the  owners  of  the  Topanga  Malibu  and,  at  the  same  time  he  was 
making  extensive  improvements  on  the  Cucamonga  Rancho,  where  he  built  a 
residence.  It  is  said  that  as  rumors  of  American  designs  upon  California  be 
came  rife,  Don  Tiburcio  became  alarmed  for  his  store  of  coin,  which  was  un 
usually  large  for  that  period.  He  is  said  to  have  carried  much  of  it  to  Cucamongo 
and  buried  it,  and  there  are  also  stories  of  other  chests  of  it  hidden  on  the 
Malibu.  Whatever  treasures  of  silver  and  gold  he  may  have  stowed  away,  did 
him  no  good,  for  he  died  suddenly  in  1845  ar>d  it  seems  to  have  been  lost  to 
his  family.  He  left  one  daughter,  Maria  Merced,  who  later  married  Leon 
V".  Prudhomme,  one  of  the  early  French  settlers  of  Los  Angeles,  and  who  is 
still  living  in  that  city. 

An  interesting  tale  of  an  early  smuggling  episode  is  also  related  to  Malibu 
history.  According  to  Bancroft,  in  1819,  a  couple  of  American  vessels,  strongly 
suspected  of  smuggling  intentions,  were  cruising  along  the  coist  of  Southern 
California.  One  of  these  ships  was  signalled  off  the  coast  of  the  Malibu  and 
induced  to  make  a  landing.  Two  men,  Antonio  Briones,  who  is  stated  to  have 
been  a  claimant  for  the  Malibu  grant  at  one  time,  and  Maximo  Alanis,  who 
was  later  the  grantee  of  the  Buenos  Ayres  Rancho,  induced  the  smugglers  to 
land  their  goods,  then  seized  the  sailors  and  declared  that  they  would  turn  them 
over  to  the  authorities  unless  a  ransom  of  $1000  was  paid  to  them.  As  their 
captors  had  conclusive  evidence,  the  captain  was  about  to  pay  over  his  thousand 
dollars,  when  one  of  the  guard  "  celebrated  "  too  soon  and  in  his  happy  oblivion 
allowed  the  prisoners  to  escape.  The  booty,  however,  remained  in  the  hands 
of  Briones  and  Alanis,  who  decided  to  say  nothing  to  the  authorities  about  the 
little  matter  and  keep  the  goods  to  recoup  themselves  for  the  ransom  money 
they  had  lost.  But  the  officials  of  that  day  seem  to  have  had  their  eyes  open 


and  in  some  way  discovered  the  mysterious  doings  on  the  Malibu  coast. 
Briones  and  Alanis  were  arrested,  the  goods  confiscated  and  these  brilliant 
"  promoters  "  of  1819  were  imprisoned  for  six  months  in  chains.  It  is  to  be 
hoped  that  somebody  finally  paid  the  duty  on  the  consignment. 

In  later  years  the  Malibu  was  the  favorite  rendezvous  of  an  extensive  band 
of  horse  and  cattle  thieves.  The  early  records  of  Los  Angeles  county  contain 
many  accounts  of  exciting  chases  and  arrests  made  in  the  fastnesses  of  the 
Malibu,  or  Malaga,  region.  Don  Tiburcio  Tapia  seems  to  have  been  a 
remarkable  exception  in  his  family,  for  the  name  Tapia  appears  almost  as 

frequently  in  the  criminal  records  as  did  Don  Tibur- 
cio's  in  the  political  records  of  an  earlier  day. 

In  the  early  sixties,  the  Malibu  grant  passed 
through  tax  sale  into  the  hands  of  Mathew  Keller, 
A-sr-j  better  known  in  those  days  as  "  Don  Mateo."     Mr. 

^^^(•StJL^  Keller  was  born  in  Ireland  and  came  to  America  at 

^1  an  early  date.     After  living  in  Mexico  for  a  time, 

he  came  to  California  and  located  in  Los  Angeles 
about  1850,  becoming  one  of  its  best  known  and 
most  prominent  citizens.  He  was  one  of  the  first  to 
engage  in  wine-making  and  to  plant  out  an  exten 
sive  vineyard,  for  which  he  imported  stock  from 
France.  He  devoted  a  great  deal  of  attention 

DON  MATED  KELLER.  to  the  cultivation   of  the  grape   and   was   also   in 

terested  in  the  early  experiments  in  raising  cot- 
ion.  At  one  time  he  had  a  complete  ginning  outfit  set  up  in  Los  Angeles 
and  offered  its  use  to  any  one  who  would  raise  cotton.  He  made  a  thor 
ough  study  of  the  process  of  making  wine  of  different  varieties  and  manu 
factured  it  in  large  quantities.  He  established  houses  in  Los  Angeles  and 
San  Francisco  and  was  instrumental  in  introducing  California  wines  in  the 
east  on  a  large  scale,  having  extensive  connections  in  New  York  for  the  hand 
ling  of  his  'own  manufacture. 

He  put  up  a  large  ranch  house  on  the  Malibu  and  made  improvements 
there  and  when  he  died  in  1881  he  left  the  grant  to  his  son,  Henry  \V.  Keller, 
formerly  of  Santa  Monica,  who  sold  it  in  1891  to  the  late  Frederick  H.  Rindge. 
FREDERICK  HASTINGS  RINDGE  was  born  in  Cambridge,  Mass.,  December 
21  st,  1857.  He  was  a  descendant  of  the  Puritan  stock  which  has  furnished 
so  large  a  portion  of  the  best  blood  and  ablest  brains  of  our  country. 
Among  his  ancestors  were  Daniel  Rindge,  who  commanded  the  Ipswich  troops 
in  the  campaign  which  destroyed  King  Philip,  of  the  Naragansett ;  Samuel 
Baker,  one  of  the  minute  men  who  marched  to  the  relief  of  Lexingtotn  in  1775, 
and  Daniel  Harrington,  a  resident  of  Lexington  who  served  through  the  Revolu- 



tionary  war  with  distinction,  retiring  with  the  rank  of  captain.  His  father, 
Samuel  Baker  Rinclge  was  a  merchant  of  very  large  estate,  which  he  used  most 
wisely.  His  mother,  Clarissa  Harrington,  was  a  woman  of  fine  character. 

Frederick-  Rindge  was  the  only  surviving  child  of  his  parents  and  was  left 
in  a  weakened  state  by  an  attack  of  scarlet  fever  in  his  childhood.  His  education 
was  conducted  with  especial  care  and  while  still  a  youth  he  traveled  extensively, 
visiting  California  in  1870  and  during  1871-2  visiting  many  places  of  interest 
in  Europe.  He  completed  his  preparation  for  college  under  Dr.  James  Laurence 
Laughlin  and  entered  Harvard  in  1875.  Owing  to  illness,  he  was  forced  to 
leave  college  in  his  last  year;  but  several  years  later  he  was  given  his  degree. 
Soon  after  leaving  college  he  succeeded  to  his  father's  estate,  and  at  once  entered 
upon  an  active  business  career  which  proved  him  to  possess  unusal  qualities  of 
good  judgment  and  executive  ability;  although  his  character  and  tastes  were 
strongly  inclined  to  a  studious  life. 

He  visited  California  again  in  1880,  in  search  of  health,  and  returned  to 
New  England  with  renewed  strength.  For  a  number  of  years  he  devoted  him 
self  to  the  management  of  his  large  commercial  interests  in  Massachusetts.  As 
a  testimonial  of  his  love  for  his  birthplace,  he  erected  and  presented  to  the  city 
of  Cambridge  a  city  hall  and,  later,  built  for  the  city  a  beautiful  public  library 
building.  He  established  there,  and  for  ten  years  maintained,  the  Rindge 
Manual  Training  School  for  boys — the  first  manual  training  school  in  the 

On  May  27,  1887,  he  was  married  to  Miss  Rhoda  May  Knight,  of  Trenton, 
Michigan,  daughter  of  James  and  Rhoda  Lathrop  Knight.  They  were  the  par 
ents  of  three  children,  Samuel  Knight,  Frederick  Hastings  and  Rhoda  Agatha. 

In  1887,  he  came  to  California  to  make  his  permanent  home.  He  soon 
settled  upon  Southern  California  as  his  place  of  residence.  In  January,  1891, 
he  purchased  property  on  Ocean  Avenue,  Santa  Monica  and  at  once  built  a 
handsome  residence.  This  home  was  occupied  by  the  family,  in  conjunction 
with  the  ranch  house  on  the  Topanga  Malibu  until  they  removed  to  Los 
Angeles  in  1903. 

In  1891  Mr.  Rinclge  purchased  the  property  commonly  known  as  the  Malibu 
ranch,  a  Spanish  land  grant  originally  made  to  Jose  B.  Tapia  in  1804,  and  later 
belonging  to  Don  Mateo  Keller.  The  original  property  extended  along  the 
coast  northwesterly  from  Las  Flores  canyon  for  twenty  miles.  To  this  Mr. 
Rindge  added  other  tracts  until  he  owned  a  strip  of  land  extending  along  the 
sea  coast  for  twenty-four  miles.  Beautiful  "pasages"  or  valleys ;  fertile  mesas, 
stretches  of  magnificent  beach,  lofty  peaks  and  ridges,  gave  a  wonderful  variety 
of  scenery  and  climate  to  this  rancho.  Mysterious  caves,  almost  inaceesible  can 
yons,  groves  of  ancient  oak  and  sycamore  lent  romance  and  charm.  It  is  not 
strange  that  Mr.  Rindge,  with  his  poetical  tendency  of  thought  and  spiritual 


trend  of  mind,  found  here  his  ideal  home  and  loved  this  historical  rancho — not 
as  property — but  as  a  divine  inheritance.  He  built  here  a  home  that  was  per 
fect  in  its  adaptation  to  the  environment  and  he  spent  here  some  of  his  happiest 
hours.  His  book,  "Happy  Days  in  Southern  California"  is  largely  a  tribute 
to  his  life  upon  the  Malibu,  although  it  deals  with  other  aspects  of  California 
life  also. 

But  while  he  sought  rest  and  inspiration  in  the  seclusion  of  his  ranch 
home,  Mr.  Rindge  never  shut  himself  out  from  active  participation  in  business 
and  public  affairs.  During  the  years  of  his  residence  in  this  state,  from  1888 
to  1905,  probably  no  other  man  was  ever  connected  with  so  many  and  such 
large  and  varied  interests.  His  investments  were  made  not  only  with  a  view 
to  the  increase  of  his  own  wealth  but,  very  largely,  for  the  purpose  of  develop 
ing  the  resources  of  this  country  and  thus  giving  opportunity  to  men  of  lesser 
means.  For  this  reason  he  was  a  moving  factor  in  a  large  number  of  companies 
organized  to  develop  water  and  reclaim  land,  and  in  various  other  enterprises. 
Among  the  most  important  of  thes<\  was  the  Conservative  Life  Insurance  Com 
pany,  of  which  he  was  president.  Mr.  Rindge,  believing  that  a  man  should 
make  his  gifts  while  living,  was  a  man  of  large  yet  unostentatious  benevolences. 
He  gave  liberally  to  the  Methodist  church  of  which  he  was  long  a  consistent 
member,  being  of  a  deeply  religious  nature.  He  aided  many  institutions,  both 
in  California  and  in  New  England,  and  lent  a  helping  hand  to  many  individuals. 
He  was  discriminating  in  his  charities — as  a  man  of  such  great  wealth  must  be 
— if  he  is  to  be  a  power  for  good  rather  than  for  evil. 

While  living  in  Santa  Monica,  Mr.  Rindge  closely  associated  himself  with 
the  life  of  the  community.  In  1895  he  offered  to  erect  and  donate  a  church 
building  to  the  Methodist  society,  provided  the  church  would  support  a  pastor 
and  pay  all  incidental  expenses.  In  consequence,  a  neat  and  commodious  church, 
still  in  use,  was  built  at  a  cost  of  $15,000  and  dedicated  before  the  end  of  the 
year.  He  took  an  active  personal  interest  in  the  campaign  which  was  made 
by  the  advocates  of  temperance  and  by  the  better  class  of  business  men  to  rid 
the  town  of  saloons,  speaking  at  the  meetings  and  offering  to  indemnify  the 
city  treasury  for  the  loss  of  revenue  derived  from  the  saloon  licenses.  Accord 
ingly,  after  the  "anti-saloon"  party  carried  the  election,  he  presented  his  check 
for  $2,500  to  Mr.  Robert  F.  Jones,  then  mayor  of  Santa  Monica.  He  served 
for  several  years  upon  the  school  board  of  the  town,  was  president  of  the  Good 
Government  League,  and  was  a  member  of  various  local  organizations. 

In  1903  the  ranch  house  on  the  Malibu,  with  all  its  furnishings,  including 
a  part  of  Mr.  Rindge's  fine  library,  was  destroyed  by  fire.  About  this  time 
the  family  removed  to  Los  Angeles  where  Mr.  Rindge  had  erected  a  handsome 
house  on  Harvard  Boulevard,  in  a  section  of  the  city  he  had  helped  to  develop. 
On  locating  in  Los  Angeles,  he  identified  himself  with  the  Westlake  M.  E. 


church,  to  which  he  contributed  liberally.  He  was  also  deeply  interested  in  the 
Young  Men's  Christian  Association,  being  an  active  member  and  aiding  largely 
in  lifting  the  debt  which  for  many  years  hung  over  the  Los  Angeles  association. 
He  was  one  of  the  originators  of  the  Ocean  Park  Y.  M.  C.  A.  Company,  which 
started  the  town  of  Ocean  Park. 

As  a  relaxation  from  his  many  cares,  Mr.  Rindge  gave  much  attention  to 
scientific  research  and  the  study  of  the  early  history  of  America  and  of  California. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  New  England  Historical  and  Geneaological  Society 
and  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  of  America.  His  collection  of  coins  and 
of  aboriginal  arts  was  of  such  value  that  he  was  induced  to  place  them 
in  the  loan  exhibit  of  the  Peabody  Museum,  at  Harvard  College,  and  also  in 
the  Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts.  He  gathered  a  large  amount  of  material 
bearing  on  Pacific  coast  archaeology  and  his  collection  of  memorials  of  California 
history  was  unequalled  among  private  collections. 

In  acknowledgement  of  the  honor  conferred  upon  him  through  his  fore 
bears,  he  became  a  member  of  the  Society  of  Colonial  Wars  and  also  of  the  Sons 
of  the  Revolution.  He  was  president  of  the  Harvard  Club  of  Los  Angeles, 
troin  the  time  of  its  formation  until  his  death. 

The  death  of  Mr.  Rindge,  which  occurred  August  2gth,  1905,  was  in  one 
sense,  untimely.  He  was  a  comparatively  young  man  and  was  in  the  midst  of 
an  active  and  useful  life.  Yet  his  existence  had  been  a  long  struggle  with 
weakness  and  his  spirit  was  full-grown.  Death  may  come  at  any  time  to  such 
a  man  and  we  cannot  say  that  it  is  premature.  To  his  family,  to  his  friends — all 
over  the  United  States,  to  the  public  generally,  his  departure  meant  a  great 
loss  and  a  great  grief.  But  to  himself  it  was  only  a  passing  on  to  a 
higher  life. 

It  was  well  said  of  his  career :  "Asa  business  man,  as  a  church  leader, 
as  a  Y.  M.  C.  A.  president,  as  a  consistent  worker  for  the  development  of 
the  city  and  the  state,  Mr.  Rindge  made  himself  so  useful  that  no  othei  man 
can  take  his  place.  He  was  a  rich  man ;  but  he  employed  his  wealth  for  the 
greatest  good  of  the  greatest  number — not  in  selfish  pleasure  nor  for  personal 
aggrandizement.  He  was  a  man  of  strong  religious  convictions;  but  the  grace 
of  humility  and  a  broad  understanding  prevented  his  religion  from  degenerat 
ing  into  religiosity.  A  staunch,  steadfast,  unassuming  man,  with  all  of  his 
millions,  those  who  differed  from  him  in  opinion  could  admire  his  fidelity  to 
his  ideals ;  and  those  not  blessed  with  money  could  be  glad  that  such  a  fortune 
was  entrusted  to  worthy  hands." 

Knowing  intimately  the  affairs  and  purposes  of  her  husband,  Mrs.  Rindge, 
as  executrix  of  the  estate,  is  carrying  forward  with  a  steady  hand  the  large 
enterprises  which  her  husband  had  undertaken. 




It  is  probable  that  the  rich  grazing  lands  in  the  vicinity  of  Santa  Monica 
were  utilized  early  after  the  establishment  of  "  el  Pueblo  de  Los  Angeles,"  for 
the  herds  of  the  settlers  and  of  the  missions  multiplied  with  amazing  rapidity 
and  by  1800  the  grazing  land  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  Los  Angeles  and 
San  Gabriel  was  overstocked.  After  the  granting  of  the  Malibu,  however,  we 
have  no  record  of  settlement  in  this  neighborhood  until  1827  when  Francisco 
Sepulveda  and  Augustin  Machaclo,  settlers  of  Los  Angeles,  petitioned  for  a 
tract  of  land.  According  to  the  testimony  of  Jose  Antonio  Carrillo,  who  was 

alcalde  in  1828,  he  received  an  order  from  "the 
Hon.  Jose  Maria  Echandia,  a  Political  Chief,  issued 
by  virtue  of  a  petition  of  several  citizens,  requesting 
to  be  placed  in  provisional  possession  of  the  com 
mon  lands  of  the  city  held  by  them." 

Amongst  these,  he  gave  possession  to  Francisco 
Sepulveda  of  the  lands  known  as  San  Vicente,  with 
a  piece  of  pasture  (potrero)  named  Santa  Monica. 
"The  order  of  Gov.  Echandia  only  had  reference 
to  parties  who  owned  one  hundred  and  fifty  head 
of  cattle,  and  as  Sepulveda  came  within  this  con 
dition  it  was  especially  commanded  to  give  him 
this  land,  with  the  adjoining  potrero  of  Santa 
Monica."  But  the  boundaries  of  the  lands  thus 
given  possession  of  were  not  defined  and  there 
was  soon  dispute  as  to  the  territory  included. 
December  2Oth,  1839,  a  title  was  issued  to  the  rancho  called  San  Vicente 
and  Santa  Monica,  in  favor  of  Don  Francisco  Sepulveda,  "with  the  con 
dition  of  abiding  whatever  actions  should  be  had  thereon,  in  case  such  land 
may  be  comprised  within  the  limits  of  the  City  of  Los  Angeles."  This  grant 
was  made  by  Governor  Alvarado ;  but  it  still  did  not  settle  the  question  of 
boundary  which  was  disputed  on  all  sides.  In  1840  Sepulveda  petitioned  the 
governor  to  place  him  in  "  pacific  possession  of  the  property,  as  Francisco 
Marquez  and  Ysidro  Reyes  have  given  a  bad  example  of  disobedience  and  that 
under  the  strength  of  discordant  documents  they  remain  in  possession  of  the 
place  called  Santa  Monica."  In  1846  Governor  Pico  confirmed  Sepulveda's 
grant,  but  as  Marquez  and  Reyes  also  had  a  grant  to  the  "  potrero  "  of  Santa 
Monica,  the  dispute  over  the  boundaries  continued  and  was  not  settled  until  the 
question  came  into  the  United  States  courts  and  after  long  litigation  was  decided. 
The  San  Vicente  y  Santa  Monica  grant  was  finally  confirmed  July  23rd,  1881,  to 
include  30,259  acres  instead  of  the  58,409  acres  originally  claimed. 




Aside  from  the  question  of  boundaries,  there  has  been  much  litigation  over 
the  possession  of  the  San  Vicente  lands.  On  the  death  of  Don  Francisco,  the 
property  was  left  to  his  wife  and  children,  and  several  lawsuits  were  necessary 
in  the  family  before  the  lands  were  satisfactorily  divided. 

Don  Francisco  Sepulveda,  the  original  grantee,  with  two  brothers,  were 
among  the  earliest  settlers  of  California.  He  was  first  a  soldier  in  San  Diego, 
but  in  1815  was  a  citizen  of  Los  Angeles,  cultivating  pueblo  lands.  The 
Sepulveda  family  has  played  an  important  part  in  the  history  of  Southern 
California  and  is  connected  with  many  of  the  best  families  of  today.  Don 
Francisco  had  a  large  family.  One  of  his  sons,  Don  Jose,  was  grantee  of  the 
San  Joaquin  rancho  and  took  a  leading  part  in  early  local  and  political  affairs. 

He  was  the  father  of 
Judge  Ygnacio  Sepulveda 
and  Mrs.  Thomas  Moct. 
Don  Francisco  built  a 
ranch  house  near  the  San 
Vicente  springs  in  1837. 
Here  he  set  out  vineyards 
and  orchards  and  at  least 
three  of  his  sons  resided 
with  him  or  built  houses 
near  by.  These  were  Juan 
Maria,  Carmel  and  Do 
lores.  Traces  of  these 
buildings  can  still  be 

seen,  although  the  original  ranch  houses  have  all  disappeared.  The  last 
home  of  Dolores  Sepulveda,  built  in  1863,  an  adobe  house  well  preserved 
and  very  typical  of  the  ranch  house  of  early  days,  still  stands.  At  one  end 
is  a  very  old  walnut  tree  and  back  of  it  stand  the  twin  sycamores  which  have 
long  been  a  landmark. 

Don  Francisco  also  had  a  home  in  Los  Angeles  and  was  frequently  con 
cerned  in  municipal  affairs.  In  1824  he  was  "  regidor "  or  recorder,  of  the 
pueblo ;  later  he  was  alcalde  and  on  the  secularization  of  the  missions,  he  was 
made  administrator  of  San  Juan  Capistrano.  In  1831  he  was  one  of  the 
victims  of  Governor  Victoria's  arbitrary  orders  and  with  Tomas  Talmantes, 
Jose  Maria  Avila,  Maximo  Alanis,  Demisio  Dominguez  and  Jose  Aguilar, 
was  imprisoned  for  supposed  implication  in  the  removal  of  the  presiding 
alcalde,  Vicente  Sanchez,  whom  the  citizens  of  Los  Angeles  had  removed  from 
office,  because  of  alleged  incompetence  to  hold  the  position,  and  whom  they 
refused  to  restore  to  the  alcaldeship  when  Victoria  so  ordered. 

The  Sepulveda  family  were  given  to  horse  racing,  as  appears  from  various 




records.  There  seems  to  have  been  bitter  rivalry  between  the  Sepulvedas 
and  the  Picos,  in  the  matter  of  horses.  In  1840,  according  to  Bancroft,  a 
horse  race  took  place  between  animals  owned  by  Andreas  Pico  and  Fernando 
Sepulveda,  a  minor.  The  result  led  to  a  dispute  and  a  suit  against  Sepulveda 
for  the  stakes.  The  father  was  finally  forced  to  pay  the  stake  by  Alcalde 
Lugo.  The  matter  was  appealed  to  the  governor,  who  on  the  advice  of  the 
judges  of  the  first  district,  decided  that  Lugo  must  pay  back  the  stakes  and  be 
suspended  from  office  until  he  should  do  so.  Lugo  refused  to  be  suspended, 
or  to  pay  the  stakes,  except  after  legal  proceedings  by  the  junta.  He  claimed 
that  the  governor  and  the  Monterey  judge  had  acted  as  partisans,  and  that 
they  had  made  many  blunders  and  that  the  affair  was  none  of  their  business,  any 
how,  but  belonged  to  the  superior  tribunal,  and  if  there  was  no  such  body,  it 
was  their  own  fault.  He  said  that  Francisco  Sepulveda  was  present  at  the  race 
and  had  in  other  races  paid  his  son's  losses  without  objection.  The  final 
decisions  of  this  interesting  case  does  not  appear  on  record ;  but  it  is  evident 
that  the  affair  led  to  a  long  and  bitter  trial  of  horse-flesh  between  the  Picos 
and  Sepulvedas. 

In  1852,  a  race  took  place  which  has  become  historical.  The  Picos  owned 
a  gelding  which  had  beaten  every  other  animal  put  up  against  it.  Jose 
Sepulveda,  after  repeated  losses,  was  eager  to  seize  any  chance  to  "  down " 
Pico's  horse.  While  on  a  trip  to  San  Diego,  he  saw  a  mare  which  attracted 
his  attention.  It  proved  to  be  an  English  thoroughbred,  just  brought  over  from 
Australia.  He  at  once  negotiated  for  the  animal,  it  is  said,  offering  to  pay 
the  owners  ten  thousand  dollars  for  her.  He  returned  north  and  made  the 
arrangement  for  a  race  of  three  leagues,  at  San  Pedro,  to  be  run  to  a  stake  and 
back  again.  Excitement  ran  high  and  on  the  day  of  the  race  the  entire 
population  of  the  country,  with  visitors  from  Santa  Barbara  and  even  Monterey, 
and  all  San  Diego,  were  present.  The  horse  was  to  be  ridden  California  style, 
the  rider  strapped  to  his  bare  back  and  the  owners  and  backers  permitted  to 
ride  beside  him  and  use  the  whip.  The  mare  was  equipped  in  the  American 
style,  with  light  racing  saddle  and  a  little  jockey. 

Betting  ran  high.  It  was  the  custom  among  Californians  to  hand  over 
the  sum  of  money  bet  to  the  taker.  After  the  race,  the  holder  kept  the  money, 
if  he  won,  or  returned  it  double,  if  he  lost.  No  papers  or  guarantees  were 
necessary,  for  a  California's  word  was  as  good,  or  better,  than  a  bond.  On 
this  occasion  the  Californians  all  bet  heavily  on  Pico's  horse,  while  the  Amer 
icans  backed  Don  Jose's  Black  Swan.  The  Swan,  after  a  terrific  struggle, 
won,  and  it  is  said  Sepulveda  won  nearly  fifty  thousand  dollars.  After  the 
race  was  over,  he  took  the  bridle  from  the  mare  and  declared  that  she  should 
never  again  wear  bridle  or  saddle,  and  he  kept  his  word.  She  passed  the  rest 



of  her  life  free  upon  the  plains.     He  had  won  from  the  Pico's — that  was  triumph 

Another  instance  of  the  horsemanship  of  the  family  is  related  by  Major 
Horace  Bell  in  his  "  Reminiscences  of  a  Ranger."  He  describes  a  rodeo  held  in 
May,  1853,  at  San  Joaquin  rancho,  the  home  of  Don  Jose  Sepulveda.  On  the 
third  night  of  the  affair  at  midnight  Don  Jose  and  his  brother  Don  Fernando 
were  still  talking  gaily  with  their  guests.  A  little  later  a  messenger  arrived 
with  the  news  that  their  aged  father,  Don  Francisco  Sepulveda,  was  about  to 
pass  away.  The  brothers  at  once  mounted.  Major  Bell  and  another  American 
decided  to  accompany  them,  although  warned  that  they  could  not  keep  up.  As 
Don  Jose  was  then  sixty  years  of  age,  they  felt  confident  that  they  would  be  able 
to  hold  their  own ;  but  before  the  party  reached  Los  Nietos,  the  Sepulvedas  had 
disappeared  in  a  cloud  of  dust  and  the  Americans  drew  rein,  having  ridden 
forty-three  miles  in  three  hours. 


One  of  the  earliest  settlers  in  the  pueblo  de  Los  Angeles  was  Francisco 
Reyes,  who  came  with  a  party  in  1785.  Very  soon  thereafter  he  must  have 

taken  possession  of 
lands  in  the  vicinity 
of  San  Fernando, 
for  in  1797  the 
Rancho  Encino 
held  by  him  was 
taken  from  him  and 
both  land  and  build 
ings  appropriated  to 
the  San  Fernando 
Mission.  His  son, 
Ysidro,  was  born  i;i 
Los  Angeles  and  in 
1828  he,  with  Fran- 


cisco    Marquez    was 
given    a    provisional 

grant  to  lands  already  occupied  by  them  for  grazing  purposes  in  the  Santa 
Monica  Canyon.  This  grant  was  known  as  the  "  Boca  de  Santa  Monica " 
(the  mouth  of  Santa  Monica).  The  land  included  in  it  was  later  claimed 
to  be  a  part  of  Santa  Monica  potrero  granted  to  Francisco  Sepulveda.  In 
1839,  Governor  Alvarado  investigated  the  conflicting  claims  and  regranted 
each  tract  to  the  original  holders.  Still  the  question  of  the  boundary  was 
disputed  and  was  not  finally  disposed  of  until  about  1880,  when  the  United 


States  courts  fixed  the  limits  of  the  Boca  de  Santa  Monica  and  July  2ist,  1882, 
a  patent  for  6,656  acres  of  land  was  confirmed  to  Marquez  and  Reyes. 

Ygnacio  Reyes  built  a  ranch  house  in  Rustic  Canyon  and  the  family  have 
continuously  occupied  the  land  since  1824,  part  of  the  grant  still  being  owned 
by  the  descendants  of  the  original  grantees.  This  is  an  unusual  case  for 
generally  the  great  land  grants  of  the  state  have  passed  entirely  out  of  the 
hands  of  the  Californians,  and  the  families  of  the  original  claimants  have 
profited  nothing  by  the  marvelous  increase  in  values. 

Ygnacio  Reyes  also  owned  a  home  in  Los  Angeles,  on  Main  street,  near 
Fourth,  and  is  frequently  mentioned  in  the  annals  of  the  town.  He  died  there 
during-  an  epidemic  of  smallpox  in  1863.  Three  sons  still  survive  him, 
Guadalupe  of  Sawtelle ;  Ysidro  and  Antonio  of  Los  Angeles. 

Francisco  Marquez  built  his  ranch  house  on  the  edge  of  the  bluff,  about 
at  the  end  of  Seventh  street.  Here  it  was  a  landmark  for  many  years,  having 
been  destroyed  within  the  past  few  years.  Members  of  the  family  still  live 
in  Santa  Monica  Canyon  and  retain  a  part  of  the  original  lands. 


La  Ballona  rancho,  or  as  it  was  named  in  the  original  document  "  La 
Ballena"  (the  whale),  was  formally  granted  to  a  company  composed  of 
Augustin  and  Ygnacio  Machado,  Felipe  and  Tomas  Talamantes,  all  citizens  of 
Los  Angeles,  by  Governor  Alvarado  in  1839.  There  is  evidence  to  show  that 
prior  to  this  grant,  a  tract  of  land  nearer  to  Los  Angeles  had  been  occupied  by 
the  same  citizens  as  a  stock  range  but  had  been  taken  from  them,  either  because 
it  was  too  near  the  city,  or  was  needed  for  the  stock  of  San  Gabriel. 

At  any  rate  they  received  a  princely  domain  in  the  fertile  fields  and  rich 
pastures  of  "  La  Ballena,"  and  at  once  stocked  it  and  built  residences  upon  it. 
The  haciendas  of  the  Machados  on  this  ranch  were  among  the  best  examples 
of  the  California  home.  They  are  still  standing — that  of  Augustin  Machado, 
a  large  and  most  substantial  adobe,  the  walls  and  roof  of  which  is  still  intact, 
is  unoccupied  at  present  and  is  used  as  a  store  house.  It  seems  a  pity  that  this, 
one  of  the  best  specimens  of  the  early  California  homes  should  not  be  preserved. 
The  home  of  Ygnacio  Machado,  a  little  distance  away,  is  now  occupied  by  one 
of  his  sons,  Antonio,  and  the  part  which  remains  is  in  good  repair  and  is  a 
fine  sample  of  the  simplicity  and  solidity  of  the  genuine  adobe  house  of  the 
better  class.  This  house  once  contained  fourteen  rooms  built  about  a  court, 
but  a  portion  of  these  have  now  been  removed. 

The  Machado  brothers  were  prominent  among  early  residents  of  Los 
Angeles.  They  owned  a  tract  of  two  acres  of  land  in  the  vicinity  of  Second 
and  Main  streets,  where  each  of  them  had  homes.  Augustin  Machado  served 
"  el  pueblo  de  Los  Angeles  "  as  alcalde,  and  was  frequently  concerned  in  public 


affairs.  He  married  Ramona,  a  daughter  of  Don  Francisco  Sepulveda,  of  the 
San  Vicente,  and  their  home  both  in  Los  Angeles  and  at  La  Ballona,  was  a 
center  of  social  gaity.  Of  this  marriage  there  are  still  living  Bernardino, 
Andreas  and  Jose  de  Luz,  all  of  whom  reside  on  Ballona  lands.  One  son, 
Dolores,  died  in  1906,  leaving  a  family  which  resides  in  Ocean  Park;  two 
daughters,  Mrs.  Juan  Barnard  and  Ascencion,  have  recently  died.  Don 
Augustin  died  in  Los  Angeles  in  1865. 

Bancroft  tells  this  story  of  Don  Augustin :  "  The  merchant,  Don  Jose 
Antonio  Aguirre,  owner  of  the  Ship  Joven  Guipuzcoana,  once  had  a  new 
supercargo,  who  was  a  stranger  to  and  ignorant  of  affairs  in  California. 
While  the  ship  lay  at  San  Pedro,  Aguirre  being  absent,  Augustin  Machado,  a 
well-to-do  ranchero,  and  a  man  of  sterling  character,  but  who  could  neither 
read  nor  write,  went  on  board  to  make  purchases,  his  carretas  being  at  the 
landing.  After  selecting  his  goods,  as  he  was  about  to  place  them  in  a  launch 
to  be  carried  on  shore,  the  sunpercargo  asked  him  for  payment,  or  some 
guaranty  or  note  of  hand.  Machado  stared  at  him  in  great  astonishment ;  at 
first  he  could  not  comprehend  what  the  man  meant.  Such  a  demand  had  never 
been  made  from  him  before,  nor,  in  fact,  from  any  other  ranchero.  After  a 
while  the  idea  struck  him  that  he  was  distrusted.  Plucking  one  hair  from  his 
beard,  he  seriously  handed  it  to  the  supercargo,  saying,  '  Here,  deliver  this  to 
Senor  Aguirre  and  tell  it  is  a  hair  from  the  beard  of  Augustin  Machado.  It 
will  cover  your  responsibility — it  is  sufficient  guaranty.'  The  young  man, 
much  abashed,  took  the  hair  and  placed  it  carefully  in  his  books  and  Machado- 
carried  away  the  goods.  Aguirre  was  chagrined  on  hearing  the  story,  for 
Machado's  word  was  as  good  as  the  best  bond.  Jose  M.  Estudillo  relates  this 
incident  and  also  the  following:  In  1850  Aguirre  sent  Estudillo  to  Los 
Angeles  to  collect  old  bills,  many  of  which  were  outlawed ;  but  the  greater  part 
of  which  were  finally  paid.  He  visited  Machado's  rancho  at  La  Ballona,  to 
collect  a  balance  of  abort  $4000  and  happened  to  arrive  when  the  house  was 
full  of  company.  He  was  cordially  received  as  a  guest  and  when  apprised  of 
the  object  of  his  visit,  Machado  said  that  he  had  been  for  some  time  thinking 
that  he  was  indebted  to  Aguirre,  and  promised  to  meet  Estudillo  in  Los 
Angeles  in  two  days.  At  the  time  appointed  Machado  was  there  and  delivered 
the  whole  sum  at  the  door  of  Manuel  Requena's  house,  refusing  to  take  a 
receipt,  saying  that  Aguirre  was  not  in  the  habit  of  collecting  the  same 
bill  twice." 

Ygnacio  Machado  married  Estefania  Palomares,  daughter  of  a  well-known 
Spanish  family  of  Los  Angeles  county.  Three  of  their  sons  still  survive, 
Antonio,  living  in  the  old  house ;  Andres,  who  lives  at  Hollywood,  and  Cristo 
bal,  now  in  Texas.  Don  Ygnacio  is  described  as  a  man  of  stern,  yet  generous 
mold.  It  was  his  habit  to  rise  very  early  and  waken  his  household  to  join  him- 


in  the  morning  song,  with  which  it  was  the  custom  for  all  good  Spanish 
families  to  begin  the  day.  Of  Ygnacio  Machado,  J.  J.  Warner  wrote  in  1876: 
"  Don  Ygnacio  survives  the  others  (of  his  company) — those  faithful  friends  of 
his  earlier  days,  at  the  age  of  eighty-two,  he  grasps  the  hand  as  warmly  as 
ever,  rides  on  horseback,  as  usual ;  patriarch  to  whom  the  community  bears 
respect  almost  filial."  The  Machado  brothers  were  widely  known  and  deeply 
respected  as  honorable  and  just  men,  generous  and  ever  kind.  The  present 
head  of  this  branch  of  the  family,  Antonio  Machado,  son  of  Ygnacio,  is  a 
worthy  successor  of  his  father.  Simple,  unassuming,  courtly,  of  good  judg 
ment  and  kindly  heart,  he  looks  back  to  the  old  days  and  the  care-free  life  of 
the  past  with  wistful  eyes. 

The  Ballona  grant  of  13,919  acres  was  confirmed  to  the  Machados  Decem 
ber  8th,  1873.  It  was  at  once  divided  among  the  members  of  the  family  and 
tracts  of  it  were  sold.  It  comprised  nearly  two  thousand  acres  of  first-class 
irrigable  land,  two  thousand  acres  of  damp  lands  which  needed  no  irrigation,  and 
the  rest  was  pasture  land.  In  early  days  it  was  chiefly  occupied  as  a  stock 
range,  although  some  grain  was  raised  and  orchards  of  various  fruits  were 
planted  about  the  haciendas.  The  district  was  occupied  by  a  number  of  families 
in  the  fifties  and  sixties  and  was  one  of  the  first  townships  set  aside,  originally 
including  San  Vicente,  Boca  de  Santa  Monica,  Malibu  and  a  large  territory. 
It  was  organized  into  a  school  district  during  the  sixties  and  was  a  factor  in 
the  elections  of  early  days.  During  the  seventies  Francisco  Machado,  a  son  of 
Augustin,  was  one  of  the  county  supervisors  and  political  "  boss  "  of  the  dis 
trict.  Although  many  prosperous  American  fanners  are  now  residents  of  Bal- 
loni  lands  and  the  towns  of  Palms,  Ocean  Park  and  Venice  are  located  on  lands 
originally  belonging  to  the  rancho,  the  Machados  still  retain  a  part  of  the  original 
grant  and  a  considerable  number  of  native  Californians  are  found  in  the  vicinity. 

Antonio  Machado  married  Manuela  Valuenza  and  has  a  number  of  children, 
most  of  whom  are  still  living  at  home.  Andreas,  a  son  of  Augustin,  lives  on 
the  old  Augustin  Machado  place  and  has  recently  built  a  very  comfortable  home. 
Jose  la  Luz  also  lives  in  the  neighborhood  in  a  neat  cottage. 

In  1861  a  military  camp  was  located  on  La  Ballona,  near  the  creek  about 
three-quarters  of  a  mile  from  the  present  town  of  Palms.  This  was  made  the 
headquarters  of  the  First  California  Volunteer  Infantry,  Gen.  J.  H.  Carleton, 
commanding  officer.  The  camp  was  established  in  September,  being  occupied 
by  Company  A,  under  Col.  Latham,  for  whom  the  station  was  named  Camp 
Latham.  Several  companies  were  encamped  here  and  at  one  time  there  were 
probably  1500  men  present.  They  were  sent  from  here  to  Arizona  to  protect 
the  mail  service  and  the  camp  was  not  occupied  after  1862.  A  couple  of  soldiers 
were  buried  here  and  in  1895  tneir  neglected  graves  were  remembered  by  the 
veterans  of  Santa  Monica,  who  made  a  special  trip  to  decorate  them. 

W.  D.  VAWTER. 


LAYING  THE  FOUNDATIONS.     18701880. 

UP  TO  1870  the  Santa  Monica  bay  region  had  scarcely  felt  the  stirring  of 
the  new  spirit  brought  into  the  country  by  the  American  occupation. 
The  original  ranches  were  still  intact  and  occupied  chiefly  as  grazing 
land,  and  very  few  Americans  had  obtained  land  holdings.  Santa  Monica  Canon 
was  the  one  attraction  of  the  entire  coast  at  this  time.  Here  a  few  American 
families  each  year  camped  under  the  sycamores.  In  1871  Mr.  B.  L.  Peel  erected 
a  large  tent  "  to  accommodate  25  or  30  families  ''  and  over  300  visitors  are 
reported  for  one  Sunday  in  August,  drawn  by  a  dance  that  "  lasted  all  night." 
With  1872,  Santa  Monica  Canon  suddenly  became  famous.  The  Express  found 
it  of  enough  importance  to  publish  the  following :  "  Santa  Monica,  the  Long 
Branch  of  California,  or  Camp  Haywarcl.  Seventeen  years  ago  Santa  Monica 
was  selected  as  a  summer  resort  by  Dr.  Hayward  and  until  the  last  five  years 
he  and  his  family  were  the  only  ones  who  availed  themselves  of  its  delights 
and  benefits.  Santa  Monica  proper  is  a  farm  house  located  on  the  ridge  one 
and  a  half  miles  from  where  the  camp  is  located.  At  this  lone  house  the  road 
descends  into  a  deep  ravine  or  canon,  at  the  foot  of  which,  near  the  confluence 
with  the  ocean,  is  a  thick  growth  of  old  sycamores.  Here  is  the  camp.  Beyond 
stretches  the  Malaga  ranch,  the  rendezvous  of  horsethieves.  The  beach  between 
the  camp  and  the  point  affords  a  magnificent  drive  as  does  the  shore  in  a  south 
erly  direction  toward  "  Shoo  Fly  Landing  ",  a  mile  or  better  distant.  It  is  at 
the  latter  place  that  the  greater  part  of  the  asphaltum  sent  to  San  Francisco 
from  La  Brea  rancho  is  shipped." 

In  the  summer  of  1872  a  hotel  was  opened  at  the  canon  and  the  proprietor 
advertises,  "  Come  and  enjoy  yourself.  A  week  at  the  beach  will  add  ten  years 
to  your  life !"  Mr.  John  Reynolds  announces  in  July  that  he  will  "  despatch 
coaches  to  Santa  Monica  every  Wednesday  and  Saturday  a.m."  A  small  skiff 
was  brought  around  from  San  Pedro  this  summer  and  added  to  the  attractions 
of  surf  bathing,  drives  and  picnics  along  the  beach  and  up  the  many  beautiful 
canons  and  dancing  in  the  "  big  tent."  Among  the  diversions  was  the  excite 
ment  of  prospecting,  as  it  was  rumored  that  a  rich  ledge  of  quartz  rock  existed 
on  the  beach,  at  a  point  only  exposed  for  a  few  moments  at  low  tide.  The 
belief  was  founded  on  the  fact  that  some  of  the  native  Caliform'ans  of  the  dis 
trict  exhibited  rich  rock  which  they  claimed  to  have  obtained  from  this  ledge. 


In  September,  1872,  an  event  took  place  which  marks  a  new  era  in  the 
history  of  this  vicinity.  This  was  the  sale  of  the  San  Vicente  and  Santa  Monica 
y  San  Vicente  ranches  by  Jose  del  Carmen  Sepulveda,  and  others,  to  Robert 
S.  Baker.  The  first  sale  included  38,409  acres  of  land  and  the  price  was  reported 
as  $54,000. 

COL.  ROBERT  S.  BAKER,  who  thus  became  an  important  factor  in  the  history 
of  Santa  Monica,  was  a  descendant  of  an  old  and  well-known  family  of  Rhode 
Island.  He  came  to  California  in  1849  and  engaged  in  business  in  San  Fran 
cisco,  being  a  member  of  the  firm  of  Cooke  and  Baker,  who  dealt  largely  in 
mining  supplies.  Later  he  became  associated  with  General  Beale  in  the  cattle 
and  sheep  business  in  the  northern  part  of  the  state  and  in  the  Tejon  country. 
With  his  purchase  of  the  San  Vicente,  he  located  in  Los  Angeles  and  in  1874 
married  Mrs.  Arcadia  Bandini  de  Stearns,  widow  of  Don  Abel  Stearns,  one  of 
the  earliest  American  settlers  of  Southern  California,  and  daughter  of  Juan 
Bandini,  one  of  the  wealthiest  and  most  distinguished  of  the  early  Californians. 
In  1878,  he  built  the  Baker  block  in  Los  Angeles,  at  that  time  the  finest  business 
block  in  the  city.  He  owned,  through  his  wife,  the  Puente  and  Laguna  ranches 
and  had  other  large  business  interests.  He  was  quiet  in  his  tastes  and  made 
no  effort  to  enter  into  public  life,  but  devoted  his  time  to  the  management  of 
his  large  interests.  He  was  most  genial  in  character  and  he  and  his  beautiful 
wife  were  noted  for  their  lavish  entertainments  of  guests,  and  they  at  one  time 
and  another  were  hosts  to  many  distinguished  people. 

Colonel  Baker  died  March  nth,  1894.  His  wife  still  survives  him  and 
is  now  a  resident  of  Santa  Monica,  passing  a  beautiful  old  age  in  a  modest  cot 
tage  on  Ocean  avenue,  although  she  is  rated  as  one  of  the  wealthiest  women  in 
California  and  certainly  none  of  the  living  daughters  of  California  have  had 
a  more  romantic  or  interesting  history  than  Seiiora  Arcadia  de  Baker. 

Colonel  Baker  at  once  proceeded  to  perfect  his  title  to  all  the  Sepulveda 
holdings  by  subsequent  purchases,  thus  obtaining:  possession  of  a  magnificent 
tract  of  land,  with  a  mile  and  a  half  of  ocean  frontage  and  including  the  San 
Vicente  and  numerous  other  springs,  as  well  as  several  small  mountain  streams. 
With  characteristic  enterprise  he  began  efforts  to  utilize  his  domain  for  some 
thing  beside  a  sheep  pasture.  He  interested  his  friend,  General  E.  F.  Beale, 
who  was  one  of  the  earliest  and  most  successful  promoters  known  in  California 
history — so  successful  that  President  Lincoln  remarked  of  him  when  he  was 
surveyor-general  of  the  state  in  1861,  that  "  Beale  had,  indeed,  become  monarch 
of  all  he  surveyed."  The  Express  of  December  22nd,  1873,  announces,  "  Gen 
eral  Beale  has  arrived  here  with  an  eastern  capitalist  who  contemplates  the 
purchase  of  the  San  Vicente  ranch  with  the  view  to  the  construction  of  a  wharf 
at  Shoo  Fly  Landing  and  building  a  narrow-gauge  road  from  there  to  the  city." 
This  eastern  capitalist  seems  to  have  fallen  down,  however,  for  in  1874  it  is 
stated  "  Col.  Baker  has  connected  with  himself  several  wealthy  Englishmen 



and  a  well-known  and  distinguished  Californian  (Beale).  They  contemplate 
constructing  a  road  to  Los  Angeles,  a  branch  of  the  Southern  Transcontinental 
line.  Wharves  are  to  be  built  and  Pacific  Mail  steamships  will  land  here.  The 
name  of  this  embryo  metropolis  of  the  southern  coast  is  to  be  Truxton."  The 
San  Francisco  Post  of  September,  1874,  contains  a  glowing  description  of  the 
"  Tmxton  scheme  "  which  ends  by  saying:  "  Why  the  Los  Angeles  people  ever 
adopted  the  Wilmington  road  to  shoal  water  is  one  of  those  things  no  fellow 
can  find  out.  At  two-thirds  the  distance  they  can  reach  deep  water  at  the  place 
called  Truxton,  on  a  bay  right  north  of  Wilmington.  Here,  at  a  comparatively 

SANTA    MONICA    BEACH.     1S78. 

light  expense,  for  wharves,  they  can  bring  ship  and  cars  together."  The  plans 
for  Truxton  included  beside  wharf  and  railway,  a  magnificent  seaside  hotel 
and  a  townsite ;  but  they  never  seem  to  have  gotten  beyond  the  paper  stage. 

During  the  summer  of  1874  Santa  Monica  Canon  continued  to  be  the  chief 
summer  resort  of  the  Angeleiios.  Two  hotels,  the  Morongo  House  and  the 
Seaside  Hotel,  kept  by  Wolf  and  Steadman,  were  filled  with  guests.  Many 
improvements  were  made  in  the  camping  arrangements  and  the  season  was  a 
gay  one.  A  new  resort,  known  as  "  Will  Tell's  "  also  nourished  this  summer 
on  the  Ballona  lagoon,  almost  where  the  Del  Key  hotel  now  stands.  This  was 
especially  attractive  to  sportsmen,  as  the  lagoon  was  famous  for  its  duck  and 
game  birds,  and  a  number  of  prominent  Los  Angeles  men  kept  boats  on  the 

At  this  time  a  road,  so  narrow  that  the  wheels  touched  the  sides  of  the 
bank,  had  been  worn  down  through  the  arroyo,  about  at  the  foot  of  the  present 


Colorado  street  in  Santa  Monica,  and  a  small  landing  was  built  on  the  shore. 
Here  Major  Hancock  shipped  large  quantities  of  brea,  which  was  hauled  by 
ox  teams  from  his  Brea  rancho,  on  small  coast  vessels  to  San  Francisco.  This 
was  the  first  "  commerce  "  of  Santa  Monica  bay. 

In  December,  1874,  the  Los  Angeles  papers  chronicle  the  first  visit  of 
United  States  Senator  John  P.  Jones  of  Nevada.  Glowing  tributes  were  paid 
the  distinguished  guest  and  much  curiosity  and  enthusiasm  over  the  possible 
results  of  his  advent  into  Southern  California  were  indulged  in.  He  was  known 
to  be  fabulously  rich  and  to  have  railroad  ambitions. 

Southern  California  was  a  hotbed  of  railroad  schemes.  Already  the  iron 
hand  of  the  Central  Pacific  monopoly  was  being  felt,  although  the  little  road 
to  San  Pedro  was  then  the  only  railroad  in  this  en'd  of  the  state.  A  transcon 
tinental  line  south  of  the  Central  Pacific  was  considered  absolutely  certain,  at 
this  time ;  but  who  would  build  it  and  where  it  would  reach  the  coast  were 
matters  of  the  wildest  speculation.  San  Diego  was  making  frantic  efforts  to 
secure  railway  connection  of  some  sort  and  was  looking  hopefully  forward  to 
the  magnificent  promises  held  out  by  Tom  Scott,  the  brilliant  promoter  of  the 
Atlantic  and  Pacific  railway  scheme,  of  the  early  seventies. 

The  Southern  Pacific  was  building  its  branch  from  Los  Angeles  eastward 
and  had  decided  to  leave  San  Bernardino,  the  oldest  and  most  important  town 
east  of  Los  Angeles,  off  the  line.  Naturally  she  was  bitter  against  the  Southern 
Pacific  and  was  casting  about  for  any  relief  in  the  way  of  transportation  facili 
ties.  Los  Angeles  was  eagerly  watching  for  any  movement  in1  her  direction 
which  gave  promise  of  a  competing  line,  although  the  Southern  Pacific  was 
not  yet  fairly  built  and  there  was  no  railroad  connection  with  San  Francisco, 
or  with  the  east.  Consequently,  when  in  January,  1875,  it  was  announced  that 
Senator  Jones  had  purchased  a  two-thirds  interest  in  the  San  Vicente  rancho, 
paying  therefore  about  $150,000,  and  that  a  new  railroad  was  assured,  there 
was  rejoicing  long  and  loud  throughout  Southern  California. 

The  Los  Angeles  and  Independence  railroad  was  organized  in  January, 
1875,  with  F.  P.  F.  Temple,  a  banker  of  Los  Angeles,  John  P.  Jones,  Robert 
S.  Baker,  T.  N.  Park,  James  A.  Pritchard,  J.  S.  Slauson  of  Los  Angeles,  and 
Col.  J.  U.  Crawford,  as  directors. 

Right  of  way  between  Los  Angeles  and  Santa  Monica  was  secured  at  once 
and  without  difficulty,  it  may  be  added,  and  Col.  Crawford,  the  engineer  and 
general  manager  of  the  road,  at  once  began  active  operations.  It  was  announced 
that  the  road  would  be  pushed  through  to  Independence,  where  were  located  the 
Panamint  mines,  owned  by  Senator  Jones,  and  then  supposed  to  rival  the  Gold 
Hill  district  in  richness.  There  were  rumors  also  that  the  line  would  be  carried 
across  Nevada  to  Salt  Lake  and  the  papers  frequently  referred  to  it  as  the 
beginning  and  ocean  terminus  of  a  transcontinental  line. 

As  soon  as  the  railroad  work  was  fairlv  started  the  construction  of  a  wharf 


was  begun.  This  was  located  near  the  old  "  Shoo  Fly  "  landing  and  near  the 
present  foot  of  Colorado  street,  where  a  stub  of  the  old  wharf  still  remains. 
The  first  pile  was  driven  April  22nd,  1875,  and  the  first  boat  landed  at  the  wharf 
in  June.  This  wharf  was  1700  feet  in  length  and  reached  a  depth  of  thirty 
feet  at  low  tide.  It  was  substantially  built,  with  depot,  and  warehouses  at 
its  terminus  and  cost  about  $45,000. 

In  the  meantime,  Messrs.  Jones  and  Baker  had  laid  out  a  townsite  which 
extended  from  the  bluff  back  to  Twenty-sixth  street  and  from  Montana  avenue 
on  the  north  to  the  arroyo,  or  Railroad  street,  as  it  was  then  called,  on  the 
south.  This  original  plat  of  Santa  Monica  was  planned  on  a  generous  scale. 
The  blocks  were  320  by  600  feet;  lots  150  by  50,  with  twenty- foot  alleys.  A 
plaza,  the  present  Seventh-street  park,  blocks  for  hotels,  one  on  the  ocean  front, 
the  persent  location  of  Mirimar,  and  one  on  Eighth  street,  facing  the  plaza; 
for  public  buildings,  the  block  between  Fifteenth  and  Sixteenth,  Nevada  and 
California ;  also  blocks  for  a  university  and  a  young  ladies'  seminary,  were 
reserved  on  the  map.  The  ocean  front  was  kept  intact  and  Ocean  avenue  was 
made  200  feet  in  width,  the  other  streets  and  avenues  80  and  100  feet  in  width. 
A  water  system  had  already  been  planned  and  work  begun  on  a  large  reservoir 
to  be  filled  from  the  San  Vicente  springs.  The  slope  of  the  land  gave  ample 
water  pressure  and  provided  excellent  natural  drainage.  Much  of  the  present 
desirability  of  Santa  Monica  as  a  residence  town  is  due  to  the  liberal  allotment 
and  unequaled  natural  advantages  of  this  original  townsite. 

The  establishment  of  this  new  "  commercial  center  of  the  southwest  "  and 
the  ambitious  plans  of  its  projectors,  together  with  much  wild  conjecturing  by 
the  Ix>s  Angeles  papers,  had  attracted  wide  attention.  On  the  day  announced 
for  the  first  sale  of  lots,  July  15*,  1875,  several  hundred  people  gathered  about 
the  stand  on  the  bluff.  Many  of  these  were  from  Los  Angeles  and  Southern 
California  points,  although  the  only  way  to  reach  the  spot  was  by  a  long  and 
dusty  drive.  The  steamer,  Senator,  which  is  remembered  by  all  old  settlers, 
came  in  from  San  Francisco  that  day  with  a  number  of  parties  who  had  come 
down  especially  to  attend  this  sale.  This  was  the  first  landing  of  the  Senator 
at  Santa  Monica.  It  was  also  the  last  boat  to  land  at  the  "  old  wharf." 

A  dry  and  barren  plain  rolled  away  from  the  bluff  and  there  was  no  shade 
from  the  blazing  July  sun.  One  board  shack — the  beginning  of  the  Hotel  Santa 
Monica,  and  a  few  tents  were  the  only  "  improvements  "  aside  from  the  par 
tially-built  wharf,  visible.  The  Honorable  Tom  Fitch,  the  "  silver-tongued  " 
orator,  made  the  great  speech  of  the  day — a  speech  in  which  he  let  his  rich 
imagination  run  riot,  as  may  be  gathered  from  the  following  extract : 

"  On  Wednesday  afternoon  at  one  o'clock  we  will  sell  at  public  outcry  to 

the  highest  bidder,  the  Pacific  ocean,  draped  with  a  western  sky  of  scarlet  and 

gold ;  we  will  sell  a  bay  filled  with  white-winged  ships ;  we  will  sell  a  southern 

horizon,  rimmed  with  a  choice  collection  of  purple  mountains,  carved  in  castles 



and  turrets  and  domes;  we  will  sell  a  frostless,  bracing,  warm,  yet  unlanguid 
air,  braided  in  and  in  with  sunshine  and  odored  with  the  breath  of  flowers.  The 
purchaser  of  this  job  lot  of  climate  and  scenery  will  be  presented  with  a  deed 
to  a  piece  of  land  50  by  100  feet,  known  as  '  lot  A,  in  block  251.'  The  title  to 
the  land  will  be  guaranteed  by  the  present  owner.  The  title  to  the  ocean  and 
the  sunset,  the  hills  and  the  clouds,  the  breath  of  the  life-giving  ozone  and  the 
song  of  the  birds,  is  guaranteed  by  the  beneficent  God  who  bestowed  them  in 
all  their  beauty  and  affluence  upon  block  251,  and  attached  them  thereto  by 
almighty  warrant  as  an  incorruptible  hereditament  to  run  with  the  land  forever.'' 
Of  this  same  effort,  L.  T.  Fisher  said  in  the  Outlook,  of  July  131!!,  1887: 
"  Under  his  eloquence  many  were  led  to  believe  that  Santa  Monica  would  at 
once  leap  to  the  front  as  a  full-fledged  seaport  and  commercial  center.  In  fact, 
so  strong  was  this  impression  that  not  a  few  prominent  men  of  Los  Angeles, 
who  held  large  possessions  there,  were  actually  afraid  that  the  precedence  of 
the  '  city  of  the  Angels  '  would  slip  away  from  her  and  be  transferred  to  the 
seacoast.  And,  if  we  may  be  allowed  the  suggestion,  it  would  have  been  a  good 
thing  for  the  country  if  it  had.  Here  would  have  sprung  up  the  great  com 
mercial  city  of  Southern  California.  It  had  all  the  advantages  of  climate,  drain 
age  and  all  of  the  best  elements  that  should  exist  where  a  large  population  is 

Hon.  Joseph  Lynch,  Major  Ben  Truman  and  Col.  T.  J.  Ayers,  the  historic 
trio  of  Los  Angeles  editors,  were  present  and  also  made  glowing  speeches  as 
to  the  future  of  Santa  Monica  and  Southern  California. 

The  first  lot  sold,  lot  M  in  block  173,  the  northeast  corner  of  Utah  and 
Ocean  avenue,  went  to  E.  R.  Zamoyski  for  $50x3.  Other  lots  on  Ocean 
avenue  brought  from  $400  to  $500,  and  the  prices  ran  down  to  $75.00  for  lots 
back  from  the  shore.  Among  the  first  purchasers  were  Major  Hancock,  Judge 
O'Melveny,  W.  J.  Broderick,  I.  W.  Hellman,  George  Boehme,  W.  D.  Vawter 
and  sons,  H.  T.  Giroux  and  others.  The  sale  continued  on  the  ground  for  three 
days  and  on  Saturday  an  auction  was  held  in  Los  Angeles.  Probably  about 
$100,000  worth  of  lots  were  disposed  of  during  the  week. 

The  first  building  in  Santa  Monica  was  a  rough  board  shack  put  up  in 
April  by  J.  C.  Morgan,  next  to  the  Santa  Monica  Hotel  and  used  as  a  boarding 
place  for  workmen.  The  first  business  house  completed  was  that  of  H.  T. 
Giroux  on  Second  street,  still  occupied  by  him.  The  first  general  store  was 
opened  by  W.  D.  Vawter,  who  purchased  three  lots  on  the  last  day  of  the 
auction,  on  Fourth  street  between  Utah  and  Oregon,  paying  $125.50  apiece  for 
them.  Two  weeks  from  that  day  his  store  was  ready  for  occupancy.  Later 
this  building  was  removed  to  Third  street,  where  it  is  still  used.  The  first 
brick  building  in  the  town  was  built  by  William  Rapp,  on  Second  street,  between 
Utah  and  Oregon.  It  is  still  in  use.  A  postoffice  was  established  at  once  and 


W.  H.  Williams  served  as  the  first  postmaster,  the  office  being  located  in  a 
building  on  Second  street  where  the  Union  livery  stable  now  stands. 

The  growth  of  the  new  town  was  most  promising.  A  Los  Angeles  pajjer 
of  September  i-jth  thus  summarizes  the  advance  made: 

"  Two  months  since  the  site  of  Santa  Monica  was  a  plain  under  the  do 
minion  of  a  sheepherder.  Today  nearly  one  hundred  substantial  houses  line  its 
broad  streets.  Two  hotels  are  overflowing  with  guests.  Its  lumber  yards  are 
doing  the  business  of  a  metropolis  and  dealers  in  coal,  wood,  dry-goods  and 
groceries  are  rushing  about  in  energetic  ardor  to  keep  up  their  stock  of  goods 
which  are  bought  out  as  rapidly  as  exposed  for  sale.  The  price  of  town  lots 
continues.  The  fare  from  San  Francisco  is  $12.00  by  boat,  while  it  is  $20.00  by 
continuous.  The  fare  from  San  Francisco  is  $12.00  by  boat,  while  it  is  $20  by 
rail,  including  a  stage  ride  of  no  miles  (the  S.  P.  was  not  yet  completed)''. 

Allowing  for  newspaper  exaggeration,  we  may  conclude  that  the  first  two 
months  of  the  new  town's  existence  were  certainly  lively  ones.  While  buildings 
and  business  sprang  up  so  magically,  the  new  town  also  provided  for  the  mental 
and  moral  needs  of  its  citizens.  On  October  I3th,  1875,  appeared  the  first 
number  of  the  Santa  Monica  Outlook,  a  neat  and  well-filled  four-page  weekly, 
with  L.  T.  Fisher  as  editor.  He  began  at  once  that  consistent  and  persistent 
support  of  the  interests  of  the  town  which  can  only  be  supplied  by  a  first-class 
local  newspaper. 

He  records  in  his  first  number  the  business  houses  and  advance  already 
made  and  the  prospects  for  the  future.  Some  extracts  from  early  numbers 
of  the  Outlook  will  give  a  clear  idea  of  the  new  town.  "  On  the  I5th  of  July, 
1875,  the  first  lot  was  sold  at  Santa  Monica.  At  the  date  of  this  writing,  October 
nth,  1875,  six  hundred  and  fifteen  lots  have  been  sold  by  the  land  company 
for  $131,745  ;  119  houses  and  shops  have  been  erected.  The  water  of  San  Vicente 
springs  has  been  collected  in  two  large  reservoirs,  forming  pretty  lakes  in  the 
proposed  park,  and  the  flow  of  half  a  million  gallons  per  day  is  in  process  of 
being  distributed  in  iron  mains  all  over  the  townsite."  —  Outlook,  October  I3th, 

"  Santa  Monica  continues  to  advance.  We  now  have  a  wharf  where  the 
largest  Panama  steamers  have  landed  ;  a  railroad  completed  to  Los  Angeles  ; 
a  telegraph  station,  a  newspaper,  postoffice,  two  hotels,  one  handsome  clubhouse, 
several  lodging  houses,  eight  restaurants,  a  number  of  saloons,  four  groceries, 
three  drygoods  stores,  two  hardware  stores,  three  fruit  stores,  one  wool  com 
mission  house,  one  news  depot  and  book  store,  one  variety  store,  one  bakery, 
one  jeweler  and  watchmaker,  one  boot  and  shoe  maker,  one  tin  shop,  two  livery- 
stables,  one  dressmaker,  two  tin  shops,  several  contractors  and  builders,  three 
real  estate  agencies,  one  insurance  agency,  one  coal  yard,  one  brick  yard,  two 
lumber  yards,  two  private  schools  and  in  a  short  time  we  shall  have  two  churches 
and  a  public  school."  —  Outlook,  November  24th,  1875. 

REV.  J.  D.  CRUM. 

First  Resident   Preacher  of  Santa  Monica. 


Among  the  merchants  of  the  first  year  we  find  W.  D.  Vawter  &  Sons,  Fourth 
street,  dealer  in  dry-goods,  clothing,  etc. ;  M.  J.  Bundy,  dealer  in  paints,  oils, 
glass;  tin  shop,  Boehme  &  Kilgariff;  M.  Boufosky,  groceries,  liquors,  etc.;  H. 
Giroux  &  Bro.,  groceries,  liquors,  etc. ;  Wilson  news  depot,  which  handled  every 
thing  from  eastern  periodicals  to  gents'  furnishing  goods,  drugs  and  medicines; 
Tell's  "  Lookout ",  which  combined  "  native  wines  and  brandies,  fresh  fruit, 
vegetables  and  fish  ",  with  a  "  livery  and  feed  stable."  The  hotels  were  the 
Santa  Monica  House,  kept  by  J.  C.  Morgan  and  C.  M.  Monroe  for  a  few  months 
and  then  by  J.  W.  Scott,  and  the  Ocean  View  House,  corner  of  Oregon  and 
Second,  kept  by  Malcom  &  Harper. 

The  first  child  born  in  Santa  Monica  was  Earnest  Majors,  who  made  his 
appearance  on  August  2nd  and  who  grew  to  manhood  in  this  city.  The  first 
marriage  ceremony  took  place  January  2Oth,  1876,  when  Alfred  Hayes  wedded 
Miss  Mattie  Mountain,  Rev.  J.  D.  Crum  officiating.  The  first  sermon  was 
preached  by  the  Rev.  A.  F.  White  in  September.  In  October,  the  Rev.  Mr. 
Crum  began  holding  Methodist  services  in  Brady's  hall,  over  a  store  on  the  coi 
ner  of  Oregon  and  Fifth  streets.  The  first  church  organized  was  the  Meth 
odist  and  they  dedicated  their  first  chapel  on  January  2nd,  1876.  A  private 
school,  known  as  the  Santa  Monica  Academy,  was  opened  by  D.  G.  C.  Baker 
and  wife.  November  8th,  1875,  and  the  first  public  school  was  opened  in  the 
Presbyterian  chapel  on  the  corner  of  Third  and  Arizona,  March  6th,  1876,  with 
Mr.  H.  P.  McCusick  as  teacher. 

October  17th,  1875,  the  first  railroad  train  left  Santa  Monica  for  Los  An 
geles,  flat  cars  being  used,  as  the  passenger  coaches  had  not  arrived.  Three 
trips  were  made  that  day  and  passengers  from  the  steamer  Senator  were  landed 
in  Los  Angeles  twelve  hours  in  advance  of  those  who  went  on  to  San  Pedro. 
On  November  3rd  the  Outlook  exults  over— "A  Busy  Scene.  We  watched  a 
lively  scene  on  Santa  Monica  wharf  last  Thursday  that  is  decidedly  encouraging. 
On  one  side  the  schooner  John  Hancock  was  discharging  a  large  cargo  of  lum 
ber;  on  the  opposite  side  the  schooner  Newton  Booth  had  just  arrived  with 
railroad  ties ;  further  along  the  barkentine  Ella  was  unloading  coal.  The  Sen 
ator  was  discharging  a  large  cargo  of  passengers  and  freight,  including  several 
race  horses.  A  train  of  cars  was  waiting  to  transport  the  whole  into  the  back 
country.  And  it  must  be  remembered  that  only  a  few  months  ago  the  site  of 
this  growing  town  was  a  sheep  pasture  and  the  spot  occupied  by  wharf  and 
vessels  a  lonely  waste  of  waters." 

The  same  month  the  coast  steamers  began  to  make  regular  stops  at  the 
new  town,  and  the  Outlook  states  that  at  one  time  28  mule  teams  were  loaded 
with  freight  for  San  Bernardino.  On  Sunday,  December  5th,  the  new  road 
was  so  far  completed  that  an  excursion  of  400  people,  the  first  one  entering  Santa 
Monica,  was  brought  in.  Two  trains  a  day  were  put  on  and  the  fare  was  $1.00; 
freight.  $1.00  per  ton  between  Los  Angeles  and  Santa  Monica.  The  Southern 


Pacific,  when  the  Jones  road  and  wharf  were  assured  had  dropped  the  freight 
rate  between  Los  Angeles  and  San  Pedro  from  $5.00  per  ton  to  $2.50  and  on 
the  completion  of  the  line  it  dropped  to  $1.00  for  freight  and  50  cents  for  pas 
sengers,  thus  forcing-  the  new  road  to  begin  operating  at  losing  rates.  The 
people  of  Los  Angeles  in  their  first  gratitude  for  the  loosening  of  the  Southern 
Pacific  monopoly,  declared  that  they  would  stand  by  the  Jones  road  and  handle 
their  trade  over  the  Santa  Monica  wharf. 

The  year  1876  opened  with  the  brightest  prospects  for  the  new  town  Its  beau 
tiful  situation,  the  ample  space  given  to  streets  and  alleys,  the  uniform  method 
of  tree  planting  which  had  been  adopted,  the  park  and  school  building  which 
were  already  planned  for,  added  to  the  favorable  outlook  for  a  steadily  increasing 
volume  of  business,  drew  many  people  to  adopt  Santa  Monica  as  a  home. 

In  February  a  meeting  was  called  to  consider  the  question  of  incorporating 
the  new  town ;  but  after  a  very  lively  discussion1  the  proposition  received  but 
one  aye.  In  April  the  Outlook,  which  was  an  energetic  agent  and  exponent  of 
Santa  Monica  progress,  published  its  first  "  special  edition "  reviewing  the 
achievements  of  the  first  six  months  of  existence.  It  states  that  1000  lots  in 
the  town  and  thirty-five  acre  villa  lots  had  already  been  sold ;  2000  acres  of  the 
San  Vicente  ranch,  lying  along  the  L.  A.  &  I.  road  in  the  vicinity  of  San  Vicente 
springs  had  been  divided  into  villa  farms,  to  be  sold  at  $100  per  acre.  The 
population  of  the  town  is  given  as  between  800  and  900,  with  116  school  children. 
A  school  district  had  been  organized  with  J.  W.  Scott,  L.  T.  Fisher  and  John 
Freeman  as  trustees  and  March  nth,  1876,  a  special  election  was  held  and  $5000 
tax  voted  for  school  purposes.  The  schoolhouse,  located  on  Sixth  street,  was 
ready  for  use  in  September,  1876. 

In  April  Michael  Duffy's  bath  house  was  completed,  the  first  one  in  Santa 
Monica,  and  a  pavilion  was  built  on  the  beach  by  Jones  and  Baker.  The  Santa 
Monica  Hotel  was  enlarged  and  several  business  houses  built.  There  were 
many  visitors  and  campers  both  at  North  Beach  and  at  the  canon.  One  of  the 
greatest  attractions  was  a  series  of  ring  tournaments  between  mounted  knights, 
one  side,  of  Americans,  led  by  B.  F.  Reid,  the  other  composed  of  native  Cali- 
fornians  was  under  the  command  of  J.  J.  Carrillo. 

In  March  I.  W.  Scott  made  the  first  "  addition  "  to  the  town  of  Santa 
Monica,  a  tract  of  forty-three  acres  lying  east  of  town  between  Fifth  and  Eighth 
streets,  and  known  as  "  Prospect  Hill."  Mr.  Scott  laid  this  off  into  lots,  planted 
a  thousand  "  blue  gum  "  trees,  and  put  in  a  bridge  across  Sixth  street  to  connect 
it  with  the  town.  An  auction  was  held  March  315!  and  fifty  lots  were  sold  at 
prices  ranging  from  $77  to  $200. 

This  year  a  road  was  opened  between  Santa  Monica  and  San  Fernando 
valley,  through  the  efforts  of  Isaac  Lankershim,  who  wished  to  ship  the  grain 
from  his  ioo,ooo-acre  ranch  by  way  of  Santa  Monica  and  thus  save  the  cost  of 
the  road  in  a  single  year.  But  the  Southern  Pacific  at  once  dropped  its  rate 



and  thus  the  Santa  Monica  road  was  never  used  by  Lankershim,  although  it 
was  a  paying  investment  for  him  to  build  it.  The  California  Coast  Steamship 
Co.,  whose  object  was  to  carry  on  a  freight  and  passenger  traffic  between  San 
Francisco  and  Santa  Monica,  was  organized  this  year,  with  a  capital  stock  of 
$400,000.  "  Lucky "  Baldwin  is  credited  with  $75,000  stock  and  Col.  Baker 
with  $25,000,  but  the  plans  of  the  company  never  materialized. 

A  great  deal  of  anxiety  was  manifested  as  to  the  completion  of  the  L.  A. 
&  I.  road,  which  had  come  to  a  stop  when  it  reached  Los  Angeles.  It  was  still 
beiieved  that  it  would  be  continued  to  Independence  and  possibly  further.  This 

belief  was  strength 
ened  by  the  actual 
work  of  a  grading 
force  in  the  Cajon 
Pass.  But  no  final 
decision  as  to  a  route 
between  Los  Angeles 
and  the  pass  was 
made.  San  Bernar 
dino  talked  of  raising 
a  subsidy  to  secure 
the  line  and  Santa 
Ana  and  Riverside 
had  hopes.  Los  Ange 
les  citizens  held  meet 
ings  to  discuss  the 
desirability  of  aiding  the  Independence  road.  Already  it  was  seen  that  the 
influence  and  competition  of  the  Southern  Pacific  was  bearing  heavily  on  the 
new  road ;  but  the  papers  and  the  people  held  out  strongly  against  any  suggestion 
that  their  independent  line  might  be  absorbed  by  the  monopoly. 

During  1877  Santa  Monica  continued  to  hold  its  own  in  growth.  A  new 
bath  house  was  erected  by  the  L.  A.  &  I.  road  on  the  beach  front  and  fully 
equipped  with  hot  steam  baths,  plunge  and  facilities  for  salt-water  bathing  in 
all  its  forms.  A  billiard  room,  bowling  alley,  skating  rink  and  refreshment 
rooms  were  added  to  the  pavilion.  Altogether  the  finest  accommodations  on 
the  coast  were  offered  here.  The  Ocean  House  under  the  management  of  C. 
A.  Sumner  was  opened  this  season,  and  the  number  of  visitors  and  campers 
increased  over  any  previous  season. 

In  May,  William '  Spencer  burned  4000  feet  of  clay  pipe  which  was  pur 
chased  by  B.  D.  Wilson  for  use  in  the  extensive  irrigation  system  which  he 
and  Shorb  were  then  constructing  near  San  Gabriel.  The  Santa  Monica  pipe 
proved  so  satisfactory  that  large  orders  were  placed  for  it  and  in'  the  fall  work 

FIRST    CHURCH    IX    SANTA    MCNICA.     FIRST    M.    E.    CHURCH. 


was  begun  on  a  clay  pipe  manufactory,  a  two-story  building,  40  by  60,  with 
a  large  furnace.  This  was  the  first  utilization  of  the  Santa  Monica  clay  beds. 

The  plaza  between  California  and  Nevada  streets  had  been  planted  with 
Monterey  cypress,  blue  gum,  live  oak,  pepper,  weeping  willow  and  iron-bark 
trees.  Jones  and  Baker  had  set  out  4200  blue  gum  and  pepper  trees  along  the 
streets,  and  these  had  already  begun  to  make  a  showing.  The  extraordinary 
fertility  of  the  soil  in  Santa  Monica  and  vicinity  was  a  constant  source  of  wonder. 
Blue  gums  planted  in  August,  1875,  measured  12  to  15  feet  high  in  November, 
1877.  The  Outlook  frequently  referred  to  a  tomato  vine  which  became  one  of 
the  sights  of  the  town.  It  was  trained  by  J.  W.  Scott  against  his  house  and 
reached  a  height  of  twenty-five  feet,  while  it  bore  profusely.  Corn  14  feet  tall 
is  reported  and  the  beautiful  flower  gardens  which  were  the  result  of  a  little 
care  and  attention  were  the  admiration  of  all  visitors. 

The  question  of  the  ownership  of  the  beach  front  had  already  come  up. 
Some  parties  claimed  that  the  beach  was  government  property  and  the  question 
led  to  more  or  less  friction.  A  very  sad  outcome  of  this  dispute  occurred  in 
October,  1877.  A  carpenter,  John  V.  Fonck,  was  working  on  a  small  bath  house 
which  was  being  put  up  on  land  in  dispute.  C.  M.  Waller,  who  was  in  charge 
of  the  bath  house  and  beach  property  of  the  land  company,  ordered  him  to  quit 
work.  Upon  his  refusal  to  do  so,  Waller  fired  and  wounded  him  fatally.  He 
claimed  that  he  thought  the  gun  was  loaded  with  bird  shot  and  that  he  was 
acting  under  the  orders  of  E.  S.  Parker,  the  representative  of  Jones  and  Baker. 
On  trial,  he  was  sentenced  for  one  year.  Parker  was  also  tried,  and  although 
it  did  not  appear  that  he  had  given  direct  orders,  he  was  sentenced  to  ten  years 
in  the  penitentiary.  He  was  released  to  await  a  new  trial ;  but  as  a  result  of 
the  affair  his  young  wife  died  and  a  week  later  Parker  also  died — of  a  broken 
heart,  so  his  friends  believed.  This  unfortunate  affair  gave  rise  to  much  feel 
ing,  as  it  had  been  believed  by  many  that  purchasers  of  lots  were  entitled  to  put 
up  a  bath  house  for  private  use  on  the  beach.  The  question  of  beach  ownership 
continued  troublesome  and  there  were  constant  difficulties  over  it  until  the  courts 
decided,  in  1888,  that  the  boundary  of  the  San  Vicente  ranch  extended  to  tide 
water  and  therefore  Jones  and  Baker  had  the  ownership  to  that  point. 

The  railroad  question  continued  to  be  the  most  vital  one  to  Santa  Monica 
and,  indeed,  to  Southern  California.  The  influence  and  competition  of  the 
Southern  Pacific  was  proving  too  strong  to  be  overcome  by  the  Los  Angeles 
and  Independence  road,  single-handed.  Under  the  conditions,  it  could  not  be 
made  a  paying  proposition.  The  Panamint  mines  had  not  panned  out  as  was 
expected,  and  the  idea  of  continuing  the  road  to  Independence  had  been  aban 
doned.  Senator  Jones  had  already  sunk  a  million  dollars  in  the  enterprise ;  but 
he  could  not  be  expected  to  go  on  indefinitely  losing  money.  He  offered  to  sell 
the  road  at  cost  to  the  people  of  Los  Angeles  county.  Many  were  strongly 
favorable  to  this  idea.  The  Outlook  and  its  editor,  L.  T.  Fisher,  made  a  strong 


fight  against  the  "  monopoly."  In  one  of  his  editorials,  he  sets  forth  the  follow 
ing  reasons  why  the  L.  A.  &  I.  road  is  a  "  good  thing  ",  and  should  be  owned 
by  the  county : 

"  i.  The  railway  from  Los  Angeles  to  Santa  Monica  has  given  the  people 
another  outlet  to  the  ocean. 

"  2.     It  has  brought  the  cars  and  the  largest  deep-sea  vessels  together. 

"  3.  It  has  shortened  the  ocean  passage  from  San  Francisco  to  34  miles 
and  the  time  to  Los  Angeles  from  six  to  ten  hours. 

"  4.  It  enables  parties  who  wish  to  make  the  most  of  their  time  to  remain 
several  hours  longer  in  Los  Angeles  and  then  catch  the  same  steamer  as  pas 
sengers  by  way  of  the  Southern  Pacific  and  San  Pedro. 

"  5.  It  has  reduced  freight  from  $5.00  per  ton  to  $1.00  and  passenger  rate 
from  $2.50  to  50  cents. 

"  6.  It  has  reduced  the  price  of  lumber  in  Los  Angeles  and  along  the  line 
of  the  S.  P.  not  less  than  $5.00  per  thousand. 

"  /.     It  has  raised  the  price  of  land  along  its  route  not  less  than  100  per  cent. 

"  8.  It  has  greatly  increased  the  inducements  for  settlement  in  a  portion 
of  Los  Angeles  cornty  which  has  hitherto  been  neglected. 

"  9.  It  has  established  a  cheap  means  by  which  the  people  of  the  interior 
and  of  Los  Angeles  can  enjoy  the  benefits  of  the  sea  shore. 

"  10.  It  constitutes  in  itself  property  that  adds  greatly  to  the  aggregate 
wealth  of  the  county. 

"  ii.  It  can  he  held  as  a  check,  not  only  upon  existing  roads  in  this 
locality,  but  upon  all  roads  that  may  be  built,  because  it  furnishes  a  connection 
with  ocean  vessels  that  can  reach  all  quarters  of  the  world." 

Meetings  were  held  to  discuss  plans  for  saving  the  road  from  the  S.  P. 
and  other  meetings  were  held  which  suggested  all  sorts  of  possible  and  im 
possible  projects  for  saving  the  country  from  the  complete  domination  of  the 
Central  Pacific.  But  all  the  talk  and  the  many  schemes  proposed  came  to 
nothing.  In  March,  1877,  Leland  Stanford,  president  of  the  C.  P.,  and  General 
Colton,  president  of  the  S.  P.,  with  a  corps  of  their  assistants,  visited  Santa 
Monica,  to  "  look  around — nothing  doing,"  they  assured  the  reporters.  In 
May,  another  party  of  Central  Pacific  magnates  came  clown  and  looked  over 
Santa  Monica  and  brought  speculation  to  fever  heat.  On  June  ^th,  1877,  it 
was  definitely  announced  that  the  Los  Angeles  and  Independence  road  had 
been  sold  to  the  Central  Pacific.  Santa  Monica  people  could  only  accept  the 
change  and  make  the  best  of  it.  At  first  the  Outlook  hopefully  announced 
that  it  wasn't  so  bad — the  great  company  would  undoubtedly  improve  the 
service  and  build  up  the  trade.  Its  hopes  were  shortlived.  In  July  the  fare 
on  the  Pacific  Coast  steamers  was  increased  from  $12  to  $15,  and  freight  rates 
on  steamers  and  by  rail  were  soon  increased.  Then  it  was  announced  that 



hereafter  only  two  small  steamers,  the  Senator  and  Ancon,  would  ply  along 
the  coast,  owing  to  the  falling  off  in  traffic. 

In  this  connection,  some  extracts  from  letters  written  by  Crocker  and 
Huntington  will  show  the  odds  against  which  the  promoters  of  the  L.  A.  &  I. 
railway  struggled.  On  May  i8th,  1875,  Charles  Crocker  wrote:  ''I  notice 
what  you  say  of  Jones,  Park,  etc.  I  do  not  think  they  will  hurt  us  much,  at 
least,  I  should  rather  be  in  our  places  than  theirs.  I  will  ventilate  their  '  safe 
harbor.'  "  And  on  May  25th,  Huntington  responded :  "  I  shall  do  my  best 
to  cave  him  (Jones)  down  the  bank.'' 

During  1878  Santa  Monica  struggled  against  the  hard  fate  that  had 
befallen  her.  The  Southern  Pacific  removed  the  depot  from  the  wharf  to  its 
present  location  and  gave,  as  a  concession,  a  round-trip  fare  of  $1.00  good  for 
three  days.  Many  excursions  from  interior  towns  were  brought  to  the  coast 
during  the  summer  and  Santa  Monica  remained  the  most  popular  resort, 
although  it  could  no  longer  hope  for  a  great  commercial  importance.  But 
worse  was  to  come.  The  S.  P.  sent  one  of  its  engineering  force  to  examine 
the  wharf.  After  a  careful  inspection,  he  reported  that  the  condition  of  the 
piles  was  most  alarming,  owing  to  the  ravages  of  the  toredo,  and  that  it  was 
unsafe  for  trains  unless  at  least  three-fourths  of  the  piles  were  replaced.  As 
this  would  entail  a  large  expense,  he  advised  that  the  use  of  the  wharf  be 
abandoned.  On  September  gth,  the  Senator  made  its  last  landing  and  the 
name  of  Santa  Monica  was  taken  off  the  steamer  lists. 

It  was  a  crushing  blow  that  had  been  dealt  the  town  which  had  started 
out  so  propitiously.  Naturally,  business  dropped  off  and  many  people  moved 
away.  Partnerships  were  dissolved,  mortgages  foreclosed,  a  number  of  business 
houses  sold  out  to  satisfy  their  creditors.  The  population  of  the  town  melted 
away  and  the  editor  of  the  Outlook,  who  had  made  a  brave  fight  for  the  town 
of  his  adoption,  announced  on  December  igth,  1878,  that,  the  next  week  being 
Christmas,  the  paper  would  be  omitted  for  a  week.  It  was  "  omitted  "  for 
eight  years. 

Early  in  1879  the  S.  P.  ordered  the  removal  of  the  wharf.  The  citizens 
of  Santa  Monica  protested  and  offered  to  purchase  the  structure  as  it  stood, 
but  the  offer  was  declined  and  the  work  proceeded.  In  1888,  the  editor  of 
the  Outlook  had  sufficiently  recovered  to  be  able  to  describe  the  sad  scene : 

'  A  big  bumper  was  planted  upon  the  shore  end  to  keep  trains  from 
running  upon  it,  even  by  accident.  Next  came  the  order  to  tear  down  the 
structure.  The  work  of  destruction  began  one  fine  morning  and  the  sea  was 
as  calm  as  if  it  had  been  a  human  being  holding  its  breath  in  very  wonder  at 
such  an  exhibition  of  unjustifiable  vandalism.  It  was  a  bright  morning,  but 
it  was  a  blue  day  for  the  people  who  lived  here.  We  heard  the  first  blow 
of  the  destructive  implement  and  remarked  that  it  was  the  death  knell  of  Santa 


Monica.  And  yet,  in  the  midst  of  this  industrial  tragedy,  there  was  an  element 
of  comedy.  The  workmen  had  had  their  minds  so  thoroughly  impressed  with  the 
dangerous  condition  of  the  wharf  that  they  tiptoed  over  the  structure  as  if 
they  expected  every  minute  that  it  would  crumble  beneath  them.  They  finally 
reached  the  outer  end,  tore  vp  the  flooring,  stripped  off  the  stringers,  removed 
the  braces  and  then  attempted  to  topple  over  the  piles  with  long  poles.  These 
stumps  of  redwood  wielded  no  more  than  if  they  had  been  growing  trees. 
Next  the  stringers  were  replaced  and  a  temporary  flooring  laid  upon  which 
a  donkey  engine  was  placed.  A  noose  was  made  of  a  huge  chain  and  dropped 
over  the  piles  at  the  bottom.  Even  this  power  failed.  As  a  finality,  men  were 
sent  in  boats  at  low  tide  with  axes  and  the  piles  were  chopped  off  at  low 
water  mark.  The  beach  was  strewn  for  a  considerable  distance  with  the  timber 
that  washed  ashore.  Upon  examination  many  of  these  piles  were  found  to  be 
only  a  little  worm  eaten,  which  shows  that  the  wharf  at  a  comparatively  little 
cost,  could  have  been  kept  intact." — Outlook,  February  2Oth,  1888. 

As  soon  as  it  was  definitely  known  that  the  S.  P.  would  abandon  the 
shipping  business  in  Santa  Monica  Bay,  new  projects  were  talked  of.  It  had 
already  been  proposed  that  the  people  of  Los  Angeles  build  a  wharf  and  a 
narrow  guage  road  and  thus  obtain  a  competing  line.  In  October,  1878.  a 
company  of  San  Francisco  capitalists  proposed  to  construct  a  harbor  at 
Santa  Monica,  build  a  narrow  guage  road  and  put  on  a  line  of  steamers  which 
should  carry  freight  at  $3.50  per  ton  and  passengers  at  $8.00  between  Los 
Angeles  and  San  Francisco.  The  right  of  way  was  already  secured  and  work 
was  to  be  begun  at  once.  In  November  agreements  between  John  Hayes,  of 
San  Francisco,  and  citizens  of  Los  Angeles  and  San  Bernardino,  were  pub 
lished.  These  set  forth  that  Hayes  was  to  build  a  narrow  guage  road  from 
•  Santa  Monica  to  Los  Angeles  and  ultimately  to  San  Bernardino,  and  to  carry 
passengers  between  Los  Angeles  and  Santa  Monica  for  25  cents  and  freight 
for  $1.00.  Another  agreement  made  by  John  Wright  of  San  Francisco  was  to 
the  effect  that  he  would  put  on  a  line  of  substantial  steamships,  provided  the 
citizens  of  Los  Angeles  would  do  all  their  shipping  on  them. 

Many  other  projects  were  discussed.  The  first  one  to  show  any  signs 
of  materializing  was  the  building  of  a  wharf  by  Juan  Bernard,  an  old  resident 
of  Los  Angeles,  who  had  become  one  of  the  most  prominent  citizens.  He 
had  married  a  daughter  of  Atigustin  Machado  and  was  thus  interested  in  South 
Santa  Monica  property.  This  wharf  which  was  built  from  the  foot  of  Strand 
street  was  intended  to  be  fifteen  hundred  feet,  but  was  not  completed.  A 
large  warehouse  was  built,  which  was  planned  to  be  complete  for  commercial 
purposes,  but  the  S.  P.  forbade  the  steamers  to  land  here,  and  the  fiat  was 
obeyed.  No  boat  ever  unloaded  there,  and  the  wharf  was  finally  carried  out 
by  a  severe  storm  about  1883  and  the  timber  used  for  other  purposes. 


Only  a  few  very  stout  hearted  citizens  still  had  faith  that  Santa  Monica 
would  ever  again  reach  its  former  prosperity.  But  there  were  those  who  had 
become  attached  to  the  place  and  who  felt  confident  that  the  great  natural 
advantages  afforded  by  the  climate,  the  situation  and  the  fertility  of  the  soil, 
would  eventually  make  up  for  the  loss  of  shipping  facilities.  And  so  long  as 
the  people  of  Los  Angeles  and  the  interior  could  escape  to  Santa  Monica  during 
torrid  days  of  summer  and  tourists  and  healthseekers  could  find  here  their 
ideal  resting  spot  and  homes,  the  place  would  still  prosper.  These  few  remained 
through  the  darkest  days  and  gradually  newcomers  discovered  the  advantages 
here  which  could  not  be  obtained  elsewhere,  and  began  to  fill  up  the  vacant 
houses  and  to  purchase  and  improve  other  property. 

HON.  JOHN  PERCIVAI,  JONES  was  born  in  a  small  village,  in  Herefordshire, 
England,  January  27th,  1829.  While  he  was  still  an  infant,  his  family  removed 
to  the  United  States  and  settled  near  Cleveland,  Ohio,  Here  the  child  grew 
to  youth  and  acquired  a  public  school  education,  after  which  he  entered  the 
service  of  a  bank  in  Cleveland.  But  when  the  news  of  the  gold  discoveries 
of  California  penetrated  the  country  and  called  to  every  youth  with  a  bold 
heart  and  adventurous  blood,  young  Jones  joined  forces  with  several  other 
young  men  who  were  as  eager  for  the  change  as  himself.  They  secured  a 
small  vessel,  sailed  through  the  lakes  and  the  St.  Lawrence  river  and  started 
on  the  long  and  perilous  voyage  around  "  the  Horn."  They  were  months  on 
the  ocean  and  experienced  many  hardships  and  dangerss  before  they  finally 
reached  San  Francisco  Bay,  in  the  spring  of  1850.  The  young  adventurer  at 
once  hastened  away  to  the  mines  to  seek  his  fortune.  For  many  years  he  was 
a  typical  California  miner,  sometimes  finding  his  hopes  fulfilled,  often  finding 
them  dashed. 

In  those  days  when  thousands  of  men  sought  gold  with  fierce  energy, 
living  without  homes,  without  comforts,  without  the  restraints  of  civilization, 
it  was  only  strong  character  and  true  manhood  that  withstood  the  temptations 
of  the  environment.  Young  Jones  came  of  sturdy  stock  and  proved  himself 
a  man  and  a  leader,  even  in  these  early  days.  He  served  as  sheriff  in  the 
county  of  Trinity  at  a  time  when  the  office  required  a  stout  heart  and  level 
head  for — to  a  large  extent — the  sheriff  was  the  law.  From  1863  to  1868  he 
was  a  member  of  the  state  legislature  of  California.  In  the  meantime,  he 
had  gained  much  experience  in  mines  and  mining  propositions.  When  the 
great  developments  of  the  Comstock  lode  began  to  attract  attention,  he  was 
one  of  the  first  on  the  ground.  Later  he  was  made  the  superintendent  of  the 
Crown  Point  mine. 

Thus  he  became  a  resident  of  Nevada  and  when  in  1872,  a  critical  period 
in  the  history  of  the  young  state  approached,  he  was  mentioned  as  a  candidate 


for  the  United  States  senate.  The  contest  was  a  hot  one,  he  being  at  first 
opposed  by  William  Sharon ;  but  the  "  Nevada  Commoner,"  as  Jones  had  come 
to  be  known,  was  regarded  as  a  friend  to  the  miners  and  in  the  end,  he  was 
elected  and  took  his  seat  March,  1873. 

In  1876,  the  Monetary  Commission  of  the  senate  was  appointed  to  inquire 
into  the  relative  value  of  gold  and  silver,  the  causes  thereof  and  kindred 
questions,  which  vitally  affected  the  mining  interests  and  particularly  the 
interests  of  the  state  of  Nevada — a  silver-producing  state.  Senator  Jones  was 
chosen  as  chairman  of  this  committee  and  entered  upon  the  study  of  the  ques 
tions  arising,  with  keen  interest.  It  is  said  of  the  report  rendered  by  the 
Monetary  Commission  that,  "  Nothing  so  thoroughly  exhaustive  had  ever  been 
presented  to  Congress,  and  the  view  taken  was  favorable  to  the  interests  of 
Nevada  and  of  the  Comstock  miners." 

Naturally,  at  the  expiration  of  his  term,  Senator  Jones  who  had  acquitted 
nimself  upon  so  important  and  vital  an  occasion  with  credit  and  made  a  strong 
argument  for  the  silver  of  his  state,  was  re-elected.  For  thirty  years  he  con 
tinuously  served  in  the  United  States  senate,  a  record  seldom  equalled.  He 
became,  in  his  long  career,  a  noted  figure  and  was  counted  as  one  of  the 
strongest  men  on  the  floor.  A  writer  in  Munsey's,  some  years  ago,  pays  him 
this  tribute : 

"Senator  John  P.  Jones,  who  has  just  been  re-elected  to  the  United 
States  senate  for  another  period  of  six  years,  is  one  of  the  interesting  figures 
of  the  upper  house  of  congress.  He  was  a  warm  personal  friend  of  Senator 
Conklin  and  formerly  belonged  to  the  stalwart  wing  of  the  Republican  party. 
Of  recent  years,  he  has  been  one  of  the  strongest  men  of  the  '  silver  party  ' 
in  the  country,  and  last  year  he  withdrew  from  the  old  party  and  supported 
Mr.  Bryan  for  the  presidency. 

"  Mr.  Jones  is  a  very  able  man  and  has  probably  made  more  speeches  on 
the  financial  question  than  all  of  the  other  members  of  the  senate  put  together. 
He  is  a  profound  scholar  and  has  the  ability  to  marshal  an  imposing  array  of 
facts  to  support  his  arguments. 

"  He  was  a  delegate  to  the  Brussels  Monetary  Conference  which  met  during 
the  administration  of  President  Harrison.  Before  that  body,  he  spoke  for 
three  days,  the  printed  report  of  his  speech  containing  over  two  hundred 
thousand  words.  A  representative  of  the  Rothschilds  made  the  remark  that  if 
there  were  many  men  in  America  with  Senator  Jones'  capacity  for  speaking,  the 
advocates  of  the  gold  standard  would  do  well  to  surrender  at  once. 

"  Senator  Jones  is  exceedingly  popular  in  Washington.  When  he  first 
entered  the  senate,  he  was  many  times  a  millionaire.  Subsequently  he  lost 
most  of  his  wealth,  .but  it  is  said  that  in  later  years  he  has  been  fortunate  in  his 
investments  and  is  again  a  very  rich  man." 


.  As  will  be  seen,  Senator  Jones  was  a  man  of  the  people,  a  practical  mining 
man  as  well  as  an  expert  in  handling  mines  and  mining  stocks.  He  has  made 
fortunes — and  lost  them — with  the  calm  indifference  of  the  true  miner.  But  be 
side  this,  he  is  a  man  of  great  native  ability,  who,  without  the  training  of  schools, 
has  made  himself  an  authority  on  financial  questions  and  created  the  utmost 
confidence  in  his  sound  judgment  and  clear  perception. 

Senator  Jones  has  been  intimately  associated  with  the  history  of  Santa 
Monica  since  its  inception.  In  1874,  he  purchased  an  interest  in  the  San 
Vicente  rancho  and,  with  Col.  R.  S.  Baker,  laid  out  the  townsite  of  Santa 
Monica.  During  the  next  two  or  three  years,  he  spent  a  million  dollars  in 
Southern  California,  in  building  up  Santa  Monica  and  in  building  and  carrying 
on  the  Los  Angeles  and  Independence  railway,  which  was  intended  to  reach 
his  Panamint  mines  and  possibly  be  the  terminus  of  another  great  trans 
continental  line.  In  1888,  he  built  his  beautiful  home,  Miramar,  here  and  since 
that  time  this  has  been  the  residence  of  his  family.  Here  the  senator  has 
himself  come  for  rest  and  pleasure,  when  he  could  escape  from  his  many 
public  duties. 

Senator  Jones  has  been  twice  married,  his  first  wife  being  the  daughter 
of  Judge  Conger,  the  second  a  daughter  of  Eugene  A.  Sullivan  and  a  most 
accomplished  and  benevolent  woman.  The  family  consists  of  one  son,  Roy, 
and  three  daughters. 


WILLIAMSON  DUNN  VAWTKR,  late  merchant  and  banker  of  Santa  Monica, 
was  a  pioneer  settler  of  Southern  California  and  a  leading  spirit  in  the  material 
development  and  business  life  of  his  adopted  city.  He  was  a  descendant  of  an 
old  and  distinguished  family,  his  parents,  William  and  Frances  Vawter,  both 
being  natives  of  Virginia.  He  was  born  at  Mount  Glad,  near  Madison,  Indiana, 
August  28th,  1815.  About  1827  the  family  removed  to  Jennings  county  and 
located  on  a  farm  near  the  town  of  Vernon.  The  father  proposed  to  make  a 
farmer  of  his  son ;  but  the  lad  had  no  liking  for  that  vocation  and  soon  after 
the  age  of  twelve  went  to  live  with  his  uncle,  Colonel  John  Vawter,  for  whom 
he  had  a  great  affection.  His  first  work  was  driving  an  ox  team  between  the 
towns  of  Madison  and  Vernon,  freighted  with  merchandise  for  his  uncle's  store. 
This  work,  by  reason  of  the  difficult  roads  and  occasional  danger  from  savages, 
suited  the  daring  spirit  of  the  boy.  Later  he  became  a  clerk  in  the  store  of  his 
uncle  and  then  partner  in  the  same  store,  in  company  with  his  cousin,  Smith 
Vawter.  Together  they  carried  on  business  in  the  old  brick  building  at  "  Vaw 
ter 's  Corner  "  in  Vernon,  for  a  period  of  forty  years. 

Mr.  Vawter  served  as  postmaster  of  the  town  for  a  number  of  years.  He 
was  a  leader  in  early  temperance  work  and  was  treasurer  and  custodian  of  the 
Bible  depository  of  Jennings  county,  a  branch  of  the  American  Bible  Society, 

E.  J.  VAWTER. 


from  its  organization.  He  always  took  a  lively  interest  in  municipal  politics 
and  in  national  affairs.  He  was  a  Whig  during  the  life  of  that  political  party 
and  a  member  of  the  Republican  party  from  its  birth.  He  voted  for  General 
William  Henry  Harrison  and  in  1888  cast  his  vote  for  General  Benjamin  Har 

Tn  1875  he  came  to  California  and  was  one  of  the  original  members  of  the 
Indiana  colony  which  was  the  forerunner  of  the  city  of  Pasadena.  Mr.  Vawter 
purchased  a  sixty-acre  ranch  in  that  colony,  which  is  now  occupied  by  the  busi 
ness  portion  of  the  city.  Drawn  by  report  of  the  great  advantages  offered  by 
the  new  settlement  of  Santa  Monica  which  was  to  become  the  commercial  metrop 
olis  of  Southern  California,  he  with  his  sons  located  here  and  opened  the  first 
general  store  in  the  town,  in  a  building  on  the  lots  on  Fourth  street  still  occupied 
by  the  Vawter  residence. 

As  the  town  commenced  to  grow  he  established  lumber  yards  and  soon 
built  a  planing  mill,  which  proved  a  boon  to  home  builders.  He  secured  a  fran 
chise  in  1886  and  with  his  sons  built  the  first  street  railway,  which  was  for  some 
time  operated  at  a  loss.  They  demonstrated  their  faith  in  the  future,  however, 
by  extending  the  line  to  the  Soldiers'  Home,  a  distance  of  about  five  miles,  and 
he  lived  to  see  it  a  paying  enterprise.  With  his  sons  he  organized  the  First 
National  Bank  of  Santa  Monica  and  opened  the  same  in  the  brick  building  on 
the  southeast  corner  of  Third  and  Oregon,  which  they  built  in  1888. 

Mr.  Vawter  was  married,  July  I5th,  1834,  to  Mary  Charlotte  Tilghman 
Crowder  of  Baltimore,  Maryland.  She  died  September  22nd,  1851.  Her  chil 
dren  were  Mary  Ellen,  May,  Jane  Cravens,  William  Smith  and  Edwin  James. 
Mr.  Vawter  married  Charlotte  Augusta  Knowlton  in  November,  1852.  She 
was  a  native  of  Shrewsbury,  Mass.  She  died  in  Santa  Monica,  December  27th, 
180,3,  leaving  one  daughter,  Emma.  A  son,  Charles  Knowlton,  had  died  pre 

Mr.  Vawter  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Presbyterian  church  in  Santa 
Monica  and  was  always  one  of  its  staunch  supporters.  He  was  a  man  of  pure 
life — both  in  thought  and  action.  He  was  pre-eminently  just  and  never  inten 
tionally  did  any  man  a  wrong.  At  the  same  time,  he  was  not  a  man  of  loud 
or  bold  pretense  and  moved  along  life's  journey  doing  the  right  thing  at  the 
right  time :  "  because  it  was  the  natural,  outlet  for  energies  which  were  attuned 
to  those  harmonies  which  could,only  accord  with  what  was  best."  The  memory 
of  his  noble  life  will  linger  like  a  restraining  benediction  to  call  us  up  toward 
a  better  standard  of  thought  and  action. 

Mr.  Vawter  passed  away  at  his  home  in  Santa  Monica,  July  loth,  1894. 

MARY  ELLEN  VAWTER,  the  first  child  of  W.  D.  and  Mary  C.  Vawter,  was 
born  at  Vernon,  Ind.,  October  28th,  1836.  At  the  age  of  eighteen  she  began 
teaching  school.  At  twenty-three  she  married  Ward  Leavitt  of  Chatauqua,  N. 
Y.  In  the  spring  of  1875,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Leavitt  with  their  daughter,  Florence, 
removed  to  California.  They  were  stockholders  in  the  Indiana  colony,  but  after 


a  short  residence  there  located  in  Santa  Monica.  In  1880  they  returned  to  Pasa 
dena  and  lived  for  some  years  upon  their  orange  ranch.  In  1887  they  again 
located  in  Santa  Monica,  where  Mr.  Leavitt  died,  October  23th,  1896.  Mrs. 
Leavitt  and  daughter  still  reside  in  Santa  Monica. 

MAY  VAWTER  was  born  at  Vcrnon,  Ind.,  March  4th,  1838.  She  was  edu 
cated  in  the  schools  of  her  native  town  and  received  a  special  musical  training. 
After  teaching  school  and  traveling  through  the  southern  and  eastern  states 
and  Canada,  she  accompanied  her  family  to  California  in  1875.  In  the  spring 
of  1876  she  married  Switzer  S.  Harwood,  M.D.  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Harwood  lived 
at  San  Pablo  and  in  San  Francisco  and  Yreka.  They  finally  removed  to  Sydney, 
Australia,  where  they  made  their  home.  Mrs.  Harwood  was  a  self-reliant 
woman,  adventurous  from  childhood,  and  she  several  times  made  the  voyage 
between  Sydney  and  California. 

She  early  united  with  the  Vernon  Presbyterian  church  and  was  a  charter 
member  of  the  First  Presbyterian  church  of  Santa  Monica.  She  died  in  Sydney, 
Australia,  March  ist,  1884. 

JANE  CRAVENS  VAWTER  is  a  native  of  Vernon,  Ind.  She  received  her  edu 
cation  in  private  and  public  schools  of  her  native  town  and  later  studied  under 
Dr.  J.  C.  Burt,  following  a  college  course.  She  also  took  a  special  course  of 
reading  extending  over  several  years.  When  very  young  she  was  interested  in 
political  and  national  questions  and  became  a  staunch  abolitionist.  She  was  for 
several  years  a  teacher  in  the  public  schools  of  Indianapolis. 

She  united  with  the  Presbyterian  church  at  Vernon,  and  was  the  projector 
and  one  of  the  founders  of  the  first  Sunday-school  in  Santa  Monica.  This  was 
organized  and  carried  on  for  some  weeks  in  the  home  of  W.  D.  Vawter.  Miss 
Vawter  was  a  charter  member  of  the  First  Presbyterian  church  and  served  for 
some  time  as  its  Sunday-school  superintendent.  She  was  long  a  teacher  in  this 
school,  taking  children  from  their  tenth  year  and  holding  them  until  they  reached 
majority.  She  was  one  of  the  two  solicitors  who  collected  funds  for  the  present 
beautiful  Presbyterian  building.  She  and  her  sister,  Miss  Emma,  now  live  to 
gether  in  the  fine  old  homestead  on  Fourth  street.  Santa  Monica. 

ARAMATHA  CHARLOTTE  VAWTER  was  born  in  Vernon,  Ind..  September  25th. 
1841.  She  was  educated  at  Jennings  Academy.  Vernon,  and  at  Oxford,  Ohio. 
After  teaching  for  a  time,  she  was  married,  October  i6th,  1866,  to  Septimus 
Vater,  now  a  prominent  banker  of  Lafayette,  Ind.  Mrs.  Vater,  who  has  always 
been  an  active  worker  in  the  Presbyterian  church  and  its  auxiliaries,  has  been 
ordained  a  deaconess  in  her  home  church  and  is  widely  known  for  her  good 
works  in  her  home  city. 

WILLIAM  S.  VAWTER,  the  eldest  son  of  W.  D.  and  Alary  C.  Vawter,  was 
born  near  Vernon,  Ind.,  April  ist,  1845.  He  passed  through  the  graded  schools 
of  the  town  and  graduated  from  a  commercial  college  in  Cincinnati,  Ohio.  Re 
turning  to  his  native  place,  he  was  appointed  deputy  county  clerk  of  Jennings 
county.  Later  he  became  editor  and  proprietor  of  the  Vcrnon  Banner,  a  weekly 


paper,  which  he  conducted  with  success  for  a  couple  of  years.  He  then  entered 
the  manufacturing  business,  which  he  continued  until  he  came  to  California 
in  1875. 

After  making  investments  in  the  Indiana  colony,  now  Pasadena,  the  Vawters, 
father  and  two  sons,  opened  the  first  general  store  in  Santa  Monica  and  con 
ducted  an  extensive  mercantile  business  for  ten  years.  They  remained  here  dur 
ing  the  long  period  of  depression  succeeding  the  abandonment  of  the  wharf  by 
the  Southern  Pacific  Company  and,  in  spite  of  the  most  discouraging  conditions, 
retained  their  faith  in  the  future  of  this  region.  In  1884  the  Vawters  purchased 
too  acres  of  the  Lucas  ranch,  adjoining  the  then  south  boundary  of  the  town. 
This  land  was  later  subdivided  and  sold  in  tracts  and  in  lots  and  forms  a  large 
part  of  the  present  south  end  of  the  city  of  Santa  Monica.  During  1887-88 
they  sold  half  of  this  property  for  more  than  the  whole  tract  had  cost  them  and 
W.  S.  Yawter  built  a  handsome  home  in  South  Santa  Monica,  one  of  the  first 
residences  in  that  district. 

Mr.  Yawter  has  served  the  city  of  Santa  Monica  in  many  capacities.  He 
was  one  of  the  first  board  of  trustees  when  the  town  was  incorporated  and 
served  from  1886  to  1892;  in  1903  he  was  again  elected  city  trustee  and  served 
until  1906. 

He  was  interested  in  the  establishment  of  the  Santa  Monica  street  railway 
system  and  the  Soldiers'  Home  line,  all  of  which  were  sold  to  the  Los  Angeles 
Pacific.  With  his  brother,  E.  J.  Vawter,  Mr.  Vawter  organized  the  Santa 
Monica  Mill  and  Lumber  Company,  in  1886;  the  Santa  Monica  Commercial  Com 
pany  in  1894;  was  interested  in  the  First  National  Bank  formed  in  1888,  and 
is  now  vice-president  of  the  Merchants'  National  Bank  of  Santa  Monica.  He 
was  one  of  the  members  of  the  City  Water  Company  incorporated  in  1896  to 
supply  Ocean  Park  with  water  and  has  been  connected  with  many  other  local 
business  ventures.  He  is  still  largely  interested  in  real  estate  and  takes  an  active 
part  in  every  movement  for  the  advance  of  the  town  which  he  has  aided  in 
building  up. 

Mr.  Vawter  has  always  been  a  loyal  Republican  in  politics  and  has  taken 
an  active  part  in  public  affairs.  During  the  administration  of  President  Harri 
son,  he  served  as  postmaster  of  Santa  Monica,  resigning  on  the  election  of  Pres 
ident  Cleveland.  In  the  spring  of  1908  he  was  appointed  a  member  of  the 
State  Board  of  Bank  Commissioners,  and  accepted  the  position,  resigning  from 
the  presidency  of  the  Santa  Monica  Savings  Bank  and  from  the  board  of  edu 
cation  to  do  so. 

Mr.  Vawter  was  married  in  1868  to  Miss  Sarah  M.  McClaskey,  a  native 
of  Jackson  county,  Indiana.  They  have  one  daughter,  Mary  C.,  now  the  wife 
of  John  S.  Moore  of  Los  Angeles.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Vawter  have  a  beautiful  home 
on  the  corner  of  Second  street  and  Arizona  avenue,  which  is  surrounded  by 
stately  trees,  the  growth  of  years. 


EDWIN  JAMES  VAWTER  was  born  in  Vernon,  Incl.,  November  26tb,  1848. 
After  being  educated  in  the  public  schools,  he  showed  a  decided  tendency  for 
business  and  made  his  first  venture  as  a  newspaper  man,  on  the  Vernon  Banner. 
He  was  soon  taken  into  partnership  with  his  father,  W.  D.  Vawter,  in  his  gen 
eral  merchandise  business,  at  the  old  "  Vawter  Corner  ",  in  Vernon.  On  the 
removal  to  California  in  1875,  the  partnership  between  father  and  son  was  con 
tinued,  and  he  was  also  one  of  the  stockholders  in  the  Indiana  colony.  'He 
located  in  Santa  Monica  when  the  family  decided  upon  this  as  a  residence.  He 
has  taken  a  large  part  in  the  financial  and  business  affairs  of  this  vicinity  and 
has  always  been  known  as  an  enterprising  investor  in  every  effort  which  prom 
ised  success.  Many  of  the  improvements  which  Santa  Monica  has  enjoyed  and 
is  enjoying  today  have  been  inaugurated  by  the  Vawter  family  and  carried 
forward  to  completion  with  perseverance  in  the  face  of  difficulties.  Mr.  E.  J. 
\rawter  has  had  a  large  share  in  the  enterprises  which  were  organized  by  his 
father  and  brother,  as  well  as  having  originated  many  other  successful  ventures 
himself.  He  was  president  of  the  City  Water  Company  organized  in  1896  to 
supply  the  district  known  as  Ocean  Park  with  water;  he  was  cashier  of  the 
First  National  Bank  of  Santa  Monica  until  it  was  sold  to  Senator  Jones  in  1893. 
In  1899  he  began  the  development  of  what  has  proved  to  be  one  of  the  most 
important  of  Santa  Monica  industries — that  is  the  growing  of  carnations  and 
other  flowers  for  the  market.  A  large  tract  of  land  is  now  under  cultivation 
and  the  business  is  steadily  increasing  in  value. 

He  was  the  founder  of  the  Santa  Monica  Commercial  Company,  organized 
to  carry  on  real  estate,  banking,  railroading  and  other  transactions.  He  remains 
the  president  and  manager  of  this  company,  which  represents  the  properties  left 
himself  and  four  sisters  by  the  will  of  their  father.  He  organized  the  First 
National  Bank  of  Ocean  Park,  in  1905,  of  which  he  was  president  until  1907. 

Mr.  Vawter  has  always  been  closely  identified  with  the  public  interests ;  he 
has  served  the  city  as  a  member  of  the  board  of  city  trustees,  and  as  member, 
of  the  library  board  and  of  the  school  board.  He  has  also  taken  part  in  many 
of  the  political  conventions  of  the  Republican  party  and  is  identified  with  the 
Masonic  order  (being  a  32nd  degree  Mason),  Knights  of  Pythias,  and  Pioneers 
of  Los  Angeles  county. 

He  was  married  to  Miss  Laura  E.  Dixon  in  Indiana,  in  1869.  She  died 
in  1886.  They  were  the  parents  of  one  son,  E.  J.  Vawter,  Jr.,  who  inherits 
the  business  ability  of  the  family. 

In  1888  Mr.  Vawter  married  Mrs.  Isabella  L.  Nelson.  She  is  gifted  with 
a  fine  voice,  which  is  often  used  in  the  aid  of  charitable  causes.  They  have  a 
pleasant  home,  in  the  midst  of  flowers,  in  South  Santa  Monica. 

EMMA  KNOWLTON  VAWTER  was  born  in  Vernon,  Ind.,  August  2ist,  1853. 
She  received  her  education  in  the  public  schools  of  Vernon,  Ind.,  and  in  the 
Western  Seminary  and  Oxford  College,  where  she  graduated  in  1873.  She 
came  to  California  with  her  father's  family  and  has  since  that  time  been  a  resi- 


dent  of  Santa  Monica.  Having  received  a  good  musical  education,  she  acted 
as  organist  for  the  First  Presbyterian  church  from  its  organization  until  1903. 
She  resides  with  her  sister,  Jane  Cravens,  in  the  old  home  at  Santa  Monica. 

CHARLES  KNOWLTON  VAWTER,  son  of  Williamson  D.  and  Charlotte  Knowl- 
ton  Vawter,  was  born  in  Vernon,  September  7th,  1855.  He  was  delicate  from 
birth,  having  a  spinal  difficulty  which  resulted  in  the  complete  loss  of  sight.  He 
died  September  29th,  1879. 

EDWIN  JA.MES  VAWTER,  JR.,  son  of  Edwin  James  and  Laura  Dixon  Vawter, 
was  born  in  Vernon,  Ind.,  June  loth,  1871.  He  came  to  California  with  his 
parents  and  after  his  mother's  death  in  1886,  lived  for  a  time  with  his  grand 
father,  W.  D.  Vawter.  At  sixteen  he  entered  Purdue  University,  Indiana.  In 
1888  he  entered  the  State  University  at  Berkeley,  but  owing  to  an  attack  of 
typhoid  fever  did  not  complete  the  course. 

In  1889  he  took  a  position  with  the  First  National  Bank  of  Santa  Monica. 
On  the  organization  of  the  Commercial  Bank  of  Santa  Monica,  in  1894,  he  be 
came  cashier  of  the  institution.  He  was  cashier  of  the  Main-street  Savings  Bank 
of  Los  Angeles  for  five  years  and  was  connected  with  the  Security  Savings 
Bank.  He  then  became  cashier  of  the  United  States  National  Bank  of  the  same 
city.  He  is  now  president  of  the  First  National  Bank  of  Ocean  Park. 

Politically  he  is  a  Republican.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Knights  of  Pythias 
and  organized  a  company  of  the  "  Uniform  Rank "  at  Santa  Monica,  which 
he  served  for  two  years  as  captain.  He  is  also  a  member  of  the  Masonic  order, 
and  has  taken  the  32nd  degree.  He  united  with  the  Presbyterian  church  during 
boyhood  and  has  served  several  years  as  trustee  of  that  church. 

Mr.  Vawter  was  married  March  8th,  1899,  to  Miss  Bessie  M.  Channell  of 
Arkansas  City,  Kansas.  They  have  two  children,  Marjorie  Dixon  and  Helen 


FROM  TOWN  TO  CITY.     1880-1890. 

THE  opening  of  the  new  decade  found  Santa  Monica  in  the  midst  of  most 
discouraging  circumstances.  The  population  as  shown  by  the  United 
States  census  was  417,  but  this  included  the  population  of  the  entire 
township  of  La  Ballona.  Values  had  greatly  depreciated.  Three  lots  and  a 
house  on  the  corner  of  Oregon  avenue  and  Second  street  were  sold,  about  this 
time,  for  $750.  L.  T.  Fisher  sold  his  place  on  Third  street,  now  known  as  the 
General  Sargeant  house,  two  lots,  a  small  house  and  highly  improved  grounds, 
for  $300.  Three  lots  on  the  corner  of  Utah  and  Third,  with  improvements, 
sold  for  $1200.  As  late  as  1885  the  corner  now  occupied  by  the  Santa  Monica 
bank  building  sold  at  a  probate  sale  for  $400.  These  are  but  samples  of  the 
effect  of  the  "  dark  days."  But  Santa  Monica  was  not  alone  in  her  depression. 
The  years  from  1880  to  1885  were  quiescent  throughout  Southern  California. 
The  chief  enlivenment  came  through  the  operation  of  the  Southern  California 
Railroad  which  was  building  branch  lines  in  preparation  for  the  coming  of  the 
Atchison,  Topeka  and  Santa  Fe  line,  the  completion  of  which  ushered  in  the 
"  boom  "  days  of  the  later  eighties.  Santa  Monica  looked  longingly  toward 
this  new  line,  the  ocean  terminus  of  which  was  not  yet  determined,  north  of 
San  Diego.  But  the  Southern  Pacific  hold  on  the  situation  here  was  too  strong 
to  tempt  the  California  Southern  this  way,  until  after  the  failure  to  make  a 
harbor  at  Ballona. 

Santa  Monica  still  had  advantages,  however,  which  were  not  dependent 
upon  any  railroad.  She  continued  to  be  the  favorite  summer  resort  for  pleasure 
seekers  from  the  interior  towns  of  the  southern  end  of  the  state  and  she  offered 
mnny  attractions  to  eastern  tourists  and  health  seekers — when  they  were  fortu 
nate  enough  to  discover  that  such  a  place  as  Santa  Monica  existed.  During 
1883  it  became  necessary  to  increase  her  hotel  accommodations  and  the  Santa 
Monica  Hotel  was  remodeled  and  increased  by  the  addition  of  twenty  rooms. 
Several  new  cottages  were  built  and  many  tents  were  grouped  each  summer 
on  "  north  beach  ",  while  the  canon  still  was  a  favorite  camping  resort  also. 
In  1884  the  Vawters  showed  their  solid  faith  in  the  future  by  purchasing  100 
acres  of  the  Lucas  tract,  adjoining  the  town  on  the  south,  paying  $40.00  per 
acre  for  the  land. 

The  summer  of  1885  was  an  unusually  gay  one  at  the  beach.  Hotels  and 
cottages  were  all  full  and  more  than  200  tents  were  occupied  on  North  Beach. 
Sunday  excursions  brought  crowds  and  the  annual  encampment  of  the  G.  A.  R., 
in  August,  added  to  the  enrollment.  The  Catholic  church,  which  had  been 


begun  in  1884,  was  completed  in  1885.  The  population  of  the  town  had  so 
increased  that  three  teachers  were  employed  and  additional  school  room  was 
necessary.  During  1885  a  free  reading  room  was  established  by  the  ladies  of 
the  Women's  Christian  Temperance  Union  in  August.  This  effort,  which  was 
begun  by  a  few  brave,  hard-working  women,  gradually  developed  into  a  library 
and  became  the  foundation  of  the  present  public  library. 


The  completion  of  the  through  line  of  the  Atchison  &  Topeka  road  in 
1885  led  to  the  greatest  "  rate  war  "  ever  known  in  this  country  and  was  the 
immediate  caxise  of  the  marvelous  influx  of  population  and  capital  from  which 
the  later  history  of  Southern  California  dates.  The  quickening  of  the  real 
estate  market,  the  breaking  up  of  the  large  ranches  in  the  vicinity  of  Santa 
Monica  and  the  great  projects  for  railroads  and  harbors  which  were  in  the  air, 
revived  land  values  in  this  place.  In  January,  1886,  it  was  reported  that  the 
Santa  Fe,  or  Atlantic  &  Pacific  road,  as  it  was  then  called,  would  build  a  line 
to  South  Santa  Monica  and  there  construct  a  wharf  long  enough  to  accommo 
date  the  largest  ships.  The  company  was  also  to  build  a  three-story  hotel  on 
its  reservation.  In  view  of  this  rumor  and  of  the  purchase  of  right  of  way 
for  the  road,  many  improvements  were  made  in  that  direction  and  new  comers 
began  to  secure  lands  in  South  Santa  Monica.  But  the  hopes  of  that  section 
were  dashed  when  it  was  learned  in  October  that  the  "  Ballona  Harbor  Improve 
ment  Company "  had  been  incorporated  and  that  the  Los  Angeles  &  Santa 
Monica  road,  which  had  been  incorporated  to  connect  the  A.  &  P.  with  Santa 
Monica,  had  secured  a  franchise  for  a  wharf  and  ship  canal  on  Ballona  slough. 
Work  was  at  once  begun  at  dredging  for  the  harbor,  which  had  been  carefully 
planned  by  Hugh  Crabbe,  an  engineer  of  some  note.  During  the  next  two 
years  extensive  operations  were  carried  on  and  a  large  sum  of  money  was  ex 
pended  in  the  effort  to  create  a  harbor  at  Ballona  Port. 

Another  important  event  of  1886  was  the  building  of  the  Hotel  Arcadia. 
During  the  previous  year,  J.  W.  Scott,  who  had  long  been  one  of  the  most  en 
terprising  citizens  of  the  town,  and  who  had  been  host  of  the  Santa  Monica 
Hotel  for  a  number  of  years,  purchased  from  the  railroad  company  a  tract  of 
land  lying  along  the  ocean  front  between  Railroad  and  Front  streets,  paying 
for  it  $3000.  He  subdivided  it  into  forty  lots  and  sold  thirty  of  them  for  $30,000. 
With  this  money  he  began  the  construction  of  a  first-class  hotel,  a  long-felt 
want  in  Santa  Monica.  The  hotel,  when  completed  January,  1887,  was  the 
finest  seaside  hotel  in  Southern  California  and  was  only  equaled  by  the  Del 
Monte  at  Monterey  in  the  north.  The  grounds  about  it  were  at  once  improved 
and  the  place  became  the  center  of  Santa  Monica's  attractions.  A  bath  house 
and  pavilion,  and  a  gravity  railway  were  among  the  features  that  were  added 
by  the  enterprising  management  of  the  establishment. 


In  November,  1886,  another  important  step  in  the  advancement  of  Santa 
Monica  occurred.  This  was  the  incorporation  of  the  town ;  the  election  to 
decide  the  question  being  held  November  3<3th  and  resulting  in  a  vote  of  97  for 
incorporation  and  71  against.  The  boundaries  as  fixed  were:  "From  the 
northern  corner  of  Montana  avenue  and  Seventeenth  street,  east  along  north 
erly  line  of  Seventeenth  street  to  the  boundary  line  between  San  Vicente  and 
La  Ballona;  thence  west  to  the  south  line  of  Santa  Monica  and  Compton  road; 
thence  southeast  to  the  south  line  of  Lucas  tract ;  thence  to  Pacific  ocean."  The 
first  board  of  trustees  chosen  for  the  town  was  made  up  of  John  Steere,  chair 
man :  Dr.  E.  C.  Folsom,  A.  E.  Ladd,  W.  S.  Yawter  and  J.  W.  Scott.  Fred 
C.  McKinnie  was  the  first  town  clerk;  H.  C.  Baggs,  Jr.,  was  elected  marshal 
and  E.  K.  Chapin  treasurer.  Baggs  failing  to  qualify,  Michael  Noon  was  ap 
pointed  in  his  place. 

While  there  was  considerable  opposition  to  incorporation  by  what  the  Ex 
press  terms  the  "  old  fogies  ",  on  the  ground  of  the  additional  taxes  to  be  ex 
pected  as  a  result,  the  feeling  in  general  was  that  the  interests  of  the  town  de 
manded  the  change  and  that  public  improvements  must  be  made,  even  though 
the  wherewithal  must  come  out  of  the  pockets  of  the  property  owners.  The 
board  of  trustees  at  once  entered  upon  a  campaign  of  public  improvements 
which  within  the  next  few  years  transformed  the  rough,  dusty  and  ungraded 
roads  which  were  called  streets  and  avenues  into  well  graded,  graveled  streets 
with  sidewalks,  crossings,  bridges,  and  which  were  sprinkled  and  shaded.  Dur 
ing  the  3'ear  fifty-five  new  cottages  were  erected  in  the  town,  beside  the  business 
buildings  and  hotel,  and  a  new  era  of  growth  was  thus  fairly  inaugurated. 


The  year  of  1887  was  the  most  phenomenal  period  in  the  history  of  this 
state.  Santa  Monica  was  not  behind  the  other  sections  of  Southern  California 
in  the  real  estate  craze  that  beset  the  old  settler  and  the  "  tenderfoot  "  alike. 
In  January,  L.  T.  Fisher,  the  former  owner  and  editor  of  the  Santa  Monica 
Outlook,  which  had  so  ably  represented  the  town  in  its  first  sunny  days,  returned 
to  his  first  love  and  began  the  publication  of  a  new  series  of  the  Outlook,  joining 
with  him  T.  J.  Spencer,  an  experienced  printer.  This  paper  furnished  the 
medium  through  which  the  real  estate  agents  of  the  vicinity  made  their  glowing 
announcements.  One  of  the  first  firms  to  indulge  in  large  capitals  and  superla 
tive  adjectives  was  that  of  Tanner  &  Lewis — R.  R.  Tanner  and  "  Tom  "  Lewis, 
both  of  whom  are  well  known  in  the  annals  of  Santa  Monica.  They  advertised 
in  January  "  Bargains  in  Vawter  tract,  Central  addition,  Prospect  Hill  and 
other  localities."  On  March  3rd  a  "  Great  auction  sale  "  of  Santa  Monica  lots 
offered  by  the  land  company,  took  place.  Of  this  sale  the  Outlook  says :  "  This 
valuable  property  will  be  sold  on  its  merits.  There  will  be  no  free  band,  no 
free  lunch,  no  free  ride."  In  this  connection,  it  continued :  "  The  S.  P.  rail- 


way  company  are  daily  making  three  trips  between  Los  Angeles  and  Santa 
Monica,  which  shows  the  importance  of  the  location.  And  yet  this  is  a  mere 
beginning.  Another  party  is  after  a  franchise  for  a  dummy  road  from  Los 
Angeles  to  the  ocean,  to  pass  along  the  Cahuenga  foothills.  Another  company 
has  organized  with  a  capital  of  $500,000  to  construct  an  electric  railway  from 
Pasadena  to  the  ocean.  Their  objective  point  on  the  coast  is  not  yet  announced, 
but  Santa  Monica  is  no  doubt  the  place,  as  the  conditions  are  favorable  to  this 
view.  It  should  also  be  remembered  that  large  capital  is  backing  the  enterprise 
of  constructing  an  artificial  harbor  at  a  point  about  four  miles  south  of  this 
place.  And  there  is  still  another  improvement  in  prospect.  This  is  a  wharf 
in  front  of  Santa  Monica  to  be  constructed  by  the  Southern  Pacific  Company." 
Lots  to  the  amount  of  $42,000  were  disposed  of  in  this  sale,  which  included  prop 
erty  from  Ocean  avenue  to  Twentieth  street,  and  a  few  weeks  later  another 
auction  sale  disposed  of  a  still  larger  number  of  lots  at  prices  ranging  nearly 
double  those  of  the  first  sale. 

On  June  2nd  occurred  a  "  grand  excursion  and  auction  ",  with  Ben  F. 
Ward  orator  of  the  day.  This  was  "  East  Santa  Monica "  and  prospective 
visitors  were  directed  to  bring  their  appetites  and  pocketbooks.  The  same 
month  the  "  Santa  Fe  "  tract,  with  "  ocean  view,  street  cars,  water,  and  stone 
pavement ",  was  put  on  the  market.  This  included  fifty-three  acres  of  land 
.  located  in  South  Santa  Monica  and  owned  by  Tanner  &  Lewis,  purchased  from 
the  Vawters  for  $53,000.  The  "  Wave  Crest  "  and  "  Ocean  Spray  "  tracts,  also 
in  South  Santa  Monica,  were  placed  on  the  market  about  this  time.  Lots  in 
these  divisions  brought  as  high  as  $1350,  which  to  old  settlers  in  Santa  Monica 
seemed  fabulous.  But  when  it  is  remembered  that  these  various  tracts  are 
now  the  site  of  Ocean  Park  district,  the  figures  do  not  seem  out  of  the  way. 

One  of  the  most  important  deals  was  the  purchase  for  $55,575  of  247  acres 
of  the  Boca  de  Santa  Monica,  located  on  the  bluff  on  the  other  side  of  "  Old 
Santa  Monica  Canon  ",  by  a  syndicate  of  which  Abbot  Kinney  was  the  moving 
spirit.  It  was  proposed  to  make  this  the  "  Nob  Hill  "  district  of  Santa  Monica. 
Streets  were  laid  out,  trees  planted,  the  Santa  Monica  Outlook  Railway  was 
organized,  with  Kinney  as  president,  Patrick  Robinson,  vice-president,  James 
Bettner  secretary  and  treasurer,  to  build  a  steam  road  from  the  Southern  Pacific 
depot  along  the  base  of  the  bluff  to  the  mouth  of  the  canon  and  up  a  branch 
of  the  Santa  Monica  canon  to  the  "  heights."  Mr.  Kinney  was  at  that  time 
secretary  of  the  newly  organized  state  board  of  forestry  and  offered  to  donate 
a  site  for  a  forestry  station  on  the  heights.  The  offer  was  accepted  in  Novem 
ber,  1887,  $5000  was  set  aside  to  be  devoted  to  the  experimental  station  and 
H.  Rowland  Lee  was  sent  to  take  charge  of  the  work. 

By  August  the  "  free  lunch — free  music  "  stage  of  auction  sales  had  been 
reached,  "  round-trip  fare  fifty  cents  and  twenty  cars  provided  "  for  sales  in 
the  Ocean  Spray  and  East  Santa  Monica  tracts.  Among  other  tracts  of  this 


time  were  the  Crippen  tract,  the  Arcadia  and  Van  Every's  addition,  all  of  which 
were  actively  pushed. 

During  this  year  the  townsite  of  Palms  was  laid  out,  about  five  miles  inland 
from  Santa  Monica,  on  the  line  of  the  Southern  Pacific.  The  town  of  Sunset 
also  sprang  into  existence.  This  was  located  on  the  Wolfskill  ranch,  which 
had  been  the  old  land  grant  of  San  Jose  de  Buenos  Ayres.  This  tract  of  4500 
acres  had  belonged  to  B.  D.  Wilson,  who  in  1865  mortgaged  it  for  $6000.  On 
this  loan  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  John  Wolfskill,  who  during  1887  sold  it 
to  a  syndicate  for  $440,000.  A  townsite  and  ten-acre  tracts  were  laid  out ;  water 
was  being  developed ;  a  large  hotel  was  planned  and  partially  built ;  even  a  news 
paper  was  started.  The  "  foothill  "  line,  which  was  to  reach  the  ocean  in  the 
vicinity  of  Santa  Monica  canon  was  to  cross  the  tract  and  a  "  grand  boulevard  "- 
that  fair  dream  which  has  existed  as  a  dream  since  the  laying  out  of  Santa 
Monica — was  to  be  constructed  from  'Los  Angeles  to  the  ocean,  passing  through 
the  city  of  Sunset. 

An  improvement  which  had  a  more  substantial  basis  and  which  has  been 
of  great  advantage  to  Santa  Monica  and  Southern  California,  was  set  under 
way  during  the  year.  This  was  the  location  of  a  branch  of  the  National  Home 
for  Disabled  Veterans  in  this  vicinity.  The  board  of  managers  of  the  institution 
were  on  the  coast  to  locate  a  site  for  a  Pacific  branch.  They  were  induced  to 
visit  Southern  California,  where  various  propositions  were  laid  before  them. 
Judge  Walter  Van  Dyke,  acting  for  Messrs.  Jones  and  Baker  and  the  owners 
of  the  Wolfskill  tract,  offered  600  acres  of  land  in  the  San  Vicente  and  Buenos 
Ayres  grants,  together  with  other  valuable  considerations.  This  proposition 
was  accepted  and  the  announcement  was  made  in  November,  1887,  that  the 
present  site  had  been  selected.  The  news  was  received  with  rejoicing  in  Santa 
Monica,  which  thus  became  the  nearest  base  of  supplies  for  the  home. 

Naturally  such  rapid  advance  in  real  estate  values  produced  a  rapid  growth 
in  the  town  and  a  demand  for  improvements  to  correspond.  Early  in  February 
two  applications  for  franchises  to  build  street  car  lines  were  received  by  the 
board  of  trustees,  one  from  O.  G.  Weiss  and  others  of  Los  Angeles,  the  other 
by  W.  D.  Vawter  of  Santa  Monica.  The  latter  was  granted ;  work  was  at  once 
begun,  and  on  June  igth  the  first  car  ran  over  the  Ocean-avenue  line  and  in 
the  fall  the  extension1  was  completed,  on  Utah  avenue  and  Third  streets,  up  Ari 
zona  to  Seventh  and  on  Seventh  to  Nevada. 

A  franchise  was  also  granted  to  a  company  which  proposed  to  establish  a 
gas  plant  and  supply  the  town.  This  improvement,  however,  did  not  materialize 
and  for  years  the  only  gas  in  the  town  was  that  manufactured  by  a  private  plant 
for  the  Arcadia  Hotel,  and  two  or  three  other  private  houses.  The  Ballona 
and  Santa  Monica  railway  was  incorporated  in  1887  to  build  a  standard-gauge 
road  from  Ballona  to  Santa  Monica,  its  board  of  directors  being  M.  L.  Wicks, 
J.  Bernard,  Jr.,  S.  D.  Northcutt,  James  Campbell  and  others.  It  was  really  an 

W.  I.  HULL. 


offshoot  of  the  Santa  Fe  line  and  through  it,  the  Santa  Fe  obtained  a  right  of 
way  through  South  Santa  Monica  to  a  junction  with  the  S.  P.  on  Railroad 
street.  Work  was  continued  during  the  year  on  the  Ballona  harbor  project, 
and  it  was  still  hoped  that  the  Santa  Fe  might  make  a  terminus  either  at  Ballona 
or  Santa  Monica. 

Among  the  buildings  of  the  year,  John  Steere  erected  a  two-story  brick 
block  on  the  northeast  corner  of  Utah  and  Third,  with  a  frontage  of  50  by  75 
feet.  The  second  floor  contained  a  large  hall  which  for  many  years  was  known 
as  "  Steere's  Opera  House  ",  and  which  served  as  a  theater  and  public  meeting 
place.  The  older  residents  of  Santa  Monica  can  look  back  upon  many  festal 
occasions  enjoyed  within  and  recall  the  remarkable  display  of  stuffed  birds  which 
adorned  its  walls.  Several  other  business  blocks  and  a  number  of  residences 
were  built  during  the  year.  St.  Augustine's  Episcopal  church  was  erected  and 
the  Catholic  church  at  Palms  was  built. 

The  Fourth  of  July  this  year  was  celebrated  with  a  great  deal  of  enthusiasm, 
a  Jnrge  crowd  gathering  to  witness  the  proceedings  and  the  Hon.  Abbot  Kinney 
delivering  the  address  of  the  day.  The  flower  festival  in  Los  Angeles  was  a 
most  pleasing  and  novel  attraction.  The  Santa  Monica  booth,  prepared  by 
Mr.  Tyler,  Mrs.  Chapin  and  other  ladies  of  the  town,  was  a  representation  of 
Santa  Monica,  with  wharf  and  ship,  made  of  flowers,  and  attracted  a  great 
deal  of  attention  and  praise  as  the  most  beautiful  exhibit  in  the  festival.  In 
August  the  Lawn  Tennis  Association  was  incorporated  and  grounds  were  se 
cured  and  laid  out  on  Third  street.  The  first  tournament  of  the  Southern  Cali 
fornia  Tennis  Association  took  place  on  these  grounds  and  was  a  great  success, 
closing  with  a  grand  ball  at  the  new  opera  house. 


The  year  of  1888  was  one  of  prosperity  and  advancement.  While  real 
estate  movements  were  not  so  rapid  nor  so  sensational  as  in  the  previous  year 
and  some  of  the  wild  schemes  fell  through,  much  solid  and  permanent  develop 
ment  went  on. 

One  of  the  most  important  indications  of  the  change  from  village  to  city 
was  the  formation  of  a  bank,  the  directors  being  mostly  local  capitalists.  The 
First  National  Bank  of  Santa  Monica  was  organized  in  January,  with  G.  H. 
Bonebrake  of  Los  Angeles,  president ;  John  Steere,  vice-president ;  E.  J.  Vawter, 
cashier;  G.  S.  Van  Every,  John  Steere,  Nathan  Bundy,  H.  C.  Baggs,  G.  H. 
Bonebrake,  W.  S.  and  E.  J.  Vawter,  directors.  It  opened  for  business  in  March 
in  the  Central  building  on  Third  street  and  at  once  began  to  plan  for  a  hand 
some  building  of  its  own.  In  April  the  contract  was  let  for  the  erection  of 
Senator  Jones'  new  home  on  a  block  that  had  been  reserved  in  the  original  town 
plat  as  a  hotel  site.  This  house  was  to  cost  between  $30,000  and  $40,000,  and 
the  fact  thaUthe  senator  had  selected  Santa  Monica  as  a  permanent  home  went 


far  toward  insuring  the  future  of  the  place,  as  the  Jones  interests  were  still  the 
dominant  factor  in  the  town.  The  Santa  Monica  Improvement  Company  was 
organized  this  year  with  Abbot  Kinney,  P.  Robertson  and  Thomas  Rhodes  as 
the  controlling  committee.  This  association  at  once  began  work  in  improving 
the  grounds  of  the  lawn  tennis  courts  and  in  erecting  the  "  Casino  "  on  Third 
street.  This  was  a  substantial  and  beautiful  club  house,  costing  some  $6000 
and  for  many  years  was  the  center  of  much  social  gayety  and  the  scene  of  many 

In  April,  after  a  rather  lively  contest,  three  new  trustees  were  elected, 
Thomas  A.  Lewis,  Thomas  Rhodes  and  J.  J.  Carrillo,  the  latter  of  whom  served 
as  trustee  continuously  until  1900 — twelve  years.  The  new  board  organized 
with  W.  S.  Vawter  president,  and  at  once  began  a  vigorous  campaign  for  the 
improvement  of  streets.  Before  the  end  of  the  year  active  work  had  been  begun 
and  contracts  let  for  the  grading,  curbing  and  graveling  of  streets  to  the  amount 
of  $23,000  while  over  $30,000  had  been  expended,  or  called  for,  in  the  putting 
down  of  cement  sidewalks.  The  present  day  population  owes  much  to' the  board 
of  trustees  of  1888-89  who,  in  the  face  of  much  opposition  from  people  who 
thought  the  town  would  be  bankrupted  forever  by  such  extravagance,  and  in 
the  face  of  many  difficulties,  persisted  in  making  the  streets  of  Santa  Monica 
the  best  thoroughfares  in  the  country. 

Railroad  schemes  were  always  on  the  tapis  and  hopes  for  rapid  transit  were 
afforded  abundant  material  for  building  upon.  The  Outlook  of  July  i8th  talks 
cheerfully  of  the  situation :  "  Santa  Monica  has  excellent  railroad  accommoda 
tions.  The  S.  P.  trains  now  make  four  round  trips  on  week  days  and  six  on 
Sundays.  The  round-trip  fare  is  75  cents  except  on  Sundays  when  it  is  50  cents. 
.  .  The  Los  Angeles  County  Railroad  will  in  a  short  time  have  another 
route  completed  to  Sonta  Monica.  The  entire  distance  is  now  graded  and  the 
material  and  rolling  stock  is  now  on  hand.  This  road  starts  from  the  terminus 
of  the  Temple  street  cable  road  in  Los  Angeles  and  skirts  along  the  foothills, 
running  over  a  most  charming  route  and  passing  close  to  the  Soldiers'  Home. 
And  yet  this  is  not  the  end.  The  Atchison,  Topeka  and  Santa  Fe,  which  is  now 
within  five  or  six  miles  of  this  place,  promises  to  extend  its  line  to  Santa  Monica 
in  the  near  future.  The  company  already  has  a  right  of  way  along  Lucas 
avenue  in  South  Santa  Monica  and  have  graded  a  short  section  to  hold  their 
franchise.  Nor  does  this  close  the  programme.  A  rapid  transit  road  is  in  pros 
pect  which  will  start  from  some  eligible  point  in  Los  Angeles  and,  paralleling 
the  Southern  Pacific  as  far  as  The  Palms,  will  then  cross  to  the  south  side,  mak 
ing  a  beeline  for  South  Santa  Monica." 

Of  these  projects,  the  Los  Angeles  county  road,  or  the  Los  Angeles  & 
Pacific  road,  as  it  was  later  known,  which  was  capitalized  by  Los  Angeles  men, 
completed  its  track  to  Santa  Monica  and  in  1889  went  into  operation.  But  its 
career  was  short-lived.  On  January  29th,  1889,  its  first  passenger  train  came 


into  Santa  Monica  and  was  greeted  with  enthusiasm ;  the  officers,  E.  E.  Hall, 
president,  S.  W.  Luitweiler,  vice-president,  R.  C.  Shaw,  superintendent,  and 
Cornelius  Cole,  J.  M.  Hale,  W.  T.  Spillman  and  Arthur  Gaylord,  directors,  being 
on  board.  The  road  ran  through  Burbank,  the  Ostrich  Farm  at  Kenilworth, 
Prospect  Park,  Hollywood,  Cahuenga,  Morocco,  Sunset  and  Soldiers'  Home,  a 
distance  of  about  27  miles.  Its  terminus  in  Santa  Monica  was  on  the  bluff 
near  Utah  avenue.  In  September,  1889,  it  went  into  the  hands  of  a  receiver  and 
in  October  all  trains  but  one  a  day  were  taken  off.  Soon  afterward  the  rolling 
stock  was  taken  possession  of  by  the  creditors  and  one  more  disastrous  failure 
was  added  to  the  wreckage  of  the  "  boom  period." 

Late  this  year  a  Board  of  Trade  was  organized  and  at  once  began  to  take 
an  active  part  in  pushing  the  vital  interests  of  the  town,  which  at  this  particular 
time  were  generally  conceded  to  be  the  building  of  a  wharf  and  the  completion 
of  the  new  water  system.  Work  had  been  begun  on  a  new  reservoir,  new  pipe 
was  being  laid  and  the  Water  Company,  otherwise  Jones  &  Baker,  proposed  to 
expend  some  $60,000  in  providing  a  suitable  water  supply.  The  Santa  Monica 
Mill  Company's  plant  was  put  in  operation  this  year  at  a  cost  of  fully  $25.000. 
The  Gates  block  on  Third  street  was  put  up  at  a  cost  of  $10,000  and  other  build 
ing  improvements  to  the  amount  of  about  $100.000  made  the  town  begin  to 
assume  the  airs  of  a  citv. 

The  year  1889  opened  with  the  burning  of  the  Santa  Monica  Hotel  which 
occurred  January  I5th  and  was  a  complete  loss  on  account  of  the  insufficient 
supply  of  water.  This  swept  away  one  of  the  oldest  landmarks  of  the  place,  as 
the  hotel  was  the  first  building  erected,  having  been  put  up  by  Jones  and  Baker 
in  the  spring  of  1875.  It  had  been  added  to  at  various  times  and  was  valued 
at  some  $25,000.  The  proprietor,  T.  R.  Bennington,  lost  heavily  on  his  furni 
ture,  and  Mrs.  Senator  Jones  was  a  heavy  loser  of  clothing  and  jewels.  The 
place  had  had  many  ups  and  downs,  having  been  "  run  "  by  many  different  par 
ties,  taken  over  for  debt,  and  closed  entirely  during  1880-81.  Till  the  building 
of  the  Arcadia  it  had  been  the  best  hotel  of  the  town  and  had  been  enlivened  by 
many  gay  and  festive  scenes.  The  Outlook,  in  a  reminiscent  mood,  recalls: 
Jim  '  Eastman,  in  his  palmy  days,  used  to  drive  there  in  his  fine  turnout  and 
throw  up  one  or  two  hundred  at  a  whack  for  champagne  and  swell  dinners.  Led- 
yard  and  Bullock,  the  once  noted  financiers  of  the  Temple  and  Workman  Bank, 
et  id  omnes  genus,  would  also  come  down  periodically  and  indulge  in  a  little 
hilarity  and  the  disbursement  of  some  of  their  easily  gotten  wealth." 

On  February  nth,  the  First  National  Bank  moved  into  its  new  two-story 
building,  which  was  handsomely  fitted  up  for  its  purposes.  This  spring  the 
Jones  mansion  was  completed  and  the  family  moved  in.  It  at  once  became  a 
social  center  whose  hospitality  was  enjoyed  by  many  distinguished  people  from 



all  parts  of  the  world.  Among  its  first  visitors  were  Senator  Hoar,  of  Massa 
chusetts,  Senator  Allison,  of  Iowa,  and  Governor  and  Mrs.  Stoneman,  who  were 
entertained  in  a  party  by  Mrs.  Jones. 

One  of  the  most  exciting  questions  of  the  year  was  that  of  the  proposed 
outfall  sewer  from  Los  Angeles  which  was  to  be  discharged  into  the  ocean  in 
the  neighborhood  of  the  present  site  of  Venice,  the  city  being  vigorously  cam 
paigned  for  votes  on  the  bonding  proposition  to  build  the  outfall.  Santa  Monica 
citizens  entered  a  decided  protest  against  such  a  plan  as  destructive  to  their  beach 
interests ;  meetings  were  held,  the  board  of  trustees  and  the  Board  of  Trade 
passed  vigorous  resolutions  and  the  town  hired  counsel  to  defend  their  rights. 
Citizens  of  Santa  Monica  attended  anti-bond  meetings  in  Los  Angeles  and  took 

an  active  part  in  the  fight.  The  question 
was  settled  in  October,  for  the  time  being, 
by  the  defeat  of  the  bond  issue. 

During  this  year,  the  street  railway, 
or  the  "  mule  line  "  as  it  was  popularly 
known,  was  extended  to  Seventeenth 
street,  thus  giving  the  town  four  and  a 
half  miles  of  street  railway.  The  drive 
way  to  the  Soldiers'  Home  was  also  com 
pleted  this  year,  a  boulevard  100  feet 
wide,  lined  with  trees  set  out  under  the 
supervision  of  Abbot  Kinney,  then  road 
commissioner,  and  with  four  substantial 
bridges.  It  was  proposed  to  complete 
this  boulevard  to  Los  Angeles,  and  a 
number  of  other  roads  were  opened  and 
improved  and  set  with  shade  trees  about  this  time. 

The  Soldiers'  Home  improvements  were  now  fully  under  way  and  a  num 
ber  of  veterans  had  already  been  received.  A  brick  kiln  had  been  put  into  oper 
ation  in  Santa  Monica  by  Messrs.  Sam  Cripe  and  C.  F.  Geltner,  which  supplied 
a  large  number  of  brick  for  the  new  buildings  on  the  Soldiers'  Home  grounds. 
A  franchise  was  secured  to  build  a  street  railway  from  the  terminus  of  the  Vaw- 
ter  line  at  Seventeenth  street  to  the  Home  and  this  line  was  put  into  operation 
in  1890. 

Among  the  social  events  of  the  year  may  be  chronicled  the  visit  of  Senator 
Hearst,  who  was  entertained  by  the  Board  of  Trade  and  of  Fanny  Davenport, 
who  was  so  delighted  with  Santa  Monica  that  she  purchased  a  cottage  and 
announced  her  intention  of  passing  her  old  age  here.  The  Polo  Club,  Tennis 
Association  and  a  race  course  provided  amusement  for  sport  lovers.  The  town 
now  hid  five  chvrches,  and  among  the  mam-  church  entertainments  the  Floral 



Festival,  held  in  the  new  Presbyterian  church,  was  an  event  that  lingers  in  the 
memory  of  participants  and  beholders. 

One  of  the  most  magnificent  of  the  many  hopeful  prospects  of  the  year  was 
the  apparent  certainty  that  this  place  had  been  chosen  as  the  site  for  one  of  the 
largest  Catholic  schools  in  the  country.  In  September  it  was  announced  that 
the  Sisters  of  St.  Joseph,  a  St.  Louis  order,  had  made  arrangements  with 
Messrs.  Crippen,  who  were  to  donate  a  tract  of  twenty-two  acres  of  the  East 
Santa  Monica  tract  for  the  location  of  a  large  school.  Mr.  John  F.  Hogan,  who 
had  been  instrumental  in  bringing  the  Sisters  to  this  location,  reported  that 
work  would  at  once  be  begun  on  a  building.  The  Outlook  of  September  25th 
says :  "  Heretofore  rumor  said  that  at  least  $350,000  would  be  expended  upon 
the  building  alone,  with  a  possible  increase  to  $500,000.  But  it  seems  that 
even  these  figures  are  too  small.  The  Mother  Superior  is  so  captivated  with 
the  location  that  she  thinks  the  Sisters  may  decide  to  spend  over  a  million 
before  the  improvements  shall  have  been  completed."  December  nth,  it  is 
announced  that  the  final  arrangements  for  the  location  of  the  Catholic  College 
at  Santa  Monica  have  been  completed  and  Mother  General  Agatha,  of  St.  Louis, 
drove  the  first  stake  in  the  grounds,  which  "  is  the  beginning  of  a  series  of 
dedicatory  services  that  will  close  with  the  final  imposing  ceremonial  that  will 
be  held  at  the  completion  of  the  grand  edifice."  The  final  grand  dedicatorial 
service  has  not  yet  taken  place ;  Sister  Agatha  seems  to  have  been  too 

The  Outlook  of  January  8th,  1890,  says:  "The  popularity  of  Santa 
Monica  as  a  seaside  resort  is  shown  by  the  large  travel  over  the  Southern 
Pacific  and  the  L.  A.  &  P.  railroads.  After  careful  estimates  by  the  agent,  we 
find  the  Southern  Pacific  brought  200,000  visitors  to  the  beach  during  the  year. 
To  this  must  be  added  about  a  fourth  as  many  for  the  L.  A.  &  P.  during  the 
time.  Then  there  were  thousands  who  came  by  private  conveyance.  The 
highest  number  of  visitors  on  any  one  day  was  on  the  first  Sunday  of  the  bal 
loon  ascension,  when  the  crowd  was  estimated  at  12,000.  When  Los  Angeles 
shall  have  doubled  her  population  (as  she  will  within  a  few  years)  and  the 
lines  of  railway  have  quadrupled,  and  the  fare  been  reduced  to  one-half,  it  is 
easy  to  imagine  what  an  immense  crowd  will  visit  this  beach  each  week." 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  all  of  the  above  predictions  have  been  ful 
filled  long  ago,  except  the  reduction  in  railway  fare, 

THE  WHARF  FIGHT. — During  the  eighties  the  question  of  a  wharf  at 
Santa  Monica  was  considered  the  most  vital  one  of  all  that  presented  them 
selves.  The  people,  the  trustees,  the  Board  of  Trade,  the  contributors  to  the 
papers,  and  above  all  the  editor  of  the  Outlook,  discussed  this  question  in  all 
its  phases.  The  Outlook  alternated  between  arguments  to  prove  the  necessity 
and  the  profits  to  be  accrued  from  building  a  wharf;  schemes  for  the  building 


of  a  wharf  and  discourses  upon  the  advisability  of  a  harbor,  or  a  breakwater, 
at  Santa  Monica. 

The  first  tangible  step  toward  wharf  building  was  the  application,  in  Feb 
ruary,  1887,  °f  the  Southern  Pacific  for  a  franchise  to  build  a  wharf  at  the  foot 
of  Railroad  street,  where  the  old  wharf  had  stood.  This  was  a  direct  result 
of  the  efforts  to  establish  a  "  harbor  "  at  Ballona,  which  were  backed  by  the 
Santa  Fe.  But  as  the  harbor  of  Ballona  failed  to  threaten  their  San  Pedro 
business,  the  S.  P.  application  lay  dormant.  When  it  became  evident  that  the 
railroad  company  would  do  nothing,  more  talk  followed  and  in  December  it 
was  announced  that  Mr.  Bernard,  who  had  still  the  stump  of  his  wharf,  built 
in  '79  at  South  Santa  Monica,  had  formed  a  company  of  capitalists  who 
would  rebuild  that  structure.  A  committee  was  sent  to  San  Francisco  to  inter 
view  the  railway  people  and  the  Outlook  declares :  "  There  is  hardly  any 
ground  for  doubt  that  we  shall  have  a  wharf  within  the  next  six  months.  .  .  . 
It  is  one  of  the  anomalies  of  business  that  the  old  Santa  Monica  wharf  was 
destroyed,  not  because  it  didn't  pay,  but  because  it  did  pay.  That  is  to  say,  it 
paid  the  shipper  and  traveler  and  would  have  paid  the  railroad  company  had 
they  not  been  interested  at  Wilmington  and  San  Pedro." 

February  ist,  1888,  Geo.  S.  Van  Every  and  T.  A.  Lewis,  two  well  known 
residents  of  Santa  Monica,  made  an  application  for  a  franchise  to  build  a 
wharf  at  the  foot  of  Bicknell  avenue.  At  the  next  meeting  of  the  city  trustees 
a  petition  was  presented  by  the  Santa  Monica  Wharf  Company,  signed  by  forty- 
five  citizens,  asking  that  an  election  be  called  for  the  purpose  of  submitting  the 
question  of  voting  $10,000  bonds  to  be  given  to  the  company  on  the  comple 
tion  of  the  wharf  according  to  the  franchise  asked  by  Messrs.  Van  Every  and 
Lewis.  The  discussions  and  public  meetings  that  followed  this  action  were 
lively  and  some  warm  language  must  have  been  used,  for  a  few  weeks  later 
the  following  note  was  published :  "  To  the  Honorable  Board  of  Trustees  of 
the  town  of  Santa  Monica.  Gents :  Whereas  we  hear  it  talked  by  divers  per 
sons  that  the  proposition  to  vote  $10,000  subsidy  to  the  '  Santa  Monica  Wharf 
and  Shipping  Company '  was  simply  a  scheme  to  extort  and  obtain  money  from 
the  said  town  for  personal  purposes ;  and,  whereas,  from  the  said  talk,  we  are 
advised  and  believe  that  the  decision  will  be  against  us,  therefore  we  beg  to 
withdraw  our  proposition  to  construct  a  wharf  and  here  announce  that  we  will 
have  nothing  to  do  with  the  matter;  but  would  recommend  that  the  town  vote 
bonds  necessary  to  build  and  maintain  a  wharf  of  its  own.  George  S.  Van 
Every,  T.  A.  Lewis." 

After  more  discussion  and  public  meetings,  it  was  generally  agreed  that 
it  would  be  feasible  for  the  town  to  vote  bonds  for  a  wharf;  but  this  scheme 
was  decided  by  the  city  attorney  to  be  illegal  and,  notwithstanding  their  little 
"  defi,"  Messrs.  Van  Every  and  Lewis  again  came  to  the  front  with  an  appli 
cation  for  a  franchise,  which  was  granted,  to  build  a  wharf  at  the  foot  of  Front 


street.  Mr.  Van  Every  started  north  to  investigate  the  cost  of  piles  and  the 
Outlook  ventured  a  cautious  blast  of  triumph — with  strings  on  it.  Past  expe 
rience  was  beginning  to  tell.  After  which  there  is  an  ominous  quiet  on  the 
subject  of  a  wharf  until  the  organization  of  the  Board  of  Trade  in  December, 
1888,  which  began  an  immediate  agitation  of  the  subject.  The  "  Wharf  Com 
mittee  "  reported  in  favor  of  organizing  a  stock  company,  which  proposition 
was  at  once  acted  upon.  Papers  for  subscriptions  were  circulated,  the  Los 
Angeles  Chamber  of  Commerce  and  Board  of  Trade  were  entertained  by  the 
Santa  Monica  Board  of  Trade  and,  incidentally,  urged  to  subscribe.  More 
public  meetings,  more  discussion,  pro  and  con.  But  at  last  sufficient  subscrip 
tions  were  obtained  to  warrant  the  incorporation  of  the  "  Santa  Monica  Wharf 
Company."  July  I3th  "  Critic  "  in  the  Outlook  writes  a  sharp  letter  in  which 
he  objects  to  the  acts  of  the  committee  in  electing  itself  as  directors  of  the  new 
company  and  immediately  demanding  an  assessment  of  40  per  cent  from  sub 
scribers.  He  also  demands  where  the  wharf  is  to  be  built  and  who  is  to  decide 
that  important  question. 

Another  lull  followed  while  the  question  of  the  outfall  sewer  and  an  occa 
sional  editoria!  as  to  the  "  harbor "  seemed  to  occupy  the  attention  of  Santa 
Monicans.  But  in  December,  Mr.  J.  B.  Dunlap  appeared  before  the  board  of 
trustees,  representing  "  capitalists " — that  magic  quantity — and  asked  what 
subsidy  Santa  Monica  was  prepared  to  give  for  a  wharf.  This  question  led  to 
the  proposition  that  the  town  vote  bonds  for  a  sewer  system  and  then  pay  a 
wharf  company  to  carry  their  sewer  out  to  sea.  After  much  legal  lore  had 
been  expended,  it  was  decided  that  this  might — or  might  not — be  done. 

After  which  matters  seem  to  have  simmered  until  March,  1890,  when  the 
Outlook  indulges  in  this  mysterious  language :  "  There  is  music  in  the  air ! 
Glad  tidings  float  on  the  breeze.  Rumor  says  Santa  Monica  is  to  have  a 
wharf!  Our  people  generally  believe  it.  So  does  the  Outlook.  We  are  not 
at  liberty  to  enter  into  details,  as  everything  is  not  beyond  the  possibility  of 
failure.  There  is  every  reason  to  believe,  however,  that  our  wharf  scheme,  for 
which  the  Outlook  and  many  zealous  residents  of  Santa  Monica  have  so  striven, 
will  be  a  most  gratifying  success,  at  an  early  day,  and  that,  too,  in  a  shape  more 
satisfactory  than  any  of  us  have  dared  hope  for." 

At  a  public  meeting  of  the  subscribers  to  the  "  wharf  fund  "  held  May  6th, 
Messrs.  L.  R.  Vincent,  D.  L.  Bancroft  and  W.  D.  Vawter  were  elected  com 
missioners  to  act  for  the  subscribers,  and  S.-W.  Luitweiler,  representing  the  Los 
Angeles  &  Pacific  Railroad,  was  present  with  a  proposition.  In  June  articles 
of  incorporation  for  a  new  wharf  company  were  filed.  This  was  the  "  Santa 
Monica  Wharf  and  Railway  Terminal  Company,"  the  incorporators  being  J. 
A.  Stanwood,  E.  E.  Hall,  Elwood  Chaffey,  Arthur  Gayford  and  W.  L.  Cor- 
son;  the  capital  stock  fixed  at  $300,000,  $80,000  of  which  had  been  subscribed. 
"  The  company  have  acquired  an  ocean  frontage  of  about  a  mile  and  a  half  and 


a  large  tract  of  land"  (the  present  site  of  Ocean  Park  and  Venice).  In  the 
meantime  many  rumors  were  afloat  as  to  the  intentions  of  the  Southern  Pacific 
Company,  which  had  again  sent  representatives  to  Santa  Monica  and  looked 
at  the  old  stump  which  still  represented  past  commercial  importance.  During 
1890  the  town  was  in  a  fever  of  expectation  as  to  the  possibilities  of  the  South 
ern  Pacific  action  and  the  probability  of  the  Santa  Monica  Wharf  and  Railway 
Terminal  Company  actually  doing  something.  But  after  waiting  until  the 
spring  of  IQ<)I  for  some  tangible  signs  of  fulfillment,  the  citizens  again  took  a 
hand.  In  May  a  petition  signed  by  about  a  hundred  citizens  was  presented  to 
the  board  of  trustees  requesting  them  to  call  an  election  to  determine  the  ques 
tion  of  issuing  bonds  for  the  construction  of  a  wharf.  After  a  full  and  enthu 
siastic  discussion  of  this  project  by  the  trustees  and  the  citizens,  the  matter 
was  put  to  vote  and  was  defeated  by  the  vote  of  two  trustees.  Another  meet 
ing  was  called  and  some  very  hot  language  was  used ;  a  new  petition  was  pre 
pared,  urging  the  trustees  to  respect  the  wishes  of  the  citizens ;  but  the  two 
obdurate  members  remained  firm  and  again  the  petition  was  denied.  The 
excitement  ran  high  and  the  feeling  against  the  two  trustees  was  very  bitter 
in  some  quarters. 

The  following  emphatic  words  expressed  the  feeling  of  the  editor  of  the 
Outlook.  "  We  haven't  voted  any  bonds  for  a  wharf  at  Santa  Monica,  nor  has 
any  person  or  persons  agreed  to  build  one ;  yet  when  a  location  is  mentioned 
for  a  wharf,  it  is  like  shaking  a  red  rag  at  a  mad  bull.  If  there  is  any  one 
thing  that  some  Santa  Monicans  can  do  better  than  anything  else,  it  is  getting 
up  a  raging  opposition  when  something  is  proposed  upon  which  all  should 
agree.  If  a  man  started  out  tomorrow  with  a  pocket  full  of  twenty-dollar  gold 
pieces,  some  '  chronic  '  would  start  a  howl  of  opposition  because  the  right  per 
son,  in  his  opinion,  had  not  been  selected  to  make  the  distribution.'' 

But  the  question  of  building  a  wharf  and  of  selecting  a  location  was  at 
last  settled,  without  regard  to  the  opposition  or  opinions  of  Santa  Monicans. 
On  August  ist,  1891,  the  Southern  Pacific  Engineering  Corps  began  a  survey 
in  "  old  "  Santa  Monica  canyon,  and  it  was  definitely  known  that  C.  P.  Hunt- 
ington  had  decided  on  a  wharf  for  Santa  Monica.  Thus  ended  the  history  of 
the  agitation  for  a  wharf. 

JOHN  T.  CARRILLO. — There  is  no  better  known  figure  in  Santa  Monica 
than  that  of  John  T.  Carrillo,  at  present  Police  Judge  of  the  city.  He  is  a 
native  son — the  son  and  the  grandson  of  native  sons,  and  belongs  to  one  of  tin- 
oldest  and  best  known  families  of  California.  He  is  a  descendant  of  Jose 
Raymundo  Carrillo,  a  native  of  Loreto,  who  came  to  California  in  1769.  Of 
him  Bancroft  says:  "  He  may  be  regarded  as  the  founder  of  the  Carrillo  fam 
ily,  which  must  be  considered  in  several  respects  the  leading  one  in  California, 
by  reason  of  the  number  and  prominence  of  its  members  and  of  their  connec 
tion  by  marriage  with  so  many 'of  the  best  families,  both  native  and  pioneer." 


Captain  Carrillo  married  Tomasa  Ignacia  Lugo  and  their  sons,  Carlos,  Jose 
and  Domingo,  were  among  the  most  prominent  citizens  of  the  Mexican  period 
of  California  history.  Their  only  daughter,  Maria  Antonia,  married  Captain 
Jose  de  la  Guerra  y  Noriega,  one  of  the  most  brilliant  figures  in  Santa  Barbara 

Carlos  Antonio  Carrillo,  grandfather  of  Juan  J.,  was  born  at  Santa  Bar 
bara  in  1783.  He  began  life  as  a  soldier  and  was  engaged  in  many  military 
affairs.  In  1830  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Mexican  Congress  and  worked 
earnestly  for  the  interests  of  his  country  and  the  preservation  of  the  missions. 
One  of  his  speeches,  "El  Exposicion  sobre  el  Fondo  Piadoso  "  was  the  first 
production  of  a  native  Calif  ornian,  printed  in  book  form.  In  1837,  his  brother 
Jose  Antonio,  who  was  an  active  politician,  secured  for  Carlos  an  appointment 
as  governor  of  California,  with  the  privilege  of  locating  the  capital  of  the  state 
at  his  pleasure.  In  consequence  of  this  document,  the  original  of  which  is  now 
in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Juan  J.  Carrillo,  Senor  Carlos  Carrillo  chose  Los 
Angeles  as  capital  and  was  inaugurated  there  with  an  elaborate  ceremony — the 
only  time  that  Los  Angeles  was  ever  made  the  capital.  The  distinction  was 
short-lived,  however,  as  Governor  Alvarado  refused  to  recognize  the  authority 
of  his  Uncle  Carlos  and  after  a  brief  and  bloodless  military  campaign,  Don 
Carlos  retired  from  the  field.  He  was  the  grantee  of  the  Sespe  Rancho  and 
of  Santa  Rosa  Island.  He  died  in  1852.  Bancroft  says  of  him:  "In  person 
Don  Carlos,  like  most  of  his  brothers  and  cousins,  was  large  and  of  magnifi 
cent  presence,  distinguished  for  his  courteous  and  gentlemanly  manners.  In 
all  California  there  was  no  more  kind-hearted,  generous,  popular  and  inoffen 
sive  citizen  than  he."  His  wife  was  Josefa  Castro :  his  sons,  Jose,  Pedro  C. 
and  Jose  Jesus ;  his  daughters,  Josefa,  wife  of  Win.  J.  Dana ;  Encarnacion, 
wife  of  Thomas  Robbins ;  Francisca,  wife  of  A.  B.  Thompson ;  Manuela,  wife 
of  John  C.  Jones,  and  Maria  Antonia,  wife  of  Lewis  Burton. 

Pedro  C.  Carrillo,  father  of  Juan  J.,  was  born  in  Santa  Barbara  and  was 
educated  in  Honolulu  and  Boston.  On  his  return  to  California  he  took  an  act 
ive  part  in  affairs,  filling  various  offices  in  Santa  Barbara  and  Los  Angeles  and 
being  the  grantee  of  Alamos  y  Agua  Caliente,  Camulos  ranches  and  San  Diego 
island.  During  the  American  conquest,  he  favored  the  Americans  and  was 
active  in  their  behalf.  In  1847  he  was  the  guide  who  led  a  messenger  from 
Stockton  to  Fremont  through  the  enemy's  country.  He  was  made  receiver  of 
the  port  of  San  Diego,  after  the  American  occupation  and  later  served  as 
receiver  of  port  at  Santa  Barbara  and  at  San  Pedro.  He  spent  the  last  years 
of  his  life  in  Santa  Monica  and  died  here  May  28th,  1888.  His  wife  was  Josefa 
Bandini,  a  sister  of  Mrs.  Arcadia  de  Baker  and  the  oldest  one  of  the  famous 
Bandini  sisters.  It  was  she  who  made  the  American  flag  which  was  used  by 
Commodore  Stockton  at  San  Diego — the  first  American  flag  raised  in  South 
ern  California. 


Juan  J.  Carrillo  was  born  in  Santa  Barbara,  September  8th,  1842.  When 
he  was  ten  years  old  he  was  sent  with  a  party  of  boys,  sons  of  Californians,  to 
New  York,  making  the  trip  around  the  Isthmus  of  Panama  in  charge  of  a 
priest,  who  placed  the  youths  in  a  private  family  in  New  York  City.  The 
woman  in  charge  proved  to  be  a  fraud,  and  the  boys  were  taught  nothing  and 
were  badly  treated  in  every  way,  until  an  old  friend  of  Mr.  Carrillo's  father 
discovered  them.  Then  Juan  and  his  brother  were  removed  to  the  College  of 
the  Holy  Cross  at  Worcester,  Mass.,  near  Boston.  Here  they  remained  six 
years,  returning  to  California  in  1858. 

In  1864  Mr.  Carrillo  came  to  Los  Angeles  and  entered  the  store  of  Caswell, 
Ellis  and  Wright,  then  one  of  the  largest  establishments  in  the  state.  He  re 
mained  with  this  firm  for  14  years,  then  served  for  four  years  as  city  marshal 
of  I.os  Angeles.  In  1881  he  located  in  Santa  Monica  and  has  since  that  date 
been  intimately  associated  with  the  history  of  this  place.  He  acted  for  a  time  as 
agent  for  the  Baker  interests  in  this  vicinity  and  has  been  instrumental  in  se 
curing  many  valuable  concessions  for  the  city.  For  instance,  in  1884  Mrs.  Baker 
deeded  the  site  of  Woodlawn  cemetery  to  him  and  he  in  turn,  without  compen 
sation,  deeded  the  same  to  the  city.  In  1888  he  was  elected  as  city  trustee  and 
for  twelve  years  thereafter  he  was  re-elected  regularly,  thus  serving  the  city 
longer  than  any  other  trustee  ever  chosen.  During  this  time  he  was  for  seven 
years,  from  189x5  to  1897,  president  of  the  board  and  thus  acting  mayor  of  the 
city.  During  his  entire  service  he  gave  much  time  and  energy  to  city  affairs 
and  Santa  Monica  has  never  had  a  more  disinterested  and  honest  official.  In 
1888  he  took  an  active  part  in  tie  contest  made  by  Santa  Monica  against  the 
proposed  outfall  sewer  of  Los  Angeles,  with  its  discharge  on  the  beach  between 
what  is  now  Pier  avenue  and  Venice.  Mr.  Carrillo  personally  canvassed  the 
Ballona  district  and  secured  the  signatures  of  the  property  owners  to  a  protest 
against  this  action  and  to  an  agreement  which  prevented  Los  Angeles  from 
securing  the  proposed  right  of  way  for  the  sewer.  When  the  first  board  of  trade 
was  organized  in  1888,  Mr.  Carrillo  was  chosen  as  secretary,  an  office  which  he 
filled  for  seven  years.  He  was  one  of  the  active  movers  in  the  efforts  to  secure 
a  wharf  and  a  sewer  system,  and  has  always  been  a  strong  advocate  of  good 
roads  and  parks.  During  his  service  on  the  board  of  trustees  he  accomplished 
much  toward  securing  improved  roads  and  streets.  Old  citizens  have  not  for 
gotten  the  long  and  weary  fight  he  made  to  secure  the  road  to  Calabasas  in 
January,  1897.  After  his  retirement  from  the  council  he  served  two  years  as 
superintendent  of  streets,  from  1904  to  1906. 

In  personal  appearance  and  in  character  Mr.  Carrillo  is  a  worthy  son  of  his 
ancestors,  indeed,  the  description  of  his  grandfather  might  apply  with  equal 
truth  to  himself.  Honorable  in  all  his  dealings,  generous  to  a  fault  and  kind- 
hearted,  even  to  his  enemies,  probably  no  man  in  Santa  Monica  commands  a 
more  sincere  regard.  He  was  married,  October  7th,  1869,  to  Miss  Francisca 



Roldan,  a  woman  of  great  beauty  of  character  and  person.  She  died  in  Los 
Angeles  March  2nd,  1897,  and  her  funeral  here  in  Santa  Monica  was  a  rare  testi 
monial  of  the  love  and  respect  which  were  felt  for  her  and  her  family. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Carrillo  had  13  children,  of  whom  are  now  living  Elisa,  Mrs. 
Eliza  Lopez;  Atala,  Mrs.  A.  H.  Calkins;  Diana,  Mrs.  Will  Holton;  of  the  sons, 
Ygnacio  is  a  well-known  dentist,  practicing  in  Los  Angeles ;  Eulogio  is  assistant 
engineer  on  the  Southern  Pacific;  Leopold,  or  Leo,  as  he  is  more  familiarly 
known,  is  traveling  in  the  east,  where  his  talents  as  a  monologist  and  caricaturist 
have  given  him  distinction.  One  son,  Charles,  died  in  Santa  Monica,  April  ist, 
1905,  anA  the  youngest  son,  Octavio,  is  now  in  the  employ  of  the  Southern'  Pa 
cific.  In  1904  Mr.  Carrillo  married  a  second  time,  Mrs.  Eva  Fellner,  an  accom 
plished  and  beautiful  woman. 

W.  S.  VAWTER. 


GROWTH.     1890-1900. 

NATURALLY,  Santa  Monica  shared  in  the  reaction  which  followed  the 
too  rapid  expansion  of  1887-88;  but  she  did  not  suffer  the  collapse  which 
followed  in  many  sections  of  Southern  California.  She  was  in  no  sense 
a  "  boom  "  town  and  aside  from  some  speculation  in  South  Santa  Monica  prop 
erty  and  some  rather  previous  railway  schemes,  her  growth  had  been  a  natural 
result  of  her  advantages  and  it  continued  during  the  new  decade  with  a  steady 
forward  movement  which  gave  a  solid  basis  for  the  marvelous  prosperity  of  her 
later  history. 

The  population  of  the  town,  as  shown  by  the  census  of  1890,  was  1580,  an 
increase  of  over  400  per  cent,  above  the  population  of  1880.  The  assessed 
valuation  of  the  town,  which  under  the  inflated  values  of  1887  had  been  swelled 
to  $2,405,048,  dropped  back  to  $1,565.773  in  1891.  Since  that  date,  however, 
the  annual  assessments  have  shown  a  remarkably  even  and  healthy  increase  up 
to  the  present  time. 

One  of  the  most  important  events  of  the  year  1890  was  the  completion  of 
the  street  car  line  to  the  Soldiers'  Home.  This  line  ran  out  Nevada  street  and 
was  formally  opened  to  the  public  April  3rd,  with  a  special  trip  followed  by  a 
banquet  at  the  Hotel  Arcadia,  where  many  complimentary  things  were  said  of 
W.  D.  Yawter,  whose  enterprise  had  provided  the  town  with  a  street  car  service 
-extending  from  the  southern  limits  of  the  city  to  the  Soldiers'  Home.  The 
route  from  the  railroad  bridge  was  along  Ocean  avenue  to  Utah,  on  Utah  to 
Third,  thence  on  Third  to  Nevada  avenue,  which  leads  in  a  direct  line  to  the 
Soldiers'  Home,  a  distance  of  three  miles.  This  boulevard  had  already  been 
improved  and  adorned  with  handsome  shade  trees.  All  "  old  timers  "  retain 
many  recollections  of  this  line  which,  for  a  number  of  years,  was  the  only  means 
•of  communication  with  the  home  and  which  was  only  superseded  by  the  present 
electric  line  in  1905. 

There  was  a  strong  feeling  that  Santa  Monica  was  now  sufficiently  urban 
1o  support  an  electric  light  system  and  applications  for  franchises  for  this  pur 
pose  were  made  by  two  different  parties ;  one  was  granted  to  Messrs.  H.  M. 
Russell  and  H.  A.  Winslow,  but  they  were  apparently  not  able  to  "  make  good  " 
at  this  time. 

Tn  February,  W.  S.  Vawter  was  appointed  postmaster  to  succeed  Miss  Mag 
gie  Finn,  who  had  held  the  office  during  the  past  four  years.  Many  people  yet 


recall  their  astonishment  when,  on  going  for  their  mail  on  the  morning  of  April 
ist,  1890,  to  the  old  location  on  Second  street,  where  the  postoffice  had  been  for 
years,  they  found  no  postoffice  there.  During  the  previous  night  the  change  of 
administration  had  unexpectedly  taken  place  and  the  postoffice  had  been  moved 
to  its  new  quarters  in  the  bank  building  on  Third  street.  The  new  offices  were 
fitted  up  temporarily,  but  within  a  few  weeks  were  supplied  with  the  latest  style 
of  boxes  and  conveniences  and  was  then  counted  as  being  one  of  the  best  equipped 
postoffices  in  the  county.  It  was  presided  over  at  this  time  by  "  Johnny  "  Sum- 
merfield,  who  made  a  genial  deputy  postmaster. 

In  April,  1890,  the  new  board  of  trustees,  after  the  election  of  Messrs.  John 
Steere  and  J.  L.  Allen,  was  made  up  of  these  two  with  J.  J.  Carrillo,  who  was 
elected  president  of  the  board,  a  position  which  he  ably  filled  for  seven  years, 
T.  L.  Lewis  and  E.  J.  Vawter.  E.  K.  Chapin  was  re-elected  treasurer,  M. 
K.  Barretto  was  marshal  and  H.  E.  Pollard  town  clerk.  The  matter  of  licenses 
aroused  a  good  deal  of  discussion  this  year,  as  many  objected  to  the  plan  of 
licensing  business  houses  at  all,  and  others  thought  the  licenses  altogether  more 
than  the  traffic  could  bear.  But,  in  spite  of  much  pressure,  the  new  board  made 
few  changes  and  continued  the  liquor  license  at  $300  per  year,  only  making  an 
effort  to  limit  the  number  of  saloons  to  ten. 

Messrs.  Jones  and  Baker  this  year  deeded  the  bluff  and  the  city  park  to  the 
town,  on  condition  that  they  be  kept  up  as  public  parks.  A  large  number  of  streets 
were  graded,  graveled  and  sidewalked.  The  question  of  providing  for  some 
disposition  of  the  sewage  was  also  agitated  and  a  solution  was  thought  to  be 
offered  to  that  and  the  wharf  problem  which  so  troubled  the  town.  But  after 
much  talk,  legal  advice  was  sought  and,  in  view  of  the  later  developments,  the 
following  extracts  may  be  of  interest :  "  In  order  that  there  might  be  no  un 
certainty  in  the  matter,  the  town  attorney  was  instructed  to  employ  assistant 
counsel.  This  was  done  and  two  opinions  were  read  before  the  board  and  a 
number  of  citizens  on  Monday  night,  one  from  R.  F.  H.  Variel,  the  other  from 
Messrs.  Edgerton  &  Blades.  Shorn  of  all  unnecessary  verbiage,  the  opinions 
were  based  upon  the  proposition,  can  the  town  authorities  of  Santa  Monica 
legally  submit  to  the  voters,  at  an  election  called  for  that  purpose,  the  proposi 
tion  of  voting  $40,000  in  bonds  for  the  ostensible  purpose  of  constructing  a 
sewer  system,  having  its  outlet  in  the  ocean,  but  really  for  the  purpose  of  aiding 
a  private  corporation  in  building  a  wharf?  This  proposition  was  ably  argued 
by  the  gentlemen  and  they  very  properly  came  to  the  conclusion  that  the  city's 
funds  could  not  be  legally  expended  in  that  way." 

In  November  the  ladies  of  the  W.  C.  T.  U.,  who  had  maintained  a  public 
reading  room  and  library  since  1886,  offered  to  turn  their  library  of  800  volumes 
over  to  the  city,  provided  the  city  would  maintain  it  as  a  public  library.  The 
proposition  was  accepted  and  the  Santa  Monica  public  library  was  thus  established^ 



This  is  a  memorable  year  in  Santa  Monica  annals  for  many  reasons.  It 
developed  that  the  Southern  Pacific  had  secured  the  right  of  way  along  the 
beach  to  the  canon  and  purchased  the  Santa  Monica  Heights  tract.  In  the 
fall  surveyors  began  work  and  the  company  secured  a  franchise  from  the  city 
to  build  a  line  under  the  bluff  and  to  build  a  wharf,  within  one  year,  under  a 
$5000  forfeit.  At  the  same  time  the  Santa  Monica  Wharf  and  Railway  Ter 
minal  Company  was  applying  for  a  franchise  to  build  a  wharf  at  South  Santa 
Monica  and  offered  to  put  up  a  tract  of  thirteen  acres  of  land  as  indemnity. 
This  offer  was  received  with  a  good  deal  of  derision  at  the  time,  as  the  land 
was  supposed  to  be  utterly  useless  "  sand  dunes."  The  Los  Angeles  and  Pacific 
road  had  been  revived — to  a  certain  extent — and  was  also  endeavoring  to  secure 
a  franchise  to  build  a  wharf ;  but  the  $5000  forfeit  demanded  by  the  board  of 
trustees  seemed  to  put  a  damper  upon  their  wharf  ambitions.  With  so  many 
propositions  coming  before  it,  the  board  of  trustees  had  some  very  lively  sessions, 
especially  as  there  were  strong  objections  to  everything  proposed  and  much 
"  kicking  "  at  the  meetings  and  through  the  papers.  The  harbor  question  also 
demanded  more  or  less  attention  and  the  board  of  trustees  and  board  of  trade 
were  prompt  to  act  whenever  an  opportunity  presented  itself. 

In  October  H.  M.  Russell  and  VI.  A.  Winslow,  two  enterprising  citizens  of 
Santa  Monica,  again  applied  for  a  franchise  for  an  electric  light  plant,  which 
was  at  once  granted  them.  They  took  steps  to  carry  out  their  plans  and  made 
a  beginning  toward  this  important  improvement. 

Among  the  business  buildings  of  the  year  was  the  Bryson  block  on  the 
corner  of  Utah  avenue  and  Second  street,  which  was  erected  at  a  cost  of  some 
$15,000.  Other  buildings  were  the  handsome  home  of  Dr.  Elliott,  a  Minneapolis 
capitalist,  on  the  corner  of  Nevada  and  Fifth  and  the  homes  of  Dr.  Place  and 
J.  L.  Allen.  In  January,  1891,  Mr.  Frederick  Rindge  visited  Santa  Monica  and 
was  so  pleased  with  the  place  that  he  purchased  two  lots  on  Ocean  avenue  and 
soon  thereafterward  began  the  erection  of  a  residence  which  cost  some  Si 2,000 
and  was  occupied  for  a  number  of  years  by  his  family  as  a  home.  At  the  same 
time  he  began  making  other  investments  in  this  locality  and  in  1892  purchased 
the  Malibn  ranch  of  H.  W.  Keller  and  at  once  built  a  handsome  residence  and 
made  substantial  improvements  on  this  fine  property. 


The  year  of  1892  was  a  prosperous  one.  The  reaction  after  the  depression 
of  the  past  two  or  three  years  had  set  in  here,  although  this  was  generally  a 
season  of  depression  in  the  state.  The  Southern  Pacific  pushed  its  improve 
ments  and  work  was  well  under  way  on  the  long  wharf  before  the  close  of  the 
year.  It  is  estimated  that  their  expenditures  in  the  vicinity  of  Santa  Monica 
for  the  year  were  not  less  than  $200,000.  The  Santa  Fe  also  came  in  during 



the  year  and  spent  considerable  money  in  making  improvements  in  South  Santa 
Monica.  A  large  amount  of  money  was  also  expended  at  the  Soldiers'  Home 
in  putting  up  new  buildings  and  improving  the  water  service.  These  large  sums 
put  into  circulation,  of  course,  meant  much  to  the  merchants  and  the  working 
men  of  Santa  Monica.  The  Keller  block  on  the  corner  of  Third  and  Utah  was 
planned  and  partially  built,  at  a  cost  of  $25,000.  The  Windemere  and  the  Para 
dise,  both  intended  as  first-class  family  hotels,  were  built  during  the  year. 

During  the  summer  there  were  no  vacant  houses  and  tennis,  polo  and  cricket 
games  and  tournaments  were  attractions  which  drew  many  visitors.  On  June 
1 8th  the  Santa  Fe  trains  reached  Santa  Monica  and  the  event  was  duly  cele 
brated.  The  road  at 
once  put  on  seven 
trains  daily  and  made 
a  round-trip  fare  of 
seventy- five  cents. 
The  Outlook  esti 
mates  that  in  July 
frlly  5000  people 
came  to  Santa  Monica 
on  one  Sunday.  In 
September  the  fare 
to  Santa  Monica  was 
d  r  o  p  p  e  d  to  fifty 
cents,  the  rcsrlt  of 
competition.  The  Los 
Angeles  and  Pacific 
road  was  not  yet 

dead  and  many  rumors  were  rife  about  it  during  the  season.  It  had  now 
passed  into  the  hands  of  the  Terminal  Company  and  great  things  were  promised 
from  it. 


In  1893  Messrs.  W.  D.,  W.  S.  and  E.  T.  Yawter  sold  their  interest  in  "  The 
First  National  Bank  of  Santa  Monica"  to  Senator  Jones  and  the  bank  passed 
under  the  new  administration,  with  Robert  F.  Jones  president  and  cashier.  It 
was  soon  afterward  made  a  state  bank  under  the  name  of  the  "  Bank  of  Santa 
Monica."  During  the  panic  of  July,  1893,  this  bank  was  undisturbed  and  it 
has  since  that  time  enjoyed  the  favor  of  Santa  Monicans.  The  Keller  block 
when  completed  was  one  of  the  largest  and  handsomest  structures  in  Santa 
Monica.  The  upper  stories  were  opened  as  a  first-class  hotel,  while  J.  B.  Folsom 
and  \V.  T.  Gillis  occupied  the  large  storerooms  below.  The  Yawter  block  on 
Third  street  was  completed  in  September.  This  was  a  one-story  block,  hand- 



somely  finished,  to  be  used  as  the  office  of  the  Santa  Monica  Commercial  Com 
pany,  the  Santa  Monica  Mill  and  Lumber  Company  and  the  Santa  Monica  and 
Soldiers'  Home  Company,  all  of  which  were  Vawter  interests.  The  Santa  Mon 
ica  soda  plant  was  a  new  establishment  of  this  year,  under  the  management  of 
Carl  F.  Schader  and  Jesse  Yoakum.  One  of  the  most  substantial  improvements 
was  the  erection  of  the  handsome  residence  on  the  corner  of  Ocean  avenue  and 
Arizona  by  Mrs.  Doria  Jones,  now  the  Elks'  club  house.  The  North  Beach 
Bath  House  Company  was  incorporated  in  December  by  the  Jones  interests  to 
build  the  North  Beach  bath  house  and  pavilion.  This  establishment  when  finished 
was  one  of  the  most  complete  in  equipment  in  the  country.  July  ist  the  Arcadia 
was  opened  under  new  management,  having  been  closed  for  a  yeai  or  more, 
liefore  opening  it  was  thoroughly  renovated  and  refitted,  some  $10,000  being 
spent  in  bringing  it  up  to  date. 

A  special  election  was  called  for  March  2ist  to  vote  upon  the  question  of 
bonding  the  town  to  the  amount  of  $40,000  for  the  construction  of  a  sewer 
system.  The  cairpaign  elicited  a  good  deal  of  discussion  and  considerable  feel 
ing,  if  we  may  jrdge  by  this  letter  which  the  Outlook  published,  with  a  dignified 
reply : 

"  Messrs.  Fisher  &  Wooclworth :  There  is  an  understanding  on  the  streets 
that  if  you  publish  to  malign  any  one  who  votes  against  bonds,  your  press  will 
be  taken  and  throwed  into  the  sea  and  your  papers,  public  and  private,  will  be 
taken  for  a  bonfire." 

Notwithstanding  the  talk  the  vote  cast  was  light  and  stood  148  against  and 
only  84  for,  thus  disposing  of  the  sewer  question  for  the  time  being.  But  the 
"  sewer  question  "  is  one  which  will  not  down  for  long  in  Santa  Monica,  and 
it  continued  to  be  a  subject  of  interest — and  contention.  In  June  J.  J.  Davis 
of  Los  Angeles  applied  for  a  franchise  for  electric  light  plant,  agreeing  to  pay 
therefor  $25.00  annually  for  fifty  years.  September  loth  electric  lights  were 
turned  on  the  street  for  the  first  time,  twelve  incandescent  lights  being  furnished. 

The  year  was  prolific  in  "  gala  "  days.  July  4th  was  celebrated  with  unusual 
vigor,  speeches,  bands  and  amusements  of  every  kind  being  provided  and  the 
largest  crowds  ever  known  in  the  history  of  Santa  Monica  being  present,  esti 
mated  at  from  ten  to  fifteen  thousand.  The  visit  of  Vice-President  Stevenson 
was  duly  noted.  In  October  the  new  restaurant  on  the  big  "  long  wharf  "  was 
opened  with  an  elaborate  banquet. 


This  was  a  comparatively  quiet  year.  The  great  strikes  and  the  general 
depression  in  the  east  caused  a  cessation  of  large  investments  and  no  railroad 
extensions  of  account  were  made.  After  a  very  exciting  contest  Messrs.  Robert 
F.  Jones  and  Norman  A.  Roth  were  elected  trustees,  while  Messrs.  Carrillo, 
Yawter  and  Lewis  held  over.  Mr.  Robert  F.  Jones  served  continvorsly  as 


trustee  from  this  time  until  1902  and  after  1896  was  president  of  the  board  and 
acting  mayor  of  the  town. 

The  most  important  improvement  of  the  year  was  the  North  Beach  bath 
house,  which  was  opened  to  the  public  in  the  spring.  This  building  was  450 
by  100  feet  and  was  provided  with  a  large  plunge,  elegantly  furnished  parlor, 
ballroom,  hot  and  cold  salt  water  bath,  two  dining  rooms,  roof  garden,  etc. ;  the 
whole  structure  represented  an  outlay  of  $50,000  and  was  at  the  time  the  most 
complete  establishment  of  the  kind  on  the  Pacific  coast.  The  electric  light  plant 
was  completed  during  the  year  and  was  considered  one  of  the  best  in  the  country, 
furnishing  satisfactory  service  at  very  reasonable  rates.  The  water  company 
expended  some  $15,000  in  improving  its  service  and  the  Outlook  estimates  that 
about  two  hundred  thousand  dollars  represented  the  cost  of  improvements  which 
included  a  large  number  of  residences. 


The  year  1895  opened  with  a  flurry  of  excitement  over  the  treatment  the 
harbor  question  and  Santa  Monica  were  receiving  from  the  Los  Angeles  Herald. 
This  paper  had  at  first  been  an  able  advocate  of  the  Santa  Monica  side  of  the 
harbor  question;  but  during  1894  it  passed  under  new  management  and  at  once 
changed  front  and  began  making  most  unjustifiable  attacks  upon  this  town,  Port 
Los  Angeles  and  the  Southern  Pacific  Company.  On  Wednesday  evening,  Jan 
uary  23rd,  one  of  the  most  exciting  meetings  ever  held  in  Santa  Monica  took 
place  under  the  auspices  of  the  board  of  trade.  The  resolutions  passed  will 
show  the  bitterness  which  had  been  engendered  by  the  "  harbor  fight." 

"  Whereas,  on  numerous  occasions,  a  morning  paper  published  in  the  city 
of  Los  Angeles,  has  taken  occasion  to  publish  in  its  columns,  as  true,  many  false 
and  misleading  statements  respecting  the  unfitness — as  it  falsely  alleges — of 
Port  Los  Angeles  for  improvement  by  the  general  government  as  a  deep-water 
harbor  for  the  city  of  Los  Angeles,  and  in  support  of  its  alleged  unfitness  has 
published  communications  containing  false  and  defamatory  statements  in  rela 
tion  to  the  effect  of  storms  in  and  upon  the  bay  of  Santa  Monica,  the  wharf 
therein,  the  principal  projector  thereof,  and  the  landing,  loading  and  unloading 
of  vessels  thereat;  and  has  been  endeavoring  by  fraud  to  induce  Congress,  with 
out  further  examination  or  evidence,  to  make  large  appropriations  and  have  them 
expended  in  what  we  believe  to  be  useless  attempts  to  make  of  the  bay  of  San 
Pedro  a  safe,  useful  and  valuable  deep-water  harbor.  And  whereas,  it  is  falsely, 
maliciously  and  fraudulently  asserted  that  '  the  legislative  delegation  from  South 
ern  California  are  (is)  a  unit  for  a  deep-water  harbor  at  San  Pedro  ',  and  '  only 
those  who  are  controlled  by  the  influences  which  emanate  from  the  councils  and 
cabals  of  C.  P.  Huntington  ever  attempt  to  combat  the  plain  expression  of  public 
opinion  ' — and  '  only  occult  and  venal  influences  can  defeat  the  object  of  the 
present  agitation.'  And  whereas,  the  said  newspaper  has  recently  published  a 


communication  on  the  harbor  question  (purporting  to  be  by  a  Santa  Monican) 
which  is  grossly  false  (as  has  been  incontrovertibly  shown). 

"'  Therefore,  be  it  resolved,  that  the  aforesaid  editorials  and  communications 
which  have  from  time  to  time  appeared  in  the  aforesaid  paper  are  malicious 
libels  of  the  bona  fide  residents  of  Santa  Monica  and  others  who  advocate  the 
superior  fitness  and  claims  of  Santa  Monica  harbor  as  a  site  for  a  deep-water 
harbor  and  the  people  of  Santa  Monica  are  advised  that  the  paper  is  unworthy 
of  the  support  of  the  citizens  of  Santa  Monica  and  the  surrounding  country." 

These  resolutions  were  enforced  by  ringing  and  heated  speeches  from  many 
citizens  and  were  adopted  with  much  applause.  About  this  time  occurred  the 
famous  episode  of  the  "  fake  "  list  of  Santa  Monicans  sent  into  this  same  paper 
which  was  getting  up  a  memorial,  signed  by  citizens.  The  initials  of  the  "faked  " 
names,  which  were  published  in  good  faith  by  the  paper  in  question  spelled  an 
acrostic —  '  The  Fool  Herald."  It  was  this  same  petition  in  favor  of  San  Pedro 
which,  according  to  the  Times,  was  made  up  after  "  much  consultation  from 
directories,  compilation  of  acrostics  and  waste  of  editorial  perspiration,  and  was. 
lost  and  not  even  the  office  cat  could  give  any  idea  of  its  whereabouts."  The 
Herald  claimed  that  it  had  been  stolen,  presumably  by  advocates  of  the  Santa 
Monica  side,  and  offered  a  reward ;  later  the  document  mysteriously  reappeared ; 
but  the  amount  of  influence  it  carried  with  it  when  finally  delivered  to  the  legis 
lators  probably  did  not  seriously  injure  the  Santa  Monica  side  of  the  question. 

In  March,  the  board  of  trade,  which  had  done  most  efficient  service  in  pro 
tecting  and  promoting  the  interests  of  Santa  Monica,  took  steps  to  incorporate 
as  a  chamber  of  commerce.  The  officers  chosen  under  the  new  form  were : 
President,  Robert  F.  Jones ;  secretary,  J.  J.  Carrillo,  who  had  continuously  served 
as  secretary  for  the  board  of  trade  for  seven  years,  without  compensation ;  treas 
urer,  W.  T.  Gillis.  Numerous  committees  were  named  and  action  was  at  once 
taken  to  secure  the  encampment  of  the  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic  for  the 
coming  summer  and  to  arrange  for  representation  at  the  Los  Angeles  fiesta.  The 
labors  of  the  latter  committee  resulted  in  a  beautiful  floral  float  in  the  floral  day 
parade  of  La  Fiesta. 

In  April  the  articles  of  incorporation  of  the  Los  Angeles  and  Santa  Monica 
Electric  Railway  Company  were  filed.  The  Outlook  says :  "  This  proposed 
line  is  separate  and  apart  from  the  bicycle  line  road  promoted  by  Maj.  Barrett, 
-which  it  is  understood  will  be  backed  by  abundant  eastern  capital.  This  rather 
unique  style  of  road  is  to  be  operated  upon  a  single  rail  with  guard  rail  above. 
A  similar  line  is  now  in  operation  on  Long  Island.  It  has  a  speed  possibility 
far  exceeding  a  mile  a  minute.  The  service  is  quick,  safe  and  economical  for 
both  passengers  and  freight.  Maj.  Barrett  claims  that  the  company  organiza 
tion  is  complete  and  the  right-of-way  agents  will  be  in'  the  field  within  thirty 
days."  There  was  considerable  talk  about  this  "  bicycle  railway "  and  some 
people  really  had  hopes  of  speeding  a  mile  a  minute  between  Los  Angeles  and 


Santa  Monica.  In  June  a  petition  was  received  from  Gen.  Sherman  of  the 
Pasadena  and  Pacific  road  asking  for  a  franchise.  But  the  trustees,  having  hud 
a  long  and  troublesome  experience  with  the  Los  Angeles  and  Pacific  road,  were 
wary  of  promises  and  denied  this  franchise;  but  in  an  amended  form  it  was 
granted  later  and  active  work  on  the  line  began.  Some  alarm  was  felt  among 
merchants  and  dealers  of  the  town  lest  the  coming  of  the  electric  road  should 
do  them  harm ;  but  the  majority  was  largely  in  favor  of  the  improvement.  This 
year  steps  were  taken  to  construct  a  wagon  road  across  the  mountains  to  the 
wilds  of  Calabasas  and  a  good  deal  of  talk  was  indulged  in  as  to  a  bicycle  path 
from  Los  Angeles  to  Santa  Monica,  which  should  develope  into  a  "  boulevard." 
Cyclemania  was  at  its  head  during  this  period  and  for  two  or  three  summers 
the  greatest  event  of  the  season  was  the  annual  road  race  on  July  fourth  from 
the  city  to  Santa  Monica.  A  bicycle  race  track  was  completed  by  the  Southern 
Pacific  with  a  grand  stand  which  is  described  thus :  "  It  lifts  itself  into  the  air 
and  spreadeth  itself  over  a  great  area.  It  vaunteth  itself  as  greater  by  far  than 
anything  within  'steen  yards,  and  it  attracts  as  much  attention  as  a  bloomer  club 
upon  parade.  It  is  in  very  fact  a  thing  to  be  proud  of  and  carries  the  prophecy 
of  great  races  on  the  track  and  great  crowds  to  see  them  and  much  comfort  to 
many  people."  In  order  to  induce  the  "  great  crowds  "  the  Southern  Pacific 
resorted  to  what  were  known  as  "  postage  stamp  "  tickets,  entitling  the  holder 
to  passage  both  ways  and  admission  to  the  bicycle  track  for  the  regular  price 
of  the  ticket.  This  created  feeling  on  the  part  of  the  Santa  Fe  people  and  the 
S.  P.  responded  that  they  had  expended  some  $12,000  in  building  the  track  and 
if  the  Santa  Fe  people  would  bear  half  the  expense,  their  tickets  would  be  hon 
ored  also.  The  Santa  Fe  chose  a  less  expensive  way  of  retaliation.  They 
dropped  the  round-trip  fare  between  Los  Angeles  and  Santa  Monica  to  twenty- 
five  cents  and  on  Saturday  and  Sunday,  October  igth  and  2Oth,  1895,  the  Santa 
Fe  sold  round-trip  tickets  for  five  cents.  Certainly  Santa  Monicans  had  "  reason 
able  rates  "  for  once. 

The  question  of  sewer  bonds  was  again  submitted  to  the  people  this  year 
and  after  some  vigorous  work  on  the  part  of  the  more  progressive  on  September 
3rd  the  $40,000  bonds  were  voted  by  a  majority  of  seven  to  one,  and  thus  the 
first  steps  in  creating  a  sewer  system  were  at  last  taken. 

Among  other  improvements  of  the  year  was  the  building  of  a  new  pavilion 
on  the  beach  by  Eckert  and  Hopf,  the  gentlemen  who  had  probably  banqueted 
more  distinguished  people  than  any  other  firm  in  Southern  California :  the  build 
ing  of  the  Prohibition  Congregational  church  and  the  plans  for  a  Methodist 
church  to  be  built  by  F.  H.  Rindge.  -  On  the  South  Side,  the  Santa  Fe  Company 
were  constructing  their  iron  pipe  wharf ;  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association 
erected  a  pavilion  and  a  number  of  cottages ;  and  a  number  of  other  cottages  and 
brildings  were  erected. 



The  completion  of  the  electric  line  to  Santa  Monica  was  heralded  as  another 
"  Sherman's  March  to  the  Sea."  The  initial  trip  was  made  on  Wednesday, 
April  1st,  1896,  but  it  was  no  April  fool  this  time — at  last  Santa  Monica  had 
a  real  sure  enough  transportation  line.  Over  five  hundred  guests  were  enter 
tained  by  Santa  Monica  in  honor  of  the  day.  The  power  house  was  decorated, 
the  schools  dismissed  at  noon  and  the  population  turned  out  en  masse.  The 
first  car  to  arrive  over  the  line  was  No.  65,  with  Pete  Reel  as  motorneer,  which 
appeared  at  3  140  in  the  afternoon,  bringing  city  and  county  officials  and  prom 
inent  citizens  and  followed  by  a  car  loaded  with  tourists  from  Minneapolis. 
Guns  were  fired  and  bands  played  and  General  Sherman  and  Mayor  Pratt  of 
Minneapolis  were  decorated  with  floral  offerings.  Refreshments  and  speeches 
followed,  the  principal  address  being  made  by  John  W.  Mitchell.  The  officers 
of  the  road  were  Gen.  M.  H.  Sherman,  E.  P.  Clark  and  W.  D.  Larrabee,  to 
whose  enterprise  and  progressive  spirit  the  city  of  Santa  Monica  and  the  entire 
community  owe  one  of  the  most  completely  equipped  and  satisfactory  trolley 
systems  in  the  United  States. 

The  municipal  campaign  this  year  was  a  lively  one,  several  tickets  being  in 
the  field.  As  usual  the  question  of  licenses  was  the  disturbing  element.  The 
election  resulted  in  the  following  officials :  Trustees,  Moses  Hostetter,  Robert 
C.  Gillis  and  J.  J.  Carrillo;  library  trustees,  Dr.  P.  S.  Lindsey,  Fred  H.  Taft,  J. 
Walter  Gray,  T.  H.  Wells  and  William  Stevenson ;  clerk,  Charles  S.  Dales ;  treas 
urer,  E.  W.  Boehme ;  marshal,  George  B.  Dexter.  This  board  took  up  the  con 
tinued  story  of  the  sewer  troubles.  A  contract  had  been  let  to  Frank  H.  Mohr 
to  construct  the  mains,  and  he  put  up  a  certified  check  for  $1000  as  security. 
He  failed  to  make  good  on  his  contract  and  the  check  was  retained  by  the  city. 
The  history  of  this  check  and  the  amount  of  legislation  and  law  expended  upon 
the  matter  would  fill  a  good-sized  volume  in  itself.  In  the  end,  after  a  decision 
by  the  Superior  court,  in  1897,  the  check  was  finally  returned  to  the  assigns  of 
the  contractor.  It  was  discovered  that  the  sewer  bonds  were  illegal  anyway 
after  the  contract  had  been  forfeited,  and  during  the  fall  work  was  begun  on  the 
construction  of  a  main  sewer  under  the  Yrooman  act,  which  is  the  beginning  of 
a  new  chapter  in  sewer  matters. 

In  May  the  police  department  was  created  and  Messrs.  George  F.  See  and 
A.  L.  Forsyth  were  appointed  policemen.  Arrangements  were  completed  this 
year  for  sprinkling  the  streets  with  salt  water.  Owing  to  the  long  continued 
dry  season  the  supply  of  water  for  sprinkling  had  become  diminished  and  economy 
was  necessary  here  as  elsewhere  throughout  Southern  California. 

This  was  one  of  the  gayest  seasons  ever  known  here.  Tournaments,  tennis, 
polo  races,  croquet,  bicycle  meets,  horse  races  and  swimming  contests  furnished 
amusement  for  the  "  smart  set  "  and  the  Sunday  crowds  alike.  Trolley  parties 
were  a  new  entertainment  which  found  favor  and  were  frequent.  In  April  the 



Hotel  Men's  Mutual  Association,  with  representatives  from  all  parts  of  the 
United  States,  were  entertained  with  a  banquet  and  a  day  of  sports,  including 
a  barbecue,  a  battle  of  flowers  and  a  "  ring  "  tournament.  The  Southern  Cali 
fornia  Editorial  Association  was  banqueted  at  the  pavilion  of  Eckert  and  Hopf. 
The  Knights  of  Pythias  held  their  annual  encampment  in  City  Park  and  the 
district  camp  meeting  of  the  Methodist  church  was  held  on  the  ocean  front,  a 
large  tent  having  been  put  up  there  for  their  use.  The  Citrus  Wheelmen  of 
Los  Angeles  opened  a  club  house  on  Utah  avenue.  At  South  Santa  Monica  there 
were  many  campers  and  cottagers,  and  band  concerts  and  lectures  provided  en 

Notwithstanding  the  hard  times  of  a  dry  season,  considerable  building  was 
done  during  the  year  and  a  good  deal  of  street  work  was  put  through. 


In  February,  1897,  the  Santa  Monica  Water  Company  incorporated,  with 
a  capital  stock  of  $1,000,000,  all  subscribed,  Senator  Jones  holding  7845  shares 
of  the  shares  issued.  The  board  of  directors  were  Juan  Bandini,  Charles 
H.  Forbes,  Roy  Jones,  E.  J.  Gorham  and  A.  C.  Hamilton.  The  objects  of  the 
corporation,  "  to  deal  in  real  estate  and  water  rights,  to  erect  buildings,  construct 
reservoirs  and  pipe  lines  for  the  purpose  of  saving  and  distributing  water  for 
domestic  purposes  or  irrigation  and  to  furnish  water  to  any  town  or  city." 

The  local  Third-street  electric  line  was  opened  in  May  and  July  ist  the 
"  short  line  "  via  Sixteenth  street  was  first  put  in  use  and  at  once  proved  popular. 
It  was  double  tracked  and  two  miles  shorter  than  the  old  route  via  Sherman. 
The  entire  line  was  double  tracked  this  year  and  new  cars  added  and  this  most 
important  factor  in  the  evolution  of  the  city  became  at  once  so  popular  that 
the  Southern  Pacific  and  Santa  Fe  steam  lines  were  compelled  to  take  off  their 
trains  because  of  lack  of  patronage. 

On  account  of  the  proximity  of  the  Soldiers'  Home,  Memorial  day  has  al 
ways  been  an  occasion  of  particularly  interesting  and  memorable  services  in 
Santa  Monica.  While  the  exercises  at  the  home  are  always  largely  attended 
and  most  interesting,  a  large  number  of  the  veterans  usually  join  in  the  celebra 
tion  at  Santa  Monica.  Fort  Fisher  Post,  G.  A.  R1.,  and  the  Women's  Relief 
Corps,  with  the  children  of  the  public  schools  have  taken  the  lead  in  these  exer 
cises  and  many  orators  of  note  have  spoken  at  them.  General  Horace  Sargeant 
Binney,  who  was  for  a  number  of  years  a  resident  of  Santa  Monica,  delivered 
some  of  the  most  notable  addresses  on  these  occasions.  Maj.  J.  A.  Donnell  was 
another  favorite  speaker. 

On  June  22nd  the  Queen's  diamond  jubilee  was  celebrated,  one  of  the  gala 
days  in  the  memory  of  Santa  Monicans.  The  affair  was  under  the  auspices  of 
the  British  residents  of  Southern  California,  but  was  participated  in  by  repre 
sentatives  of  every  nation  and  land.  A  day  of  sports  had  been  arranged  and 
many  prizes  offered  and  the  fun  was  fast  and  furious. 


The  revival  meetings  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  Munhall  held  during  June  were  some 
what  novel  in  the  annals  of  Santa  Monica,  as  they  attracted  the  attention  and 
interest  of  large  audiences  and  of  many  who  were  not  in  the  habit  of  attending 
such  services.  The  annual  encampment  of  the  Seventh  Regiment  was  one  of 
the  memorable  events  of  this  summer,  over  five  hundred  members  participating 
and  giving  Santa  Monica  a  taste  of  military  life  with  their  cavalry  men,  naval 
reserves,  drills  and  evolutions,  to  say  nothing  of  the  sports  and  grand  ball.  In 
Tune  four  hundred  members  of  the  Los  Angeles  chamber  of  commerce  banqueted 
at  Eckert  &  Hopf's  pavilion.  These  gentlemen  for  many  years  sustained  the 
reputation  of  serving  the  best  fish  dinner  to  be  found  in  California  and  their 
restaurant  and  pavilion  was  the  scene  of  many  festal  occasions.  The  Arcadia 
was  this  year  sold  by  Simon  Reinhart  to  the  Pacific  Improvement  Company, 
otherwise  the  Southern  Pacific,  and  passed  under  new  management. 

The  board  of  trustees  spent  much  brain  matter  and  nerve  force  in  wrestling 
with  the  sewer  problem.  There  was  all  sorts  of  trouble  over  rights  of  way  for 
the  proposed  sewer  and  the  citizens  protested  strongly  against  the  plans  to  be 
carried  out  under  the  Yrooman  act.  Steps  had  already  been  taken  to  build  the 
main  sewer  and  the  lines  for  it  laid  out,  to  be  carried  to  the  south  city  limits 
and  fifteen  hundred  feet  into  the  ocean  for  discharge.  But,  after  a  public  meet 
ing,  it  was  decided  to  again  call  a  bond  election  and  on  August  4th  the  third 
election  to  vote  sewer  bonds  took  place  and  the  proposition  carried.  A  few 
weeks  later  these  bonds  were  sold  at  a  premium  of  $3355 — nearly  to  the  paralysis 
of  the  board  and  the  town.  This  seems  to  have  been  a  good  year  for  bonds  for 
the  school  bonds,  $15,000,  voted  on  September  4th,  were  also  sold  at  a  large 
premium.  They  bore  interest  at  seven  per  cent.,  however.  After  long  and 
persistent  effort  on  the  part  of  J.  J.  Carrillo,  the  sum  of  $800  was  finally  raised 
for  the  wagon  road  to  the  Calabasas  district.  The  county  added  fifteen  hundred 
and  this  road  was  finally  built :  also  Ocean  avenue  was  opened  to  the  canon 
to  connect  with  the  new  road.  A  systematic  attempt  to  improve  the  bluff,  which 
had  been  named  Linda  Vista  Park,  was  undertaken  this  year. 


The  year  180,8  opened  with  a  vigorous  stirring  up  of  the  saloon  question 
and  the  revoking  of  two  licenses  by  the  board  of  trustees,  for  violation  of  the 
ordinance  regulating  the  business.  This  was  the  occasion  of  much  rejoicing 
on  the  part  of  the  better  element  and  was  the  forerunner  of  better  things,  the 
retail  liquor  license  being  raised  in  April  to  $500.  A  couple  of  weeks  later  five 
saloon  keepers  in  Santa  Monica  canon  were  arrested  for  violating  the  county 

The  "  news  from  Manila  "  and  the  probable  war  was  the  absorbing  interest 
of  this  year.  There  was  much  talk  of  the  inadequacy  of  Pacific  coast  protection 
and  timid  souls  feared  to  find  a  foreign  war  vessel  swooping  into  Santa  Monica 


harbor  at  almost  any  hour.  In  order  to  aid  in  protecting  our  country,  a  com 
pany  of  home  guards  was  organized  in  Santa  Monica,  May  3rd ;  J.  B.  Proctor, 
who  was  a  past  master  in  military  tactics,  being  chosen  captain,  George  Wil 
liams,  who  had  seen  twelve  years  of  service  in  the  regular  army,  was  first  lieuten 
ant  ;  Victor  Hopf,  second  lieutenant.  This  company  enrolled  75  members,  many 
of  them  being  prominent  citizens  of  Santa  Monica  and  a  large  number  of  them 
being  native  Californians.  At  the  Soldiers'  Home  a  company  of  five  hundred 
veterans  was  already  organized  and  had  offered  itself  for  service  at  the  call  of 
the  government.  With  such  an  example  at  hand,  it  is  no  wonder  that  the 
younger  generation  in  the  vicinity  were  enthusiastic.  The  Santa  Monica  com 
pany  was  made  Co.  H  of  the  Eighth  regiment  of  National  Guards.  On  the 
resignation  of  Mr.  E.  J.  Vawter,  Jr.,  who  had  succeeded  Captain  Proctor,  C. 
M.  O'Dell  was  chosen  captain  of  the  organization.  It  soon  became  apparent 
that  the  chances  for  the  Eighth  regiment  to  be  called  into  service  were  slight 
and  such  of  the  members  as  were  anxious  to  get  into  the  field  sought  other  op 
portunities  to  enlist. 

In  March  the  Santa  Monica  Beach  Improvement  Company  was  organized, 
with  a  capital  stock  of  $100,000,  and  with  a  strong  directorate,  consisting  of 
F.  A.  Miller,  then  proprietor  of  the  Hotel  Arcadia :  M.  H.  Sherman,  president 
of  the  Pasadena  and  Pacific  electric  line ;  E.  P.  Clark  of  the  same  company ;  W. 
D.  Larrabee,  superintendent  of  the  electric  road ;  F.  W.  Richardson,  Jacob  Kurtz. 
Robert  F.  Jones,  Charles  H.  Forbes,  W.  H.  Perry,  Roy  Jones  and  R.  C.  Gillis. 
The  company  proposed  to  secure  a  lease  of  the  beach  front,  build  a  pleasure 
wharf,  erect  neat  cottages  and  other  buildings  on  the  beach  and  maintain  and 
operate  boats  for  fishing  and  pleasure. 

The  year  opened  with  prospects  of  two  new  wharves — which  ought  to  have 
satisfied  the  most  exacting.  After  infinite  difficulties,  bids  were  called  for  the 
outfall  sewer  and  the  wharf  to  carry  it ;  but  when  they  were  submitted,  there 
were  so  many  and  strong  protests  that  all  were  rejected.  T.  C.  Elliott  also 
applied  for  a  franchise  to  build  a  wharf  at  the  foot  of  Railroad  street.  This 
proposition  was  looked  upon  favorably  ;  but  the  Southern  Pacific  blocked  it  by 
claiming  a  previous  franchise  to  this  location.  On  Wednesday,  April  I4th,  1898, 
the  contract  for  the  outfall  sewer  was  finally  let  to  Thomas  Thompson  for  the 
sum  of  $11,720,  the  deeds  to  the  right  of  way  having  at  last  been  secured.  In 
June  Kinney  &  Ryan  applied  for  the  use  of  the  piles  for  the  outfall  sewer  for 
wharf  purposes  and  were  granted  the  privilege.  The  same  month  it  was  an 
nounced  that  the  new  pleasure  wharf  would  be  built  between  Railroad  avenue 
and  the  North  Beach  bath  house  and  the  contract  was  let  for  the  same.  Both 
of  these  structures  were  completed  during  the  summer  and  added  much  to  the 
beach  attractions,  as  they  furnished  every  convenience  for  boating  and  fishing. 

The  Lincoln  school  building  was  completed  in  June  and  was  dedicated  by 
the  graduating  exercises  of  the  high  school  class  of  the  year.  In  September 


Santa  Monica  entertained  three  conventions  at  the  same  time,  the  Democratic, 
which  met  in  a  large  tent  on  Ocean  avenue ;  the  Silver  Republican,  which  held 
forth  at  the  Arcadia,  and  the  People's  party,  which  met  in  Odd  Fellows'  hall. 
This  was  the  year  of  fusions  and  a  great  deal  of  "  fusing  "  was  clone  during 
these  sessions,  with  small  results,  as  appeared  in  November. 


January,  1899,  was  marked  by  the  launching  of  the  Santa  Monica  Improve 
ment  Club,  an  organization  which  had  long  been  discussed  and  from  which 
much  was  hoped.  J.  J.  Davis  was  elected  president,  E.  B.  McComas  vice- 
president,  F.  H.  Taft  secretary.  Dr.  S.  P.  Lindsey,  treasurer.  Sub-committees 
on  finance,  licenses,  streets,  pavilion,  transportation,  health  and  veterans'  asso 
ciation  were  appointed  and  a  vigorous  campaign  for  lower  fares ;  for  higher 
license  for  saloons ;  to  secure  the  erection  of  a  suitable  pavilion  for  public  meet 
ings  ;  and  to  capture  the  annual  encampment  of  the  veterans'  association  was 
begun.  But  like  many  other  good  things  in  Santa  Monica,  the  Improvement  Club 
seems  to  have  exhausted  its  energy  in  getting  started  and  it  soon  disappears  from 
the  scene,  having  accomplished  only  one  very  substantial  change.  Largely 
through  its  efforts  the  liquor  license  was  this  year  raised  from  $300  to  $500.  A 
lively  contest  between  the  saloon  men  and  the  druggists  followed  this  action. 
It  was  claimed  that  the  druggists  were  regularly  selling  liquor  without  paying 
any  license,  and  after  considerable  sparring,  a  suit  was  begun  against  a  drug 
gist.  The  druggists,  however,  pleaded  unintentional  violation  of  ordinance  and 
the  suits  were  dropped. 

During  this  year  the  electric  line  on  Ocean  avenue  to  Montana  was  built 
and  the  first  car  was  run  on  December  28th.  In  October  the  Southern  Pacific 
reduced  its  train  service  to  one  train  a  day,  instead  of  three.  As  they  had  the 
contract  for  carrying  the  mails,  this  aroused  great  indignation  and  caused  much 
inconvenience  to  the  business  men  of  the  town.  Vigorous  protests  were  made 
and  resulted  in  a  mail  service  over  the  electric  road.  In  August  it  was 
announced  that  a  new  electric  line  was  proposed  between  Santa  Monica  and 
Redondo.  Mr.  Abbot  Kinney  was  the  originator  of  the  scheme  and  was  con 
fident  that  the  project  would  be  carried  out,  thus  opening  up  a  section  of  beach 
territory  that  had  not  yet  been  utilized  and  establishing  a  new  and  strong 
attraction  for  the  tourist  as  well  as  a  new  and  rapid  transit  line.  This  plan  did 
not  materialize  at  the  time,  but  it  has  since  been  carried  out  in  the  Playa  del 
Rev  and  Redondo  line.  Another  ambitious  scheme  which  was  ahead  of  the 
time  was  the  formation  of  the  San  Pedro  and  Santa  Monica  Excursion  Com 
pany,  which  put  the  little  steamer,  J.  C.  Elliott,  on  to  make  daily  trips  between 
the  two  points,  landing  at  the  Kinney  and  Ryan  wharf.  Some  very  enjoyable 
trips  were  thus  made,  but  the  venture  did  not  prove  profitable  and  was  dropped. 

Among  new  brildings  of  this  year  were  an  addition  to  the  Bank  of  Santa 


Monica,  the  Collins  building,  corner  of  Utah  and  Second :  the  Tappener  block 
on  Third  street,  and  the  new  power  house  of  the  Santa  Monica 
Electric  Company  on  the  beach.  This  was  a  substantial  improvement 
costing  some  $25,000.  The  gas  plant  was  also  built  this  year,  including  the 
largest  gas  tank  in  the  state,  the  entire  expenditure  being  over  $40,000.  Gas 
was  turned  into  the  mains  December  I4th  and  was  a  much  appreciated  improve 
ment.  In  July,  Mr.  R.  C.  Gillis  purchased  1,000  feet  of  beach  front,  north  of 
the  North  Beach  Bathhouse,  put  in  a  walk  and  erected  several  well  constructed 
cottages.  The  Sisters  of  the  Holy  Name  selected  Santa  Monica  as  a  site  for  their 
convent  this  year  and  opened  their  school  on  Fourth  street  during  the  construc 
tion  of  their  handsome  building  on  the  corner  of  Third  and  Arizona.  December 
27th  saw  the  destruction  by  fire  of  the  Casino,  which  was  built  by  the  Santa 
Monica  Improvement  Company  in  1888  and  which  had  been  the  summer  home 
of  tennis  in  Southern  California  for  many  years  and  had  seen  many  brilliant 
social  affairs.  The  fire  was  evidently  the  work  of  an  incendiary  and  caused  a 
heavy  loss  as  the  insurance  was  small. 

PORT  Los  ANGELES. — From  the  time  of  the  abandonment  of  the  Santa 
Monica  wharf  by  the  Southern  Pacific  Company,  in  1878,  until  the  building 
of  the  "  Long  Wharf ''  in  1892-3,  the  people  of  this  city  hoped  and  worked  for 
a  new  commercial  wharf,  which  they  firmly  believed  was  all  that  was  necessary 
to  make  their  town  an  important  center  of  commerce.  During  the  later 
eighties  and  1890-91,  the  agitation  for  securing  a  wharf  was  constant  and 
sometimes  became  acrimonious. 

About  this  time  it  became  certain  that  the  Santa  Fe  would  build  into  Santa 
Monica.  It  also  became  evident  that  the  new  wharf  completed  in  1888  at  Redondo 
was  seriously  encroaching  on  the  business  of  San  Pedro  harbor  and  diverting 
freight  from  the  Southern  Pacific  to  the  Santa  Fe  road.  On  Sunday,  May  20. 
1890,  C.  P.  Hvmtington,  Col.  Crocker  and  other  Southern  Pacific  officials,  visited 
Santa  Monica  and  made  a  careful  examination  of  the  town  and  surroundings. 
Mr.  Huntington  listened  attentively  to  the  arguments  which  various  citizens 
presented  as  to  the  expediency  of  building  a  wharf  at  Santa  Monica,  and  the 
great  railroad  magnate  assured  them  that  Santa  Monica  ought  to  have  a  wharf. 
After  this,  other  S.  P.  men  visited  the  town  and  the  citizens  of  Santa  Monica 
appointed  a  committee  to  visit  San  Francisco  and  confer  with  the  officials  of  the 
Southern  Pacific  and  make  propositions  looking  to  the  building  of  a  wharf, — 
even  proposing  to  raise  a  subsidy  to  secure  the  prize.  The  community  was  kept 
in  uncertainty  as  to  the  intention  of  the  railroad  people  until  1890  when  the 
Southern  Pacific  applied  for  a  wharf  franchise  and  put  up  a  $5000  bond  if  the 
work  were  not  begun  within  the  specified  time. 

In  August,  1891,  a  corps  of  S.  P.  surveyors  arrived,  made  camp  in  the 
canyon,  and  began  to  make  surveys.  It  was  then  learned  that  the  S.  P.  Com 
pany  had  secured  title  through  Abbot  Robinson  to  the  Santa  Monica  Heights 


property,  owned  by  Abbot  Kinney,  247  acres  on  the  north  side  of  the  canyon, 
with  several  hundred  feet  of  beach  frontage.  It  was  also  learned  that  right  of 
way  on  the  beach  had  been  secured  from  Railroad  street  to  the  property  of  the 
company.  By  January,  1892,  it  was  understood  that  the  wharf  was  to  be  built 
north  of  the  canyon  and  was  to  be  the  "  longest  wharf  of  its  kind  in  the  world." 
The  people  of  Santa  Monica  were  at  first  disappointed  at  the  location  of  the  new 
structure  but  when  they  learned  of  the  elaborate  plans  to  be  carried  out,  they 
were  satisfied  to  have  the  finest  wharf  in  California — no  matter  where  it  was 

March  6,  1892,  the  tunnel  from  the  Railroad  street  to  the  beach  was  com 
pleted  so  that  the  first  train  went  through  it.  July  25th  the  first  pile  was  driven. 
The  work  was  under  the  supervision  of  the  Thomson  Bridge  Company,  of  San 
Francisco,  and  was  pushed  as  rapidly  as  men  and  money  could  carry  it.  In 
November,  J.  M.  Crawley  General  Manager  of  the  S.  P.  brought  down  an 
excursion  of  200  merchants  and  members  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  from 
Los  Angeles  to  inspect  the  new  structure  which  was  then  2100  feet  long;  and  a 
little  later  H.  E.  Huntington,  J.  C.  Stubbs  and  others  of  the  S.  P.  officials  in 
spected  the  work  and  fully  concurred  in  the  decision  that  the  best  possible  loca 
tion  for  the  wharf  had  been  selected. 

The  first  steamer  landed  on  May  i3th,  and  the  Outlook,  under  the  heading 
'The  Dawn  of  Prosperity"  discourses  thus:  ''Thursday,  May  nth,  1893, 
will  long  be  remembered  as  a  day  fraught  with  deep  significance  to  Santa 
Monica.  It  was  the  forerunner  of  an  era  of  prosperity  which  shall  grow  into 
a  permanent  benefit,  with  results  reaching  into  far  ages.  The  important  event 
was  the  landing  of  the  first  deep  sea-vessel  at  the  mammoth  wharf,  now  nearly 
completed.  The  steamer  San  Mateo,  of  Comax,  B.  C.,  with  a  cargo  of  430x3 
tons  of  coal  consigned  to  the  Southern  Pacific,  (Captain  Edward  Parks) 
enjoyed  the  honor  of  being  the  maiden  vessel  to  touch  at  Port  Los  Angeles. 

The  citizens  turned  out  in  force  to  welcome  the  steamer,  and  fully  1000 
people  were  present  on  the  occasion,  laden  with  flowers,  the  bright  hues  of  which 
transformed  the  big  collier  into  a  "  bower  of  beauty."  Some  of  the  citizens  of 
Santa  Monica  had  prepared  speeches  for  the  happy  occasion,  but  evidently  the 
flowers  were  enough  for  the  old  salt  who  commanded  the  San  Mateo.  The 
speeches  were  cut  out.  The  editor  of  the  Outlook  had  the  advantage  of  the 
rest,  however, — he  published  his  remarks  in  the  next  issue.  Among  them  we 
find  this  statement :  "  The  full  significance  of  the  opening  of  the  deep  sea-port, 
where  rail  and  ship  come  together  in  this  particular  portion  of  the  southwest, 
is  not  yet  apparent.  It  is  a  link  in  a  grand  commercial  chain  that  will  eventually 
belt  the  globe  with  the  shortest  and  quickest  commercial  transit." 

It  was  confidently  believed  at  this  time  that  the  completion  of  this  wharf 
would  have  an  important  bearing  upon  the  "  harbor  question  "  and  might  ulti 
mately  result  in  making  Santa  'Monica  Bay  the  deep-sea  harbor  of  this  coast.  In 


the  light  of  present  developments,  the  importance  attached  to  the  building  of 
the  wharf  seems  rather  exaggerated;  but  it  was  generally  thought  at  this  time 
that  only  facilities  for  shipping  were  needed  to  secure  the  trade  of  the  Orient. 
The  fact  that  trade  necessitates  reciprocity  seems  to  have  been  overlooked. 

The  wharf  constructed  at  Port  Los  Angeles  was  certainly  a  structure  worthy 
of  attention  and  admiration.  The  last  spike  was  driven  by  Vice-president 
Stevenson,  who  happened  to  be  visiting  in  Santa  Monica  at  the  time,  on  July 
I4th,  1893.  The  structure  is  4,700  feet  from  the  shore.  The  Long  Beach 
wharf,  completed  in  May,  of  the  same  year,  is  1600  feet;  the  Redondo  wharf 
was  800  feet,  and  the  Outlook  chronicles  the  San  Pedro  wharf  as  "  o  "  feet  in 
length.  In  August  the  new  pier  was  carefully  inspected  by  the  Board  of  Ex 
aminers  representing  the  various  Marine  Insurance  companies  and  shipowners 
and  merchants.  They  stated :  "  A  careful  examination  of  the  structure  showed 
that  in  design  and  execution  every  precaution  had  been  taken  for  strength,  and 
due  regard  for  safety  while  at  same."-  -"In  view  of  the  foregoing  facts  and  with 
the  experience  gained  by  many  year's  use  of  other  outside  ports  in  that  vicinity 
that  are  similarly  situated,  we  are  of  the  opinion  that  Port  Los  Angeles  is  a 
suitable  port  of  discharge  and  loading  for  steamers  and  sailing  vessels." 

In  October  the  depot  at  the  end  of  the  wharf  was  completed  and  the  dining 
room  opened  with  a  banquet  to  the  wharf  builders  and  several  Santa  Monica 
people.  The  wharf  was  at  this  time  placed  under  the  charge  of  A.  M.  Jamison, 
agent,  who  still  retains  this  position ;  T.  M.  Polhemus,  chief  clerk ;  F.  H.  Oswald 
and  W.  T.  Maher,  clerks ;  and  Captain  F.  E.  Dronfield,  who  had  general  super 
vision  of  the  wharf  and  charge  of  the  tug  Collis. 

The  approach  of  the  wharf  proper  is  3120  feet  long  and  26  feet  wide.  On 
the  south  side  is  a  walkway  eight  feet  wide  with  railing  on  both  sides.  The 
materials  used  in  the  approach  were  1500  piles,  975,000  feet  of  lumber  and  37 
tons  of  bolts  and  spikes.  The  main  wharf  widens  out  to  130  feet  and  is  over 
1500  feet  in  length.  On  the  north  side  are  coal  bunkers  and  on  the  south  the 
depot,  warehouses  and  every  convenience  for  passengers  and  shippers.  The 
piles,  of  Oregon  pine,  were  creosoted  and  set  in  such  a  manner  as  to  make  the 
wharf  practically  immovable.  It  is  known  as  one  of  the  most  substantially  built 
wharfs  in  the  world  and  has  stood  the  test  of  fifteen  years  without  strain. 

The  Southern  Pacific  Company,  in  locating  its  wharf  here  was  obliged  to 
do  extensive  work  in  order  to  secure  a  proper  approach  and  ground  for  neces 
sary  warehouses,  engine  houses,  and  so  on.  The  entire  expenditure  for  the 
Port  Los  Angeles  undoubtedly  reached  a  million  dollars. 

As  soon  as  completed  the  passenger  business  between  Los  Angeles  and  San 
Francisco  practically  ceased  at  other  ports,  as  so  much  time  was  gained  by  land 
ing  at  Port  Los  Angeles.  Los  Angeles  was  made  a  Port  of  Entry  in  1893,  with 
Port  Los  Angeles,  Redondo  and  San  Pedro  as  sub-ports.  Deep-sea  vessels, 
which  could  not  enter  the  inner  harbor  at  San  Pedro,  but  must  unload  by  the 


aid  of  lighters,  came  to  Port  Los  Angeles  and  nearly  all  deep-sea  vessels  reach 
ing  this  coast  since  the  completion  of  this  pier  unload  here.  In  the  earlier  years 
of  its  construction  Port  Los  Angeles  was  the  point  of  entry  for  the  coal  used 
on  the  Southern  Pacific  system,  and  this  item  alone  created  a  large  business. 
Very  large  shipments  of  railroad  ties  were  also  delivered  here.  With  the  adop 
tion  of  oil  as  a  fuel  on  the  railroads,  shipments  of  coal  have  fallen  off  and,  with 
the  improvement  of  San  Pedro  inner  harbor  so  that  coastwise  vessels  can  land, 
lumber  shipments  have  decreased.  But  the  bulk  of  the  deep  sea  tonnage  is 
received  at  Port  Los  Angeles,  and  is  constantly  increasing.  Some  statistics  may 
be  of  interest :  In  1903,  283  vessels  entered  at  Port  Los  Angeles  and  302  sailed ; 
18,733  passengers  entered  and  15,676  sailed.  The  import  duties  received  were 
$311,740;  in  1904-5  the  duties  were  $309,826.48;  in  1905-6  duties  and  tonnage 
amounted  to  $513,939.96. 


The  question  of  the  location  of  a  deep-sea  harbor  to  be  constructed  by  the 
government  of  the  United  States  upon  the  coast  of  Southern  California  was, 
for  ten  years,  1889-1899,  the  most  vital  interest  of  Santa  Monica.  It  is  true  that 
the  contest  was  waged  for  the  most  part  in  Los  Angeles  and  Washington  and 
between  forces  which  gave  little  consideration  to  the  interests  of  the  town  of 
Santa  Monica.  It  became,  indeed,  a  national  question  in  which  individual  inter 
est  was  supposed  to  have  little  bearing;  yet  it  directly  affected  every  citizen  of 
Santa  Monica  and  made  the  name  of  this  place  a  familiar  one  in  the  political 
and  commercial  world. 

From  the  time  of  the  building  of  the  first  wharf  at  Santa  Monica  in  1875, 
the  possibility  of  a  breakwater  and  improvements  which  would  make  of  this  a 
safe  harbor  of  refuge  and  of  commerce  had  been  discussed.  As  the  commercial 
importance  of  Southern  California  increased,  it  became  evident  that  in  time  the 
government  must  assist  in  creating  a  harbor  on  this  coast.  Since  1871  efforts 
had  been  made  toward  making  an  inner  harbor  at  San  Pedro  and  up  to  1892  one 
million  dollars  had  been  expended  upon  operations  there.  After  the  great  ex 
pansion  in  business  of  the  later  eighties,  the  question  of  what  was  to  be  done 
toward  creating  a  deep-sea  harbor  was  pressed  at  Washington  and  in  response 
to  it,  a  number  of  distinguished  men,  members  of  the  Committee  of  Commerce 
of  the  United  States  Senate,  visited  California. 

During  all  the  years  of  his  editorship  of  the  Outlook,  L.  T.  Fisher  had 
made  a  careful  study  of  the  conditions  here.  He  was  also  thoroughly  familiar 
with  affairs  at  Wilmington.  He  had  been  assured  by  Captain  H.  C.  Taylor,  who  in 
1874-5  conducted  the  coast  survey  on  this  coast  and  made  a  chart  of  this  bay,  that  the 
conditions  here  were  favorable  to  a  deep-sea  harbor,  and  he  had  consistently  and 
effectively  proclaimed  the  advantages  of  Santa  Monica  as  a  sea-port. 

October  I3th,  1889.  the  Outlook  publishes  a  "challenge"  as  follows:     "We 


challenge  Colonel  Mendell,  Dr.  Widney,  General  Brierly,  and  all  others  who 
favor  San  Pedro  as  the  best  place  for  a  harbor  for  deep-sea  vessels  to  success 
fully  disprove  the  following  propositions : 

ist.  Santa  Monica  is  nearer  by  at  least  eight  miles,  to  Los  Angeles,  the 
commercial  and  railroad  center  of  Southern  California,  than  San  Pedro. 

2nd.  Santa  Monica  Bay,  by  virtue  of  its  shape,  depth  of  water  and  general 
topography,  is  a  more  suitable  place  for  a  deep-sea  harbor  than  San  Pedro. 

3rd.  Santa  Monica  Harbor,  when  enclosed  by  a  breakwater,  will  remain 
unchanged  for  all  time  to  come,  while  a  similar  enclosure  at  San  Pedro  will 
rapidly  shoal  and  become  worthless  in  less  than  a  quarter  of  a  century. 

4th.  Santa  Monica  is  within  a  few  miles  of  the  material  for  a  break 
water,  which  can  be  obtained  at  less  than  two-thirds  of  the  expense  required  at 
San  Pedro. 

5th.  Santa  Monica  having  these  advantages,  it  is  neither  the  part  of  wisdom 
nor  of  economy,  for  the  general  government  to  expend  a  large  sum  of  money 
upon  a  less  favored  community." 

October  26th,  1889,  Senator  Frye,  chairman  of  the  Senate  Committee  on 
Commerce,  with  Senators  Dawe,  of  Massachusetts ;  Platt,  of  Connecticut ;  Davis, 
of  Minnesota ;  Morgan  of  Alabama  and  Turpie  of  Indiana,  visited  San  Pedro 
and  was  shown  the  proposed  deep  water  habor  by  Dr.  Widney,  Col.  Mendell 
and  others  interested.  On  this  occasion,  after  listening  to  their  eloquent  ex 
planations,  Senator  Frye  remarked :  "  Well,  as  near  as  I  can  make  out,  you 
propose  to  ask  the  Government  to  create  a  harbor  for  you  out  of  the  whole 
cloth.  The  Lord  has  not  given  you  much  to  start  with,  that  is  certain."  A 
day  or  two  later  the  same  party  visited  Santa  Monica,  spending  a  couple  of 
days  here,  as  the  guests  of  Senator  Jones.  That  they  were  favorably  impressed 
is  shown  by  their  remarks  quoted  in  the  following  issue  of  the  Outlook.  One 
of  them,  after  taking  a  view  from  the  bluff,  said,  "  Why,  this  is  a  better  place 
for  a  harbor  than  San  Pedro."  Another  declared,  "  more  can  be  done  here  with 
$2000  than  can  be  accomplished  at  San  Pedro  with  $10,000.  A  third  pointed 
to  the  mouth  of  Santa  Monica  canyon  and  declared  that  nature  certainly  intended 
that  spot  for  a  dock  for  repairing  and  building  vessels.  All  of  this,  it  must  be 
remembered,  was  before  there  was  any  question  of  railroad  control.  It  was 
considering  the  harbor  proposition  from  a  purely  unbiased  standpoint,  by  men 
who  had  no  interest,  except  to  secure  the  best  returns  for  the  money  expended 
by  the  United  States  government. 

In  January,  1890,  the  Santa  Monica  Board  of  Trade  sent  a  strong  resolu 
tion  to  General  Vandever,  then  representing  this  district  in  Congress,  asking 
him  to  call  attention  to  the  commercial  need  of  a  deep  sea  harbor  and  present 
the  claims  of  Santa  Monica  Bay  for  the  consideration  of  the  government.  As 
a  result  of  the  agitation  for  a  deep-sea  harbor  located  6n  the  shores  of  Southern 
California,  $5000  was  appropriated  to  pay  the  expense  of  preparing 


a  project  for  a  deep-sea  harbor,  to  be  located  between  Points  Dume  and  Capis- 
trano.  A  Board  of  Engineers  of  the  War  Department,  consisting  of  Col.  G. 
H.  Mendell,  Lieut-Col.  G.  L.  Gillispie  and  Lieut.-Col.  W.  H.  H.  Benyaurd, 
was  appointed.  Of  these  men,  Col.  Mendell  had  been  connected  with  the  pro 
jects  for  improving  the  inner  harbor  at  San  Pedro  since  1871  and  Col.  Benyaurd 
was  then  in  charge  of  the  work  being  done  at  that  point.  Naturally  it  Was 
objected  that  they  could  not  be  expected  to  give  an  impartial  judgment.  Novem 
ber  8th,  1890  these  gentlemen  visited  Santa  Monica  and  were  driven  about  the 
town  and  taken  out  to  the  canyon  to  inspect  the  supply  of  stone  in  Cold  Water 
canyon.  They  spent  two  days  in  this  vicinity,  made  an  examinationn  of  Ballona, 
Redondo  and  of  other  points  and  then  went  to  San  Francisco.  December  igth, 
1891  the  report  of  this  committee  was  submitted  to  Congress.  Its  conclusions 
were :  "  In  view  of  the  fact  that  San  Pedro  Bay  in  its  natural  condition  affords 
better  protection  both  from  prevailing  winds  and  from  dangerous  storms  than  Santa 
Monica  Bay; 

"That  protection  can  be  secured  at  a  less  cost  for  equal  development  of 
breakwater  at  the  former  than  at  the  latter ; 

"That  a  larger  area  of  protected  anchorage  from  the  prevailing  westerly 
swells  can  be  secured,  the  severe  storms  from  the  southwest  being  infrequent ; 

"And  that  there  is  already  an  interior  harbor  that  will  be  a  valuable  addition 
to  the  outer  harbor ; 

"The  Board  considers  San  Pedro  Bay  as  the  better  location  for  the  deep- 
water  harbor  provided  for  by  the  act." 

Of  course,  the  advocates  of  Santa  Monica  questioned  whether  any  one  of 
these  conclusions  was  borne  out  by  an  unbiased  examination  into  the  facts. 

The  Chamber  of  Commerce  of  Los  Angeles  had  already  taken  a  prominent 
part  in  urging  the  necessity  of  a  deep-water  harbor  in  the  vicinity  of  Los  Angeles. 
It  now  took  decided  action  to  secure  an  appropriation  for  San  Pedro.  A  com 
mittee  consisting  of  H.  Z.  Osborne,  Collector  of  Port;  Henry  T.  Hazard, 
W.  H.  Workman,  Hervey  Lindley  and  James  Cuzner,  drew  up  a  memorial  to 
Congress  and  Gen.  Lionel  A.  Sheldon  was  sent  to  Washington  as  the  representa 
tive  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce,  to  assist  Mr.  Bowers,  then  representing  this 

It  was  by  this  time  generally  known  that  the  Southern  Pacific  had  decided 
to  abandon  its  wharf,  upon  which  it  had  already  expended  a  very  large  sum,  at 
San  Pedro  and  build  the  wharf  at  Port  Los  Angeles.  This  put  a  new  face  upon 
the  situation.  When  it  was  known  that  one  of  the  longest  and  most  substantial 
wharves  in  the  world  was  to  be  put  in  at  this  point,  it  was  felt  that  a  new  and 
powerful  argument  had  been  added  to  those  already  presented  in  favor  of  Santa 
Monica.  And  when  it  became  evident  that  Collis  P.  Huntington  had  decided 
that  Santa  Monica  was  the  place  for  a  deep-water  harbor  it  was  felt  that  victory 
was  almost  certain.  And  yet,  the  very  fact  of  Mr.  Huntington's  advocacy  and 


influence,  was  probably  the  fatal  cause  of  San  Pedro's  final  selection  as  the 
point  for  the  harbor.  Another  new  factor  in  the  situation  was  the  Terminal 
railway  which,  in  1891,  built  from  Los  Angeles  to  San  Pedro  and  secured  large 
holdings  at  San  Pedro  in  anticipation  of  harbor  facilities. 

When  the  matter  of  an  appropriation  for  San  Pedro  was  brought  up  in 
Congress  the  item  was  thrown  out  and  a  clause  was  inserted  authorizing  a  board 
of  five  engineers,  officers  of  the  United  States  Army,  to  make  a  careful  and 
critical  examination  for  a  proposed  deep-water  harbor  at  San  Pedro  or  Santa 
Monica  Bays  and  to  report  "  which  is  a  more  eligible  location  for  such  a  harbor 
in  depth,  width  and  capacity  to  accommodate  the  largest  ocean-going  vessels, 
and  the  commercial  and  naval  necessities  of  the  country,  together  with  an  esti 
mate  for  the  cost  of  the  same." 

In  the  summer  of  1892,  this  new  board,  consisting  of  Colonel  Wm.  P. 
Craighill,  Lieut.-Col.  Henry  M.  Robert,  Lieut.-Col.  Peter  C.  Hains,  Major  C. 
VV.  Raymond,  and  Major  Thomas  H.  Handbury,  all  of  the  United  States  corps 
of  engineers  was  appointed  and  in  September  they  arrived  on  the-  coast  and 
announced  a  public  meeting  at  the  rooms  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce,  Los 
Angeles.  The  Santa  Monica  side  of  the  case  was  presented  by  Judge  Carpenter, 
the  San  Pedro  case  was  handled  by  J.  de  Barth  Shorb,  with  Mr.  Hood  of  the 
S.  P.  and  Mr.  Gibbon  of  the  Terminal,  as  their  respective  assistants.  This  board 
submitted  an  elaborate  and  technical  report  which  the  editor  of  the  Outlook 
reviews  in  a  thorough  manner.  He  says :  "  The  engineers  of  this  board  appear 
to  be  handicapped  also  by  circumstances.  They  were  appointed  by  the  Secre 
tary  of  War,  who  is  a  large  stockholder  in  a  railroad  terminating  at  San  Pedro. 

Then  again,  the  preceding  corps  of  engineers  are  government  officers  and 
it  is  difficult  to  get  these  army  people  to  decide  one  against  another,  except  there 
be  some  very  glaring  necessity  for  it.  That  Board  should  never  have  consisted 
wholly  of  army  engineers,  however  well  they  may  have  been  selected.  No  such 
body  of  men  is  capable  of  giving  the  best  decision.  Two  of  the  men  should  have 
been  competent  engineers,  one  a  citizen  and  the  other  a  government  engineer : 
another  shot-Id  have  been  a  broad-guage  commercial  man,  another  a  reputable 
navigator  and  another  a  well-known  and  capable  railroad  man.  Such  a  com 
mittee  would  have  represented  every  phase  of  the  question  in  the  most  competent 

We  have  before  us  a  copy  of  the  report  of  the  Board  which  contains  120 
pages,  26  of  which  constitute  the  report  proper.  A  large  share  of  the  volume  is 
irrelevant  matter.  One  of  the  appendices  consists  of  18  pages  of  shipping 
statistics  of  Redondo.  Turning  to  the  report  proper,  there  is  a  great  deal  of 
rubbish  to  be  cleared  away  in  order  to  get  at  the  real,  competing  facts.  When 
we  come  to  the  claims  of  San  Pedro  and  Santa  Monica  as  Harbor  sites,  which 
is  the  real  question,  it  will  be  observed  that  these  engineers  draw  largely  on  the 
report  of  their  predecessors,  whose  work  they  were  sent  out  here  to  revise  and 


supplement.  Another  fact  that  crops  out  throughout  the  report,  is  the  effort 
made  to  lessen  the  objections  to  San  Pedro  and  exaggerate  those  of  Santa 
Monica.  Nor  are  the  comparisons  at  all  times  fair.  The  important  features  of 
the  discussion  are  literally  buried  under  a  mountain  of  verbosity  and  considera 
tion  of  irrelevant  topics  which  makes  the  report  exceedingly  confusing  to  the 
general  reader. 

In  noticing  the  shore  line  of  Santa  Monica  Bay  the  report  mentions  the 
rocky  places,  in  front  of  which  it  is  not  proposed  to  place  a  breakwater  and 
neglects  the  real  point  from  the  S.  P.  Wharf,  southward,  where  there  are  no 
rocks  and  a  good  bottom  for  pile  driving  and  anchorage.  Again,  on  San  Pedro 
Bay,  from  Point  Fermin  to  Timm's  Point,  all  of  which  will  form  a  part  of  the 
shore  line  in  the  harbor,  it  is  very  rocky.  This  fact  is  not  noticed,  but  mention 
is  specially  made  of  the  shore  line  further  south  where  there  are  no  rocks,  and 
which  will  not  be  within  the  limits  of  the  harbor.  It  is  claimed  that  the  bottom 
is  irregular  in  the  bay  of  Santa  Monica,  deepening  towards  Point  Dume  and  to 
wards  Point  Vincent.  This  is  correct.  But  the  bottom  is  regular  and  the  water 
deepens  gradually,  at  the  point  where  it  is  proposed  to  locate  the  harbor.  The 
area  of  San  Pedro  Bay  is  said  to  be  a  plateau,  with  the  five  fathom  line  half  a 
mile  from  shore  and  with  a  rocky  bottom  in  the  present  anchorage,  as  is  shown 
by  the  presence  of  kelp.  The  facts  show  that  the  water  is  deep  enough  at 
either  place,  with  rocks  at  San  Pedro  and  none  at  Santa  Monica.  Then  where 
does  the  superiority  of  San  Pedro  come  in  ? 

It  is  admitted  that  Santa  Monica  Bay  is  protected  to  the  southward  by  the 
highlands  and  at  the  proposed  harbor  site  it  is  protected  from  the  northwest — 
the  exposure  being  mainly  on  the  southwest.  Catalina  Island,  it  is  admitted, 
also  adds  in  some  degree  as  a  shelter.  San  Pedro  Bay  is  protected  from  a 
northwester,  and  to  some  extent  by  Catalina,  but  entirely  exposed  to  a  south 
easter.  It  quotes  from  the  report  of  1890  and  admits,  "  The  aggregate  angle  of 
the  exposure  of  the  two  bays  is  the  same."  Then,  we  ask  again,  what  advantage 
has  San  Pedro  over  Santa  Monica?  in  the  way  of  protection? 

Santa  Monica  bay  has  also  the  advantage  in  being  nearer  Los  Angeles,  but 
the  matter  is  slurred  over  with  the  remark  that  the  cost  of  transportation  depends 
upon  grades  and  curves,  and  that  the  distance  was  so  small  that  it  was  thought 
unnecessary  to  give  them  any  important  weight  in  selecting  a  site.  With  all 
deference  to  these  learned  gentlemen,  we  say  that  it  is  important.  Fourteen 
miles  in  the  round  trip  for  a  hundred  cars  a  day  (which  is  not  a  large  day's 
run)  would  be  1400  miles  on  one  car — nearly  half  the  distance  to  New  York. 

Upon  the  cost  of  construction,  the  engineers  differ.  The  report  contends 
that  rock  could  be  transported  by  the  scow-load  from  Catalina  Island,  twenty-one 
miles  distant,  to  San  Pedro  cheaper  than  the  same  amount  of  material  could  be 
brought  from  Coldwater  canyon,  eleven  miles  down  grade  by  rail  to  Santa 
Monica.  Equally  competent  engineers  deny  this  proposition. 


As  we  have  before  said,  a  harbor  is  an  improvement  whose  utility  extends 
indefinitely  into  the  future.  It  is  therefore  of  the  first  importance  that  a  site 
should  be  selected  where  the  status  of  the  harbor  is  least  likely  to  be  disturbed. 
It  is  a  well-known  fact  that  the  offing  at  San  Pedro,  which  will  be  included  in 
the  breakwater,  has  been  shoaling-  for  years,  and  that  it  would  only  be  a  question 
of  time  when  the  harbor  would  lose  its  usefulness,  or  else  have  to  be  kept  open 
by  expensive  dredging.  Even  Col.  Mendell  admitted  this  point  to  the  writer. 
Then  why  not,  if  necessary,  expend  a  larger  amount  for  a  permanent  harbor 
at  Santa  Monica?" 

After  the  making  of  this  report,  the  Los  Angeles  Chamber  of  Commerce 
sent  Gen.  Charles  Forman  as  a  special  delegate  to  Congress,  accompanied  by  T. 
E.  Gibbon.  They  were  the  bearer  of  numerous  petitions  and  resolutions  from 
various  individuals  and  organizations  of  Southern  California,  urging  an  immediate 
appropriation  for  the  San  Pedro  harbor.  But  it  was  a  "  short  session  "  and  it 
was  stated  that  appropriations  would  not  be  large,  and,  in  fact,  none  was  made. 
It  was  now  claimed  that  the  Southern  Pacific  was  exercising  undue  influence  to 
prevent  the  appropriation  for  San  Pedro  and  the  slogan  of  the  "  free  harbor  " 
was  taken  up.  The  Los  Angeles  Times  threw  itself  into  the  fight  with  all  its 
vigor  and  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  took  a  decided  stand  in  favor  of  San 
Pedro.  But  the  completion  of  the  long  wharf  and  the  advantages  thus  given  to 
Los  Angeles  merchants  led  many  to  begin  to  look  upon  the  possibility  that,  after 
all,  Santa  Monica  might  not  be  so  far  off  in  her  claims.  A  petition  signed  by 
eighty-three  merchants  of  Los  Angeles  representing  over  ten  millions  of  busi 
ness  capital  was  drawn  up  and  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  was  asked  to  endorse  it, 
which  asked  for  an  appropriation  for  "  the  construction  of  a  breakwater  and 
creation  of  a  harbor  at  Santa  Monica,  independent  of  any  appropriation  which 
may  be  needed  to  maintain  in  good  condition  what  is  known  as  the  inner  harbor 
of  San  Pedro  and  Wilmington." 

A  compromise  resolution,  asking  an  appropriation  for  a  deep-water  harbor 
at  Santa  Monica  and  also  to  dredge  out  and  improve  the  inner  harbor  at  San 
Pedro,  was  proposed,  and  a  vigorous  protest  against  both  these  resolutions  was 
made.  Mr.  C.  D.  Willard,  in  his  Free  Harbor  Contest,  says :  "  The  sessions 
of  the  board  were  supposed  to  be  executive,  but  a  reporter  of  the  Express 
managed  to  smuggle  himself  into  the  room  as  an  assistant  clerk  and  remained 
there  through  the  whole  session.  The  next  day  the  members  of  the  Chamber 
became  aware,  through  the  publication  of  the  debate,  that  the  board  was  any 
thing  but  unanimous  on  the  subject  of  the  harbor  site  and  the  discussion  was 
taken  up  in  earnest  all  over  the  city.  Henry  T.  Hazard,  who  was  at  that  time 
mayor  of  the  city,  led  the  debate  on  the  San  Pedro  side,  seconded  by  Mr.  Patter 
son  and  Gen.  Forman  ;  and  the  principal  Santa  Monica  advocates  were  Mr.  James 
B.  Lankershim  and  Mr.  L.  N.  Breed.  On  three  different  occasions,  when  the 
matter  was  about  to  come  to  a  vote,  an  adjournment  was  secured.  Tn  the  course 


of  the  long  debate,  Santa  Monica  gained  and  San  Pedro  lost.  At  first  it  was 
the  Santa  Monica  men  that  dared  not  come  to  a  vote,  but  in  the  end  the  condi 
tions  were  reversed  and  it  was  clear  that  if  a  decision  were  reached  in  the  board, 
it  must  be  against  San  Pedro." 

"  As  a  result  of  this  situation,  when  it  became  evident  that,  if  the  board  took 
action — and  it  could  not  well  be  longer  postponed — the  result  would  be  a  change 
of  front  for  the  Chamber,  a  ballot  of  the  members  of  the  organization  was  called 

:'  The  weeks'  campaign  that  followed  was  the  most  remarkable  that  ever 
occurred  in  the  history  of  Los  Angeles.  The  Times  used  every  means  in  its 
power  and  the  strongest  language  it  could  command  to  enforce  the  San  Pedro 
side  of  the  contest.  The  Terminal  railway  was  equally  active.  The  Santa  Fe 
also  took  sides  for  San  Pedro.  April  7th,  1894  the  members  of  the  Chamber 
of  Commerce  balloted,  the  result  being  328  for  San  Pedro  and  131  for  Santa 
Monica,  which,  with  the  influences  at  work,  was  a  foregone  conclusion. 

"  In  June  the  matter  was  brought  up  in  Congress  and  after  a  hearing  of 
several  weeks,  which  attracted  wide  attention,  because  it  was  now  made  a  fight 
for  a  '  free  harbor  '  as  against  a  harbor  control  led  by  a  '  monopoly,'  a  motion 
was  passed  deferring  the  decision  to  permit  the  members  of  the  Committee  of 
Commerce  to  visit  the  two  harbors  and  form  an  opinion  for  themselves. 

"  During  the  winter  of  1894-95  the  matter  of  the  deep-water  harbor  was 
not  brought  up  in  Congress.  The  Chamber  of  Commerce  continued  its  efforts 
in  behalf  of  San  Pedro,  however,  and  the  '  Free  Harbor  League  '  was  organized. 
In  February,  1896,  Col.  H.  G.  Otis,  Mr.  W.  G.  Kerckhoff,  Mr.  W.  C.  Patter 
son  and  Mr.  W.  D.  Woolwine,  were  elected  a  special  delegation  to  go  to  Wash 
ington  and  lay  the  San  Pedro  case  before  the  River  and  Harbor  Committee  of 
the  House.  Notwithstanding  their  able  representation,  the  River  and  Harbor 
bill  contained,  when  it  was  made  up,  two  items :  '  San  Pedro,  $392,000  and 
Santa  Monica  $3,098,000.'  " 

The  effect  of  this  information  upon  the  San  Pedro  advocates  in  Washington 
and  .upon  the  public  of  Los  Angeles,  and,  indeed  all  Southern  California,  was 
electrifying.  The  Chamber  of  Commerce  and  League,  of  course,  at  once  took 
steps  to  re-affirm  their  position.  Public  mass  meetings  were  held  for  each  side. 
The  city  council  and  the  Republican  convention  passed  resolutions  for  both 
appropriations.  Petitions  for  and  against  the  proposed  "  double  Harbor " 
scheme  were  circulated.  Santa  Monica  people,  took  an  active  part  in  shaping 
the  sentiment  in  favor  of  the  Santa  Monica  appropriation  and,  naturally,  were 
jubilant  at  the  prospect  of  seeing  their  long  hoped  for  dream  fulfilled  beyond  the 
wildest  hopes  of  even  L.  T.  Fisher.  The  Santa  Monica  delegation  in  Wash 
ington  was  made  up  of  Mr.  J.  S.  Slauson,  Col.  J.  B.  Lankershim,  Mr.  John  W. 
Mitchell  and  ex-Senator  Cornelius  Cole.  On  April  23rd,  Robert  F.  Jones, 
President  of  the  Santa  Monica  Chamber  of  Commerce,  received  this  telegram 


from  Mr.  Mitchell.  "  Committee  just  voted  Santa  Monica  Harbor  one  hundred 
thousand  dollars  immediately  available,  continuing  contract  system,  which  will 
permit  contract  for  two  million,  eight  hundred  thousand  to  complete  work. 
San  Pedro  inner  harbor  now  being  considered.  Hard  fight  and  close  decision 
but  think  can  be  held  in  bill." 

Senator  White  and  the  advocates  of  San  Pedro  bitterly  opposed  the  passage 
of  this  bill  and  finally,  as  a  compromise,  a  bill  was  passed  which  carried  the 
full  appropriation  for  a  deep  sea  harbor  to  be  located  by  a  commission  consisting 
of  an  officer  of  the  navy,  to  be  named  by  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy ;  an  officer 
of  the  Coast  Survey,  named  by  the  Superintendent ;  and  three  civil  engineers  to 
be  appointed  by  the  president.  "  They  are  to  make  a  close  personal  examination 
and  report  to  the  Secretary  of  War,  whereupon  he  is  to  let  the  contract." 
This  last  "  commission  "  was  the  result  of  one  of  the  strongest  contests  ever  made 
over  a  provision  for  appropriation  in  congress.  Senators  White  and  Perkins, 
Berry  and  Vest  spoke  on  the  one  side,  while  Senator  Frye  made  the  speech  for 
the  Santa  Monica  harbor. 

In  October  the  new  board  was  announced;  Rear  Admiral  John  G.  Walker, 
from  the  Navy;  Augustus  F.  Rodgers,  of  the  coast  survey;  Win.  H.  Burr, 
George  S.  Morrison  and  Richard  P.  Morgan,  appointed  by  President  Cleveland. 
In  December  the  members  of  this  board  arrived  and  after  looking  over  the 
ground,  conducted  a  most  exhaustive  examination  at  the  Chamber  of  Commerce 
rooms  in  Los  Angeles.  This  was  felt  to  be  the  last  chance  and  both  sides 
gathered  all  their  evidence  and  put  forth  all  their  efforts.  Santa  Monica  harbor 
was  ably  represented  by  Wm.  H.  Hood,  E.  L.  Corthell,  A.  M.  Jamison,  J.  S. 
Slauson,  Cornelius  Cole,  John  Cross,  Captains  Jackson,  Pillsbury  and  Salmond. 
The  San  Pedro  case  was  under  the  management  of  Robert  Moore  and  H.  Haw- 
good.  The  hearing  lasted  for  seven  days.  The  report  was  filed  March  ist, 
1897  and  was  a  large  volume,  containing  many  maps,  charts,  and  much  matter 
not  belonging  strictly  to  the  question  in  hand. 

The  decision  was  in  favor  of  San  Pedro,  largely  because  of  the  work  already 
done  there  and  the  inadvisability  of  the  government  maintaining  two  separate 
harbors.  They  said :  "  It  is  the  judgment  of  this  Board  that  the  best  public 
policy,  both  in  the  interest  of  economy  and  for  the  attainment  of  a  deep-water 
harbor  for  commerce  and  refuge  demands  the  concentration  of  expenditure  at 
one  point,  with  the  corresponding  cumulative  excellence  of  results,  rather  than 
a  dispersion  and  weakening  of  results  by  a  divided  expenditure  at  the  two  loca 
tions.  This  conclusion  gains  considerable  force  through  the  fact  that  the  selec 
tion  of  the  San  Pedro  site  will,  for  the  reasons  stated,  undoubtedly  involve 
materially  less  ultimate  total  expenditure  than  is  certain  to  be  incurred  by  the 
inevitable  construction  and  maintenance  of  the  two  harbors,  if  Port  Los  Angeles 
were  to  be  selected.  The  preponderance  of  physical  advantages,  therefore, 
which  leads  to  the  selection  of  the  San  Pedro  site,  is  in  line  with  the  best  re- 



quirements  of  the  best  public  policy  as  to  the  matter  entrusted  to  the  decision  of 
this  Board."  This  report  was  signed  by  four  members  of  the  Board.  Mr. 
Morgan  submitted  a  minority  report  in  favor  of  Port  Los  Angeles. 

This  decision  was  regarded  as  final  and  Santa  Monica  citizens  accepted  it 
as  such.  However,  it  was  not  until  April  6th,  1899,  that  the  contract  was 
awarded  and  the  actual  work  on  the  harbor  began.  The  event  was  celebrated 
by  a  "  Jubilee  "  which  had  lost  somewhat  of  spontaneity  by  its  long  delay.  Since 
that  time  work  has  gone  on  at  San  Pedro,  but  the  deep-water  harbor  is  yet  in 
the  future. 


HOLDERS'  CHARTER.     1906. 


EXPANSION.     1900-1908. 

THE  year  1900  was  an  epoch-making  one  for  Santa  Monica  since  it  brought 
with  it  many  events  which  were  far-reaching  in  their  influence  and  which 
were  important  factors  in  the  era  of  unprecedented  prosperity  and  growth 
which  has  marked  the  first  years  of  the  new  century. 

A  radical  change  in  the  history  of  the  town  was  brought  about  by  the  passage 
of  the  ordinance  which  made  it  a  "  no-saloon  "  town.  Santa  Monica  had  always 
been  a  "  wide-open  "  town  and  while  its  citizens  were  just  as  respectable  and 
law-abiding  as  those  of  any  other  beach  town,  the  place  had  undoubtedly  always 
been  the  favorite  resort  of  the  sporting  element  of  Los  Angeles.  The  proximity 
of  the  Soldier's  Home  had  also  made  it  the  scene  of  the  "  old  boy's  "  license, 
when  pension  money  was  plenty.  Every  effort  was  made  to  suppress  the  dis 
orderly  element  and  as  good  order  was  maintained  here,  as  a  rule,  as  elsewhere; 
yet  the  town  had  long  borne  the  reputation  of  being  a  "  tough  "  place. 

With  the  opening  of  1900  a  determined  effort  was  made  to  secure  a  better 
order  of  things.  One  of  the  leaders  in  this  attempt,  was  the  late  Federick  H. 
Rindge,  a  man  of  great  wealth,  sincere  religious  zeal  and  large  philanthropy. 
He  devoted  his  time,  energy  and  money  to  this  fight  for  the  good  standing  of 
Santa  Monica,  which  was  then  his  home  city.  The  campaign  opened  with  an 
all  day  Sunday  service  devoted  to  temperance  and  local  option.  As  a  result  of 
the  meetings  of  this  day  a  committee  of  citizens,  consisting  of  J.  F.  Kiggens, 
E.  J.  Vawter,  J.  H.  Clark,  D.  J.  Twichell,  J.  S.  Knesel,  M.  H.  Kimball,  W.  I. 
Hull,  Dr.  N.  H.  Hamilton,  C.  I.  D.  Moore,  J.  O.  Jennings,  Dr.  C.  T.  Wilson, 
T.  H.  James,  H.  P.  Wilber,  D.  G.  Holt,  Dr.  Glen  McWilliams  and 
J.  F.  Dunham,  with  F.  H.  Rindge,  as  chairman,  was  appointed  to  confer  with 
the  Board  of  Trustees  and  secure  the  passage  of  an  ordinance  submitting  the 
question  of  saloons  or  no  saloons  to  the  people  at  the  coming  election.  As  a 
consequence  of  the  action  of  these  gentlemen,  the  requisite  ordinance  was 

A  vigorous,  well  organized,  educational  anti-saloon  crusade  followed.  A 
series  of  public  meetings  was  held  on  both  the  North  and  the  South  sides  at 
which  such  speakers  as  Bishop  Montgomery,  Dr.  Chapman,  Dr.  Hugh  Walker, 
J.  S.  Slauson,  F.  H.  Rindge,  the  pastors  of  the  city  churches,  particularly  Dr. 
Glen  McWilliams  of  the  Christian  church  and  Dr.  Wilson  of  the  Methodist 
church ;  and  such  business  men  as  Roy  Jones,  W.  S.  and  E.  J.  Vawter,  D.  G. 


Holt,  and  others  took  part.  The  churches  of  all  sects ;  the  anti-saloon  forces  of 
the  county;  the  Womens  Christian  Temperance  Union,  the  Good  Templars,  and 
a  large  number  of  the  property  owners  and  business  men  of  the  town,  worked 
together  heartily  to  secure  the  passage  of  the  "  no-saloon  "  ordinance.  The 
Santa  Monica  Outlook  took  a  vigorous  share  in  the  effort  and  many  who  looked 
at  the  proposition  simply  from  a  business  standpoint  ranged  themselves  on  the 
anti-saloon  side. 

Naturally  the  saloon  element,  and  a  good  many  citizens  who  honestly  be 
lieved  that  the  closing  of  the  saloons  would  result  in  a  financial  loss  to  the  town, 
put  up  a  strong  fight.  Money  was  spent  freely  on  both  sides  and  the  feeling 
was  very  strong;  F.  H.  Rindge,  in  a  public  meeting  promised  to  indemnify  the 
town  for  the  loss  sustained  by  refusing  licenses  to  saloons,  and  after  the  elec 
tion,  April  gth,  which  resulted  in  a  vote  of  305  to  218,  a  majority  of  87  votes 
for  "  no  license,"  he  presented  his  check  for  $2,500  to  the  Board  of  Trustees. 
The  trustees  chosen  at  the  election,  J.  C.  Morgan,  C.  H.  Sammis  and  T.  H. 
Dudley  had  pledged  themselves  prior  to  election  to  carry  out  the  expressed 
wishes  of  the  citizens.  It  had  been  agreed  that  three  restaurant  licenses,  per- 
miting  the  sale  of  liquors  with  bona  fide  meals,  costing  25  cents,  exclusive  of 
liquors ;  and  one  wholesale  liquor  license,  under  certain  restrictions,  should  be 
granted.  The  ordinance  passed  by  the  new  board  was  not  exactly  what  the 
anti-saloon  people  had  expected,  as  it  permitted  the  sale  of  liquors  at  all  hours 
and  allowed  the  wholesale  house  to  sell  in  original  packages  at  its  place  of  busi 
ness,  instead  of  simply  delivering  orders. 

It  was  to  be  expected  that  there  would  be  violations  of  the  regulations  under 
this  ordinance,  which  was  certainly  a  great  step  in  advance,  although  not  all 
that  had  been  hoped  for  by  the  movers  in  the  "  no  license  "  fight.  On  August 
6th,  E.  Gamberi,  of  the  Pacific  Gardens  was  arrested  for  selling  liquors  without 
meals  and  was  convicted  and  fined  $175.00,  while  his  license  was  revoked. 
Rudolph  Hopf  was  also  arrested  for  violation  of  the  ordinance,  but  prior  to 
his  trial  he  became  insolvent  and  was  acquitted.  This  marked  the  downfall  of 
the  old  firm  of  Eckert  and  Hopf,  which  had  been  in  business  in  Santa  Monica 
since  the  seventies. 

In  1901  the  Board  of  Trustees  modified  the  restaurant  license  so  that  it 
merely  required  "  something  to  eat,"  with  the  liquor.  This,  of  course,  led  to  the 
service  of  the  timeworn  cracker  and.  it  is  claimed,  that  the  cracker  box  alone 
was  considered  sufficient  in  many  cases.  In  1902  the  wholesale  license  was 
raised  to  $1,200  and  in  1903  the  wholesale  license  was  raised  to  $3,000.  this 
amount  having  been  offered  by  Alexander  Gunn. 

In  the  spring  of  1903  the  temperance  people  were  so  aroused  by  the  changes 
made,  which  practically  restored  saloons  to  the  town,  that  they  made  a  strong 
campaign  before  the  annual  election  to  secure  candidates  for  trustees  who  would 
support  the  law  and  take  steps  to  earn-  out  the  provisions  of  the  original  ordin- 


ance — which  had  been  adopted  to  carry  out  the  wish  of  the  voters.  Dr.  Chap 
man  again  took  a  vigorous,  and  as  many  thought,  a  not  very  wise,  part  in  the 
campaign,  working  for  the  election  of  men  who  had  pledged  themselves  to  vote 
against  issuing  new  licenses  and  removals  of  restrictions.  After  the  city  election, 
another  special  election  to  again  submit  the  question  of  prohibition,  by  adopting 
what  was  known  as  the  Long  Beach  ordinance,  was  called  for.  A  brief  cam 
paign  was  made  by  Dr.  Chapman  and  the  question  was  submitted  on  June  loth, 
resulting  in  a  vote  of  831  ;  287  for,  544  against.  This  result,  so  different  from 
the  previous  one  when  this  question  was  voted  upon,  was  brought  about  by  many 
causes ;  chiefly  the  dissension  of  the  temperance  forces  and  the  bitterness  and, 
in  the  eyes  of  many,  the  unfairness  of  the  methods  adopted  by  the  prohibition 
workers.  As  a  consequence  of  this  result,  the  Board  of  Trustees  passed  an 
ordinance,  granting  restaurant  licenses,  with  no  restriction  as  to  meals ;  buffet 
licenses,  which  were  practically  saloon  licenses ;  and  the  wholesale  license. 
While  there  are  no  open  saloons  in  Santa  Monica,  and  the  business  is  much 
restricted  as  compared  with  the  old  days  when  there  were  twelve  or  fourteen 
saloons  running  "  wide  open,"  there  is  ample  opportunity  for  those  who  wish 
it  to  procure  liquor  and  the  town  derives  a  considerable  income  from  its  various 
liquor  licenses. 

Another  important  question  which  came  up  for  discussion  and  action  this 
year  was  that  of  the  separation  of  the  portion  of  the  town  lying  south  of  Rail 
road  street  from  the  "North  side,"  or,  as  the  Outlook  puts  it,  the  "legal  separa 
tion  of  Miss  South  Side  from  Mr.  North  Side,  on  the  ground  of  failure  to  pro 
vide."  The  citizens  of  the  southern  end  of  town  felt  that  they  had  not  received 
due  consideration  from  the  town  trustees  and  that  they  had  no  representative  on 
the  board.  There  had  long  been  a  rivalry  in  growth,  street  improvements  and 
attractions.  A  committee  consisting  of  Col.  A.  B.  Hotchkiss,  a  long-time  resi 
dent  of  the  South  Side,  Joseph  Bontty  and  Captain  Malim,  were  active  in  urging 
this  action,  stating  that  the  new  town  would  remain  a  town,  governed  by  the 
Board  of  Supervisors,  and  would  save  the  expenses  of  a  city  government  while 
improving  her  own  streets  and  providing  her  own  water,  and  light  supply.  The 
active  discussion  of  plans  for  building  a  city  hall  had  a  bearing  on  the  question, 
no  doubt,  and  many  other  matters  were  connected  with  it.  A  petition  with  suffi 
cient  signatures  was  presented  and  the  question  was  submitted  to  a  vote  of  the 
people  at  the  election  of  November  I3th.  A  vigorous  campaign  was  made  against 
the  division  by  the  North  Side  and  many  citizens  of  the  South  Side  also,  and 
the  election  showed  a  very  decided  majority,  the  vote  being  400  to  59,  against 
the  legal  partition  of  the  town. 

One  of  the  movers  in  this  attempt  at  disruption,  Captain  George  D.  Malim, 
frankly  announced  in  the  Outlook,  after  stating  that  others  who  had  promised 
aid  had  deserted  the  cause,  "  I  have  been  at  a  loss  of  both  time  and  money, 
fought  alone  and  single-handed  against  nearly  the  whole  town  and  got  licked, 

r,K<>.  H.  HUTTOX. 


but  have  one  great  satisfaction,  that  is,  that  I  believe  I  have  stirred  people  up  to 
argue  questions,  consider  propositions,  and  stand  up  for  their  rights,  which  they 
would  not  have  done  had  it  not  been  for  the  work  done  by  myself."  It  was 
generally  agreed  that  the  discussion  of  the  question  had  brought  about  a  better 
feeling  between  the  two  factions  and  would  result  in  a  clearer  understanding  of 
the  common  interests  of  the  whole  city. 

Another  topic  which  engaged  a  good  deal  of  attention  and  gave  rise  to  a 
great  variety  of  opinions,  was  that  of  providing  a  suitable  city  hall.  It  was 
generally  believed,  also,  that  the  town  could  not  prosper  without  having  some 
sort  of  public  auditorium  for  large  meetings.  It  was  proposed  to  combine  a  city 
hall  and  auditorium  building.  This  met  with  opposition  and  an  effort  was  made 
to  secure  an  auditorium  as  a  private  business  venture.  Bonds  for  the  city  hall 
were  proposed ;  but  at  last  it  became  evident  that  the  city  affairs  could  be 
handled  more  effectively  under  a  new  form  of  government  and  the  subject  of 
adopting  a  city  charter  and  becoming  a  city  of  the  fifth  class  was  taken  up. 
Public  meetings  to  discuss  the  advisability  of  this  step  and  the  results  following 
it  were  held  and  a  committee  consisting  of  Frederick  H.  Rindge,  George  H. 
Hutton,  A.  W.  McPherson,  W.  S.  Vawter  and  Fred  H.  Taft  was  appointed  to 
formulate  plans  for  re-organization.  It  was  agreed  that  the  town  should  be 
divided  into  five  wards,  as  equally  proportioned  as  to  voters  as  possible,  each  to 
extend  from  the  ocean  back  to  the  east  line  of  the  town  and  the  committee  also 
stood  pledged  to  a  general  city  convention  to  nominate  officers,  irrespective  of 
party  lines.  But  when  the  matter  came  to  the  test  of  the  polls,  January  i6th, 
1901,  it  was  found  that  the  interest  was  small  compared  with  its  importance, 
353  votes  being  cast,  of  which  171  were  for  and  178  against,  the  re-organization 
plan  being  lost  by  seven  votes. 

Among  the  improvements  of  the  year  was  the  putting  on  of  the  mail  car 
on  the  electric  line  which  made  three  trips  a  day.  taking  in  Colegrove,  Sherman, 
Sawtelle  and  Soldiers'  Home,  Santa  Monica  and  Ocean  Park  and  which  also 
carried  express  matter.  The  Hollywood  line  was  opened  for  service  in  February 
thus  giving  Santa  Monica  three  routes  to  Los  Angeles  and  still  further  increas 
ing  her  transportation  facilities.  The  Southern  Pacific  and  Santa  Fe  roads,  in 
a  desperate  attempt  to  recover  their  traffic,  issued  a  ten  trip  ticket  for  $1.50,  good 
for  one  month.  B"t  the  electric  line  met  this  with  a  ten  ride  ticket,  good  until 
used,  and  transferable,  for  $2.00.  The  railroads  gained  little  but  the  people 
who  traveled  between  the  city  and  the  beach  were  decided  gainers.  The  United 
Electric,  Gas  and  Power  Company  was  incorporated  this  year  and  took  over 
the  Santa  Monica  Electric  Light  and  Power  plant,  the  directors  being  the  same, 
F.  H.  Rindge,  Alfred  Steadman,  H.  V.  Carter,  G.  I.  Cochran  and  J.  J.  Davis. 
This  company  also  secured  control  of  the  light  and  gas  company  of  Redondo, 
Long  Beach,  San  Pedro,  and  other  towns. 

"  Sunset  "  beach,  lying  north  of  the  North  Beach  Bath  House,  was  improved 


with  walk,  gas,  electric  light  and  sewer  service  and  divided  into  lots  to  be  leased 
to  tenants  for  five  and  ten  years.  The  owners  were  R.  C.  Gillis  and  E.  P.  Clark 
and  after  these  improvements  were  carried  out  a  number  of  commodious  and 
attractive  cottages  was  built  on  the  tract. 

The  death  of  "  Bob  "  Eckert,  April  27th,  1900,  removed  one  of  the  best 
known  characters  of  Santa  Monica,  or  indeed,  of  Southern  California.  Mr. 
Eckert  was  born  in  the  Fatherland.  He  came  to  Los  Angeles  in  1872  and  soon 
acquired  a  reputation  there  as  a  caterer,  a  politicion  and  a  teacher  of  gymnastics 
in  the  Turn  Verein.  His  connection  with  the  Turners  made  him  known  among 
the  Germans  of  Southern  California,  and  his  genial,  kindly  nature  won  him 
many  lasting  friendships,  not  only  among  his  own  people,  but  with  all  with 
whom  he  came  in  contact.  He  opened  a  restaurant  in  Santa  Monica  in  the 
later  seventies  and  his  fish  dinners  soon  gained  renown.  For  many  years  a  feed 
at  Eckert  and  Hapf's  Pavilion  was  the  best  treat  one  good  fellow  could  offer 
another.  He  catered  to  many  distinguished  guests  and  for  many  notable  ban 
quets,  and  was  acknowledged  as  a  past  master  in  the  art  of  serving  a  .dinner. 
With  his  death  and  the  canceling  of  saloon  licenses,  the  Eckert  and  Hopf 
Pavilion  which  had  been  known  from  Alaska  to  Mexico,  was  closed. 


The  more  progressive  citizens  of  Santa  Monica  were  not  satisfied  to  allow 
the  matter  of  re-organizing  the  city  government  to  drop.  They  felt  that  the 
best  interests  of  the  city  demanded  that  the  town  be  divided  into  wards  which 
would  allow  each  district  to  select  its  own  representative  in  the  council.  The 
new  charter  would  also  permit  the  organization  of  a  board  of  education  which 
could  exercise  powers  not  vested  in  the  trustees  of  a  district.  A  new  petition 
for  an  election  was  prepared  and  presented  to  the  Board  of  Trustees  February 
4th,  with  a  guarantee  from  the  signers  that  the  expenses  of  the  election  would 
be  met  by  private  subscription.  The  trustees,  after  due  deliberation  and  ex 
amination  into  the  legal  aspects  of  the  case,  refused  to  grant  the  petition.  The 
movers  for  a  new  charter  were  not  discouraged,  however.  They  continued  the 
agitation  and  in  April  organized  a  Good  Government  League,  to  look  to  muni 
cipal  matters,  with  F.  H.  Rindge,  president;  N.  H.  Hamilton,  ist  vice-president; 
W.  S.  Vawter,  2nd  vice-president;  Fred  H.  Taft,  3d  vice-president;  C.  I.  D. 
Moore,  secretary  and  J.  C.  Steele,  treasurer.  Mr.  Rindge,  who  despite  his  many 
interests  spared  neither  time  nor  energy  in  forwarding  any  movement  for  the 
public  good,  took  an  active  part  in  this  organization,  which  kept  a  sharp  eye? 
upon  the  restaurant  liquor  licenses,  that  had  been  granted,  as  well  as  carrying 
on  an  educational  campaign  among  the  citizens  on  the  subject  of  public  improve 
ments.  A  petition  asking  for  a  re-submission  of  the  question  of  saloons  or  no 
saloons  was  received  by  the  trustees  in  March ;  but  was  not  acted  upon  and 
although,  there  was  a  good  deal  of  discussion  of  the  subject,  the  trustees  seemed 



to  feel  that  the  restaurant  license  permitting  the  sale  of  liquor  with  meals — which 
had  rapidly  degenerated  to  empty  cracker  boxes,  was  the  most  satisfactory 
arrangement  to  be  made. 

The  matter  of  voting  bonds  for  a  city  hall  continued  to  be  discussed.  There 
was  also  great  need  of  a  new  bridge  on  Ocean  Avenue  in  place  of  Bridge  No.  i, 
as  it  was  known.  This  had  become  imperative  as  this  street  was  the  main 
thoroughfare  between  the  North  and  South  ends  of  town.  Storm  drains  were 
also  greatly  needed,  and  after  one  or  two  mass  meetings,  in  which  matters  were 
fullv  discussed  and  it  was  shown  that  the  large  tax  payers  of  the  city  were  all 




in  favor  of  these  improvements,  an  election  was  called  for  November  igth  to 
vote  on  the  question  of  issuing  bonds  in  the  sum  of  $25,000  for  Bridge  No.  I  ; 
$10,000  for  Bridge  No.  2 ;  $29,000  for  storm  drains,  and  $35,000  for  City  Hall 
and  Jail.  At  this  election  the  bonds  for  town  hall  and  bridge  No.  i  were  carried, 
the  others  defeated. 

The  Board  of  Trustees  at  once  called  for  bids  for  a  site  for  the  public 
building  and  was  flooded  with  offers.  They  spent  some  very  strenuous  hours 
before  finally  determining  on  the  lots  at  the  corner  of  Oregon  and  Fourth.  The 
South  Side  felt  that  since  it  must  pay  taxes  for  this  improvement,  it  should  at 
least  be  as  near  them  as  possible.  The  question  of  town  division  was  still  a 
live  one.  The  marvelous  growth  made  during  the  year  1901  at  Ocean  Park 
was  putting  that  division  of  Santa  Monica  in  the  front  rank  in  importance  and 
the  old  rivalry  between  the  two  sections  was  enhanced  in  many  minds  by  the 

N.  H.  HAMILTON,  M.  D. 


growing  wealth  and  many  impovements  of  the  "  sand  hills."  The  South  Side 
had  voted  almost  solidly  against  all  the  improvements,  because  of  the  desire  to 
have  its  own  town  organization. 

A  strong  effort  was  made  to  secure  the  city  hall  for  the  corner  of  Third  and 
Utah  street,  where  a  site  was  offered  by  Roy  Jones  for  $12,000.  Tht  business 
men  of  the  place  generally  endorsed  this  site  and  offered  to  guarantee  that  it 
should  cost  the  city  but  $7,000.  The  matter  was  hotly  contested  by  the  citizens 
and  the  trustees  seemed  to  be  hopelessly  divided  in  opinion — or  interests.  In 
February  1902  Roy  Jones  withdrew  his  offer  of  sites  and  thus  removed  the  cor 
ner  at  Third  and  Utah  from  consideration.  Still  the  board  could  come  to  no 
decision  and  a  straw  vote  was  called  for  to  decide  what  site  would  best  please 
the  voters.  Condemnation  proceedings  to  secure  the  property  at  Third  and 
Utah  were  talked"  of  and  the  fight  waxed  hotter  than  ever.  A  majority  of  68 
out  of  441  votes  cast  was  for  Lots  V.  W.  and  X.,  of  Block  196,  being  the  south 
east  corner  of  Third  and  Utah,  at  the  price  of  $6,500.  At  the  next  meeting  of 
the  Board  of  Trustees,  it  was  reported  that  the  chosen  site  could  not  be  secured 
at  any  price,  except  by  condemnation  proceedings,  which  meant  long  and  expen 
sive  litigation,  therefore  the  Board,  by  a  vote  of  three  to  two,  selected  the  site 
at  Fourth  and  Oregon,  offered  by  J.  C.  Crosier  for  $4,800.  Although  there  was 
much  dissatisfaction  over  the  result,  it  was  final  and  steps  were  at  once  taken  to 
proceed  with  the  building,  the  bonds  having  already  been  sold  to  the  Oakland 
Bank  of  Savings  at  a  premium  of  $3,000. 

Among  the  more  important  improvements  of  the  year  on  the  North  Side 
was  the  building  of  the  long  looked  for  Auditorium,  in  connection  with  the 
North  Beach  Bath  house.  The  cost  was  about  $7,000  and  it  gave  a  large  room 
for  public  meetings.  It  was  opened  by  an  entertainment  given  by  the  newly 
organized  Y.  M.  C.  A.  and  was  then  taken  possession  of  by  a  Vaudeville  troop 
which  made  a  brilliant  failure  and  soon  vanished.  The  people  of  Santa  Monica 
seem  always  to  have  been  able  to  provide  their  own  entertainments  and  an  out 
side  attraction  must  be  very  unusual  indeed  to  draw  any  large  number  of  Santa 
Monicans  from  their  own  homes  and  amusements. 

The  Academy  of  the  Holy  Names,  established  by  the  ''  Sisters  of  the  Holy 
Names  of  Jesus  and  Mary,"  was  completed  and  dedicated  February  22nd.  It 
was  a  handsome  two  and  a  half  story  building,  beautifully  finished  and  furnished 
and  was  dedicated  with  elaborate  ceremonies,  including  a  public  parade  and 
testimonials  from  the  city  officials  and  citizens  generally  of  Santa  Monica. 

At  South  Santa  Monica,  or  Ocean  Park,  the  Los  Angeles  Times  estimates 
that  the  improvements  for  the  year  amounted  to  $232,555,  including  the  new 
power  house  of  the  electric  line,  costing  $25,000;  the  Holborow  Hotel.  $10,000, 
the  Casino,  $10,000,  waterworks  and  other  improvements  of  Kinney  &  Dudley, 
$18,500  and  207  other  building. 

Among  the  notable  events  of  this  year  was  the  visit  of  President  McKinley 


to  the  Soldier's  Home,  at  which  time  the  citizens  of  Santa  Monica  aided  in  the 
reception  which  was  there  given  him.  And  on  September  2Oth,  1901  the  people 
of  this  city  held  Memorial  services  in  honor  of  the  president  whom  they  had  so 
warmly  welcomed.  All  business  was  suspended  and  the  mourning  was  general. 
One  of  the  incidents  of  this  occasion  was  the  services  of  the  newly  formed 
Spanish  Society,  which  had  arranged  for  an  elaborate  celebration  on  September 
1 6th,  the  Mexican  Fourth  of  July,  but  changed  their  program  to  a  Memorial 
service,  after  which  they  burned  the  murderer  in  effigy. 


The  history  of  1902  was  largely  municipal.  As  has  been  seen,  the  difficult 
task  of  settling  on  a  site  for  the  city  hall  was  carried  over  into  this  year.  But 
before  it  was  decided  the  still  more  important  matter  of  re-organization  came 
up.  The  new  election  was  called  for  January  28th.  In  the  meantime,  the  Board 
of  Trustees  ordered  a  census  of  the  town  to  be  taken.  The  call  for  re-organiza 
tion  of  the  city  had  been  based  upon  the  United  States  census  of  1890,  which 
gave  Santa  Monica  a  population  of  3057.  Cities  must  have  a  population  of 
3,000,  at  least,  in  order  to  be  raised  to  the  rank  of  fifth  class.  Opponents  of  the 
change  had  insisted  that  the  town  did  not  now  have  the  requisite  three  thousand 
and  the  census  of  the  Board  resulted  in  but  2,717  names.  The  promoters  of  the 
movement,  however,  asserted  that  this  census  did  not  count,  as  by  law,  the 
population  would  be  taken  from  the  United  States  census.  At  the  same  time 
the  Good  Government  League  claimed  that  the  census  taken  by  the  Board  was 
defective  and  set  men  to  work  to  re-take  the  census.  After  a  long  and  very 
thorough  canvas,  in  which,  we  are  certain  every  nose  was  counted,  the  result 
was  reported  as  3,260. 

The  election  resulted  in  a  decided  victory  for  the  Good  Government  League 
and  the  progressive  citizens  generally,  the  vote  standing  231  for  and  118  against, 
giving  a  majority  of  118  as  against  the  majority  of  seven  the  other  way  at  the 
previous  election.  But  votes  do  not  settle  the  question  voted  upon  in  Santa 
Monica.  At  the  next  regular  meeting  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  when  it  was 
in  order  to  officially  canvas  the  vote,  that  long  suffering  body  was  served  with 
a  writ  of  injunction,  sworn  to  by  H.  X.  Goetz,  enjoining  them1  from  canvassing 
the  votes  and  declaring  the  election  to  have  been  illegal.  When  the  Board  had 
recovered  from  the  shock  of  this  attack,  they  engaged  counsel  to  defend  them  in 
this  case  and  in  another  action,  brought  by  Attorney  Fred  H.  Taft,  demanding 
that  the  city  fathers  count  those  votes,  or  show  cause  why.  The  courts  decided 
-  that  the  election  was  all  right  and  on  February  loth,  the  last  act  in  this  long 
drawn-out  drama  took  place,  and  the  returns  of  the  election  were  duly  declared 
although  the  new  city  government  could  not,  by  the  terms  of  the  law,  go  into 
effect  until  the  year  1903. 

The  voters  of   Santa   Monica  certainly  had   ample   opportunity  to   exercise 


their  free  and  sovereign  right  during  the  years  of  1901-2.  Beside  the  regular 
state  election  in  November,  1901  and  the  municipal  election  the  next  spring,  five 
special  elections  gave  them  a  chance  to  express  their  opinions.  In  view  of  the 
important  matters  under  the  control  of  the  Board  this  year,  a  good  deal  of 
interest  was  taken  in  the  annual  town  election.  Mr.  W.  S.  Vawter  was  nominated 
as  the  representative  of  the  Ocean  Park  district  by  an  enthusiastic  public  meet 
ing.  There  were  numerous  other  candidates  for  the  trusteeship  and  for  all  the 
other  city  offices.  The  question  of  a  special  tax  for  the  repair  of  the  outfall 
sewer  and  the  wharf  at  Pier  Avenue  was  also  submitted  and  voted  on  favorably. 
Messrs.  Vawter  and  J.  C.  Steele  were  elected  trustees,  J.  C.  Hemingway,  clerk ; 
E.  W.  Boehme,  treasurer  and  M.  K.  Barretto,  marshal.  In  the  re-organization 
of  the  board,  T.  H.  Dudley  was  elected  president  and  F.  H.  Taft  was  chosen  as 
attorney.  One  of  the  first  acts  of  the  new  board  was  to  raise  the  wholesale 
liquor  license  to  $1,200  per  year. 

During  the  summer  of  1902  especial  attention  was  called  to  the  safety  of 
Santa  Monica  Beach  as  compared  with  other  beaches.  It  was  shown  that  very 
few  accidents,  due  to  undertow,  had  ever  occurred  on  this  beach  and  that  every 
precaution  to  prevent  accidents  was  taken,  a  guard  being  maintained  on  thc- 
beach  at  all  times,  life  boats  being  at  hand  in  case  of  need.  The  Los  Angeles 
Times  stated :  "  It  is  safe  to  say  that  since  this  little  city  was  laid  out,  nearly 
a  million  people  have  bathed  in  the  surf  there ;  and  while  there  have  been  a 
number  of  fatalities  due  to  suicide,  heart  failure,  and  apoplexy  or  cramp,  there, 
has  not  been  one  authenticated  instance  of  any  person  being  overcome  by  a 
treacherous  current  or  tide,  or  any  person  having  been  lost  who  was  bathing 
from  any  public  bath  house." 

Among  the  conventions  entertained  this  year  were  the  Woman's  Auxiliary 
of  the  Episcopal  church  and  also  the  Summer  Institute  of  Sunday  Schools  of 
the  Episcopal  diocese ;  the  annual  convention  of  Christian  churches  of  Southern 
California,  lasted  eleven  days  and  brought  a  large  number  of  visitors  to  attend 
its  sessions.  In  October,  the  grand  Lodge  of  the  Good  Templars,  a  state  or 
ganization,  held  its  annual  session  here. 

The  "  short  line  "  of  the  Los  Angeles-Pacific  was  opened  in  August,  thus 
giving  a  new  and  considerably  shorter  route  to  Los  Angeles.  An  important  land 
deal  of  the  year  was  the  sale  by  the  Pacific  Land  Company  to  the  Erkenbrecher 
syndicate,  of  a  tract  of  390  acres  of  land,  lying  just  east  of  the  then  town  limits 
and  including  38  acres  within  the  town  limits.  A  portion  of  this  was  divided 
into  town  lots  and  the  rest  was  made  into  five  and  ten  acre  tracts.  Another 
very  decided  improvement  was*  the  paving  of  Oregon  and  Utah  streets  which 
had  long  been  discussed  but,  as  usual,  with  a  variety  of  opinions.  The  Columbia 
building  near  the  corner  of  Third  and  Oregon  was  built  by  Bishop  Montgomery 
on  ground  adjoining  the  Catholic  church.  This  was  a  three  story  brick  with 



two  large  storerooms  on  the  ground  floor  and  a  pleasant  hall  for  public  purposes 
upon  the  second  floor. 

Another  matter  which  the  city  fathers  were  called  upon  to  meet  this  year 
was  the  question  of  allowing  the  Santa  Fe  road  to  abandon  its  line  from  Ingle- 
wood  into  Santa  Monica.  The  road  had  petitioned  the  State  Railroad  commis 
sion  to  be  allowed  to  do  so,  on  the  ground  that  it  was  operating  the  line  at  a 
loss.  There  was  considerable  opposition  to  permitting  this  action  on  the  part 
of  the  donors  of  the  right  of  way,  and  at  the  same  time  a  petition  from  many 
other  citizens  of  Santa  Monica  prayed  that  the  abandonment  be  allowed.  It 
was  generally  believed  that  this  would  result  in  a  competing  electric  line  coming 
into  Santa  Monica,  and  rumors  that  the  Traction  Company  were  looking  this 
way  were  frequent  during  the  summer.  In  August  Abbot  Kinney  made  applica 
tion  for  a  franchise  for  a  steam  or  electric  line  through  the  town  to  be  operated 
by  the  Redondo  and  Santa  Monica  Beach  line,  of  which  he  was  the  chief  in- 
corporator.  After  some  investigation  this  franchise  was  refused.  In  July  it 
was  announced  that  the  right  of  way  had  been  secured  for  a  line  direct  from  the 
city  to  the  Ocean  Park  district,  through  La  Ballona  and  Palms.  The  promoters 
were  a  company  of  whom  Frederick  H.  Rindge  was  the  chief. 

In  September  the  Traction  Company  made  an  offer  of  $3,500  for  a  franchise 
in  Santa  Monica.  The  Board  of  Trustees,  being  hard  up  for  cash  as  usual, 
were  disposed  to  look  favorably  upon  this  proposition ;  but  it  was  recalled  that 
Mr.  Hook  had  offered  $5,000  for  a  similar  privilege  in  Long  Beach  and  it  was 
also  pointed  out  by  interested  citizens  that,  according  to  law,  any  franchise  must 
be  sold  to  the  highest  bidder.  Lawyers  differed  as  to  this  point  and  the  dis 
cussion  waxed  warm.  A  franchise  was  drawn  up,  granting  the  company  all 
that  was  asked,  for  a  consideration  of  $2500  and  an  electric  current  sufficient 
to  supply  12  arc  lights  of  2000  candle  power.  While  the  discussion  was  going 
on,  Captain  John  Cross,  of  the  Terminal  road  appeared  and  offered  $5,000  for 
a  franchise ;  but  the  Board  of  Trustees  passed  the  Hook  franchise  without  con  - 
sidering  this  offer  and  despite  strong  opposition  on  the  part  of  many  citizens. 

A  day  or  two  later  John  C.  Morgan,  one  of  the  trustees,  and  a  man  who 
was  always  ready  to  fight  for  his  convictions,  brought  suit  against  the  Board  of 
Trustees  to  restrain  them  from  making  the  proposed  "  Hook  "  franchise  a  law. 
Meanwhile  the  first  payment  was  made  on  the  franchise  and  the  Traction  road 
began  making  preparations  for  entering  Santa  Monica.  The  Los  Angeles- 
Pacific  also  began  to  move,  removing  the  poles  which  had  long  been  a  bone  of 
contention,  on  Oregon  street ;  double  tracking  and  otherwise  improving  their 
service — in  anticipation  of  competition.  In  February,  1903,  Col.  A.  B.  Hotch- 
kiss  took  steps  to  test  the  validity  of  the  Hook  franchise,  since  it  was  granted 
without  competitive  bids.  When  it  appeared  that  the  Traction  Company  had 
secured  their  right  of  way  through  Santa  Monica  and  Ocean  Park,  the  Los 
Angeles-Pacific  railway,  alarmed  for  its  supremacy,  also  began  suits  to  contest 


the  right  of  way,  and  in  retaliation,  the  Los  Angeles,  Ocean  Park  and  Santa 
Monica  Company,  which  had  been  incorporated  to  handle  the  Santa  Monica  end 
of  the  Traction  Company,  began  suit  to  condemn  certain  tracts  in  Ocean  Park, 
needed  for  the  Traction  right  of  way.  The  officers  of  this  company  were  W.  S. 
Hook,  Abbot  Kinney,  T.  J.  Hook,  C.  A.  Sumner  and  E.  E.  Milliken,  and  it  was 
generally  known  as  "  Abbot  Kinney's  Company." 

The  Hook  franchise  was  sustained  by  the  attorney-general  and  the  contest 
between  the  two  trolley  line  companies  became  a  bitter  one.  The  annual  election 
of  city  officials  was  approaching  and  the  attitude  of  the  trustees  toward  the 
railroad  question  became  the  vital  question.  The  Herald  announces :  "The 
railroad  election  battle  is  on  and  that  it  promises  to  be  hotly  contested  is  evi 
denced  by  the  fact  that  each  of  the  rival  companies  has  established  boarding 
camps  within  the  city  limits  and  is  registering  every  available  man  in  their  em 
ploy.  Three  registrars  have  been  working  for  the  last  thirty  days  and  on  March 
4th  the  city  registration  shows  an  advance  of  343  votes  over  the  registration 
of  last  November.  Since  March  4th  fifty  additional  names  have  been  added 
and  before  the  registration  closes  it  is  conservatively  estimated  that  over  400 
increase  will  be  shown." 

The  campaign  that  followed  was  one  of  the  most  strenuous  ever  known 
in  Santa  Monica.  George  D.  Snyder,  H.  X.  Goetz,  A.  F.  Johnstone  and  J.  C. 
Morgan  were  candidates  for  the  trusteeship,  and  were  pledged  "  not  to  put  any 
impediments  in  the  way  of  the  Traction  Company's  building  and  operating  a 
line  in  Santa  Monica,  according  to  the  terms  of  the  franchise  recently  granted 
them."  W.  S.  Yawter,  T.  H.  Dudley  and  J.  C.  Steele  were  candidates  for  re 
election.  The  saloon  question  was  again  involved  and  much  type  was  used 
by  the  press  and  much  talk  was  poured  out  on  the  streets  and  in  public  meetings 
over  the  situation.  Messrs.  Dudley,  Vawter,  Goetz,  Johnstone  and  Steele  were 
elected,  and  as  at  least  three  of  them  were  pledged  to  the  anti-saloon  party, 
there  was  rejoicing  in  the  temperance  ranks.  It  soon  developed  that  the  railroad 
situation  had  already  been  taken  out  of  the  hands  of  the  city  officials,  by  the 
sale  of  the  Traction  road  and  its  interests  to  Clark  and  Harriman,  who  having 
no  use  for  a  competing  line,  were  not  expected  to  push  the  road  to  Santa  Monica. 
Abbot  Kinney,  however,  still  retained  the  franchises  granted  to  the  Ocean  Park, 
Santa  Monica  and  Los  Angeles  road  and  made  an  attempt,  which  was  promptly 
put  a  stop  to  by  the  city  trustees,  to  occupy  them.  But  in  1904  he  sold  his  rail 
road  interests  to  the  Los  Angeles  Pacific  road,  thus  putting  an  end  to  the  hope, 
still  maintained  by  Santa  Monica,  of  a  competing  line. 


The  year  1903  was  marked  by  an  unprecedented  growth.  With  the  new 
city  government  and  the  occupation  of  the  beautiful  new  city  building,  came 
an  expansion  in  every  direction  that  approached  dangerously  near  to  the  fated 



word  "  boom."  The  new  city  hall,  a  substantial  structure  whose  simple  lines 
and  graceful  curves  are  dignified  and  beautiful,  was  complete  in  its  fitness  and 
space  for  the  needs  of  the  city  .iffairs  and  was  regarded  by  all — those  who  had 
opposed  the  bonds,  the  plans  and  the  location,  as  well  as  those  who  had  worked 
hard  to  settle  all  difficulties  and  secure  the  building — with  pride.  On  the  evening 
of  its  dedication,  March  igth,  1903,  the  people  of  Santa  Monica  and  many 
visitors  from  Los  Angeles  inspected  the  building  with  approval  and  listened  to 
the  exercises  with  pleasure.  A  program  was  rendered  and  Mr.  W.  I.  Hull 

gave  a  resume  of  the  history  of  the 
building,  in  which  he  humorously  re 
called  the  various  agitations  which  had 
led  up  to  this  happy  finale.  He  closed 
by  hoping  that  "  those  who  take  pos 
session  of  it  next  month  will  keep  it 
clean  —  clean  inside  and  out.  Let 
every  record  made  here  be  as  white 
as  the  paper  on  which  it  is  written. 
Let  those  who  are  elected  to  office 
fulfill  their  duty  as  a  public  trust  and 
not  as  a  private  snap.  Municipal 
government  is  the  weak  spot  in  our 
American  system.  Selfish  and  cor 
porate  interests  seek  to  control  elec 
tions  that  they  may  enrich  themselves 
at  the  expense  of  the  people.  If  we 
are  careful  that  such  conditions  do  not 
occur  in  Santa  Monica,  we  shall  the 
more  quickly  realize  the  grand  destiny 
H.  x.  GOETZ  tnat  awa'ts  us — the  Queen  Seaside 

City  of  Southern  California."     Beside 

the  municipal  offices,  the  public  library  was  provided  with  pleasant  quarters, 
which  were  greatly  appreciated  by  the  public.  The  city  hall  was  built  by 
H.  X.  Goetz,  the  contractor,  and  with  its  site,  cost  about  $38,000. 

The  city  government  under  the  new  form  required  an  election  of  new  city 
officials  throughout.  The  railroad  and  saloon  questions  had  already  become 
important  factors  in  this  municipal  election.  The  many  affairs  of  importance 
which  the  new  board  of  trustees  would  be  required  to  handle  made  their  selection 
more  than  ever  of  the  deepest  importance  to  the  town.  Yet  it  must  be  feared 
that  a  large  number  of  the  voters  were  swayed  by  self-interest  and  personal 
feeling,  rather  than  by  the  "  greatest  good  to  the  greatest  number."  The  ticket 
chosen  was  as  follows :  Trustees,  T.  H.  Dudley,  H.  X.  Goetz,  A.  F.  Johnston, 
J.  C.  Steele  and  \V.  S.  Vawter;  school  board,  W.  E.  Devore,  J.  H.  Hassinger, 



Dr.  J.  S.  Hunt,  J.  H.  Jackson  and  S.  F.  Carpenter;  clerk,  J.  C.  Hemingway, 
re-elected ;  assessor,  C.  S.  Dales ;  treasurer,  Frank  W.  Vogel ;  recorder,  A.  M. 
Guidinger ;  marshal,  M.  K.  Barretto,  who  had  served  in  the  same  office  since 
1898;  for  city  attorney,  there  was  a  sharp  contest  between  F.  H.  Taft,  the  incum 
bent,  and  Benjamin  S.  Hunter,  who  it  was  claimed  was  a  non-resident  of  the 
city.  Mr.  Taft  was  elected,  but  the  position  was  contested  in  the  courts  by 
Mr.  Hunter,  without  avail. 

With  the  organization  of  the  new  board  of  trustees  on  April  2Oth,  the 
history  of  Santa  Monica  as  a  city  of  the  fifth  class  began.  T.  'H.  Dudley  was 
chosen  president  of  the  board ;  the  salaries  to  be  paid  city  officials  were,  after 
some  discussion,  fixed :  City  clerk,  $1020.00  per  annum ;  attorney,  $600.00 ; 
assessor,  $520.00;  marshal,  $1200.00;  treasurer,  $400.00:  recorder,  $300.00;  chief 
of  fire  department,  $120.00  per  annum. 

The  disastrous  anti-saloon  campaign  which  followed  the  inauguration  of 
the  new  government  has  already  been  described.  In  view  of  the  talk  of  incor 
porating  the  section  south  of  Santa  Monica  into  a  town,  a  petition  was  prepared 
by  some  of  the  property  owners  in  the  strip  of  territory  between  Marine  avenue, 
the  southern  line  of  the  city  limits,  and  Rose  avenue,  asking  that  this  territory 
be  annexed  to  the  city.  At  the  same  time  a  largely  signed  petition  from  citizens 
of  Santa  Monica  making  the  same  request  was  presented.  Acting  upon  these 
a  special  election  was  called  for  December  I4th,  which  resulted  in  a  vote  of  30 
in  the  proposed  territory — 19  against  annexation.  This  result  had  been  antici 
pated  as  a  strong  fight  had  been  made  by  the  "  incorporationists  "  against  the 


The  rapid  growth  of  the  town  had  made  the  old  water  system  entirely 
inadequate  to  the  demands  upon  it,  particularly  in  the  case  of  fire,  and  for  a 
year  or  two  there  had  been  more  or  less  talk  of  municipal  ownership  of  the 
plant.  The  dissatisfaction  with  the  conditions  was  so  general  that  February 
5th  a  mass  meeting  was  called  to  discuss  the  situation  and  the  possibilities  of 
the  city  acquiring  a  water  system  of  its  own.  At  this  meeting  a  communication 
from  Mr.  Rindge,  president  of  the  Artesian  Water  Company,  then  supplying  the 
city  water,  was  read,  in  which  he  stated  that  his  company  would  guarantee  the 
city  an  adequate  supply  and  would  at  once  enlarge  their  facilities  for  supplying 
water.  After  considerable  discussion  it  was  decided  to  suspend  further  action 
by  the  citizens  until  it  was  seen  whether  the  water  company  fulfilled  its  promises. 
During  the  next  two  years  the  Artesian  Company  laid  a  i6-inch  main  down 
Nevada  street  and  distributed  a  large  amount  of  new  pipe,  replacing  the  old 
system  and  extending  it  to  new  districts.  Nevertheless,  it  was  still  felt  that 
the  water  supply  was  not  equal  to  the  demands  of  the  rapidly  growing  city  and 
the  board  of  trade  appointed  a  committee,  who  after  a  thorough  examination 
into  the  matter,  reported  favorably  upon  the  proposition  to  bond  the  city  for  a 


sum  sufficient  to  secure  its  own  water  system.  The  city  engineer  prepared  a 
careful  estimate  of  the  cost  and  reported  that  he  thought  a  complete  plant  could 
be  provided  for  $240,250.  At  the  request  of  the  requisite  number  of  voters, 
the  council  ordered  an  election  to  vote  upon  the  proposition  of  bonding  the 
city  for  $250,000.  But  many  citizens  felt  that  this  was  moving  too  rapidly, 
as  the  city  was  already  heavily  bonded  and  was  now  considering  the  adoption 
of  a  new  charter,  consequently  the  date  of  this  election,  January  i6th,  1906,  was 
recalled  and  the  matter  permitted  to  drop  for  the  time  being.  The  feeling  is 
still  strong  that  Santa  Monica  must  soon  have  a  more  adequate  supply  of  water, 
owned  by  the  municipality ;  but  the  building  of  school  houses  and  the  disposition 
of  sewage  must  first  be  completed. 

After  the  incorporation  of  the  town  of  Ocean  Park,  including  the  settled 
territory  south  of  the  Santa  Monica  city  limits,  there  was  still  much  talk  of 
town  division.  Many  of  the  people  residing  in  the  section  which  had  first  been 
known  as  "  Ocean  Park  ",  felt  that  they  had  built  up  that  portion  of  the  "  sand 
hills  "  into  a  prosperous  business  and  residence  district  with  very  little  aid  from 
the  "  old  town  "  of  Santa  Monica.  The  rapid  growth  of  the  last  two  or  three 
years  had  brought  in  a  new  element  who  knew  little  of  the  past  history  of  the 
town  and  did  not  realize  that  the  question  of  town  division  had  already  been 
thoroughly  canvassed  and,  it  was  hoped,  settled  by  the  decisive  vote  of  Novem 
ber  I3th,  1901.  Ocean  Park  had  already  secured  a  portion  of  the  Santa  Monica 
school  district  and  it  was  now  proposed  to  divide  the  city  at  Front  street.  It 
was  the  common  belief  that  this  section,  if  cut  off  from  Santa  Monica,  would 
join  the  new  Ocean  Park  municipality,  although  there  were  those  who  talked 
of  a  third  corporation  which  should  go  it  alone.  Some  of  the  older  residents 
of  the  territory,  who  had  already  paid  taxes  for  street  improvements,  schools, 
city  hall,  and  sewers  in  Santa  Monica,  did  not  care  to  repeat  the  payments  for 
the  same  purposes  in  the  new  town.  The  new  corporation  of  Ocean  Park  was 
already  voting  bonds  with  a  free  hand ;  there  were  dissensions  among  business 
interests — the  causes  were  various  but  the  result  was — death  to  the  division 
proposition.  The  petition  was  circulated  but  was  never  presented  and  the  election 
did  not  take  place.  The  Outlook  of  January  2ist,  1905,  pays  its  tribute  to  the 
division  question  thus : 

"  Poor  little  thing  dead.  The  last  sad  rites  performed  over  fatherless  and 
motherless  babe.  There  is  crepe  on  the  door  of  a  suite  of  upstairs  rooms  on 
Pier  avenue.  The  fight  to  divide  Santa  Monica  is  ended.  The  '  executive  com 
mittee  '  for  the  division  of  Santa  Monica  has  passed  in  its  checks.  The  last 
meeting  of  this  august  body  was  held  on  Wednesday,  when  it  was  decided  that 
the  idea  of  dividing  this  city  was  a  forlorn  hope  and  the  committee  adjourned 
'  sine  die.'  While  the  meeting  was  secret,  it  is  learned  that  the  executive  com 
mittee  positively  decided  to  abandon  the  project." 

And    from   this   date   :\   ivore   solid    fruth   in    "  greater    Sint'i    Monica  "   has 


grown  up  in  both  sections  of  the  town  and  it  is  only  a  matter  of  a  few  years 
before  the  memory  of  "  north  "  and  "  south  "  feuds  will  have  faded  and  Santa 
Monica  will  present  an  undivided  front  to  the  world. 

This  year  was  marked  by  the  breaking  up  of  large  tracts  and  the  opening 
to  settlement  of  many  fine  pieces  of  land  hitherto  unoccupied.  In  April  it  was 
announced  that  the  Jones  and  Baker  lands,  including  the  San  Vicente  rancho, 
Boca  y  Santa  Monica  and  Santa  Monica  rancho,  over  30,000  acres  in  all.  had 
been  transferred  to  a  consolidated  company  formed  of  the  Artesian  Water  Com 
pany,  the  Santa  Monica  and  Sawtelle  Water  Companies,  Frederick  II.  Rindge, 
Gen.  M.  H.  Sherman,  E.  P.  Clark,  G.  I.  Cochran,  R.  C.  Gillis  and  others.  The 
purpose  of  the  new  water  company  was  to  supply  water  to  the  Ballona  country, 
between  Western  avenue  in  Los  Angeles  and  the  sea  coast,  and  to  supply  domestic 
water  to  Santa  Monica  and  the  entire  coast  southward  to  Playa  del  Rev.  It 
was  stated  that  the  lands  coming  into  possession  of  the  new  company  would  be 
subdivided  and  put  upon  the  market  at  once  and  soon  afterward  a  sale  of  1000 
acres  of  the  San  Vicente  rancho  was  made  to  R.  C.  Gillis.  This  tract  extended 
from  Fourteenth  street  to  Sawtelle  between  Oregon  avenue  and  the  Southern 
Pacific  right  of  way,  and  was  at  once  cut  up  into  lots  of  from  two  to  forty  acres 
and  offered  for  sale.  The  Santa  Monica  Land  and  Water  Company  also  sub 
divided  450  acres  between  the  Soldiers'  Home  lands  and  Twenty-sixth  street. 

A  number  of  other  tracts  and  additions  were  put  on  the  market  this  year 
also,  among  them  the  Irwin  Heights  tract  east  of  the  city,  which  was  improved 
by  Irwin  and  Towner ;  the  Artesian  tract  continued  to  attract  buyers  and  the 
Oregon  avenue  tract  between  Thirteenth  and  Sixteenth  streets  was  opened, 
streets  paved  and  many  lots  sold  and  houses  built  during  the  year.  Six  new 
houses,  costing  about  $15,000,  were  put  up  in  Washington  Place.  This  portion 
of  the  town,  east  of  Tenth  street  and  north  of  Oregon,  became,  indeed,  a  new 
city  within  a  very  short  period.  The  land  east  and  north  of  the  city  limits  had 
also  become  desirable  residence  property  and  many  homes  had  been  established 
on  "  villa  "  lots,  or  small  ranches.  The  talk  of  annexation  of  this  district  grew 
and  was  brought  to  a  head  finally  by  the  attempt  on  the  part  of  Ocean  Park  to 
secure  a  division  of  the  town  of  Santa  Monica  at  Front  street,  and  by  the  neces 
sity  of  supplying  school  accommodations  for  the  many  new  residents. 

It  was  estimated  that  during  the  year  from  April,  1904,  to  April.  1905,  two 
hundred  building  permits  were  issued  for  the  city  of  Santa  Monica,  the  expendi 
ture  reaching  $300,000.  During  the  same  period,  four  miles  of  streets  were 
graded  and  several  miles  oiled ;  260,000  square  feet  of  cement  walk  were  laid, 
40,000  lineal  feet  of  concrete  curbing  were  put  in,  30,000  square  feet  of  cross 
walks,  12,000  feet  of  sewer  pipe  laid,  22,000  feet  of  gutter  and  40,000  square 
feet  of  paving  put  down.  This  was  done  by  the  city  and  it  is  probable  that 
the  work  done  by  private  contract  in  the  various  new  subdivisions  almost  equaled 
this  record. 



This  is  the  banner  year  in  the  existence  of  the  Santa  Monica  bay  cities. 
It  was  a  year  of  wonderful  growth  and  unprecedented  development  in  every 
direction.  The  "  old  "  town  of  Santa  Monica  passed  forever  from  the  ranks 
of  ''  country  "  towns  and  became  a  city  in  fact  as  well  as  in  form  during  this 
year.  The  southern  part  of  the  town,  commonly  known  as  "  Ocean  Park ", 
which  was  already  an  important  business  center  as  well  as  a  popular  summer 
resort,  with  the  completion  of  the  bath  house  and  the  Decatur  Hotel,  the  building 
of  the  Masonic  block  and  many  other  business  blocks  on  Pier  avenue,  Marine 
street  and  the  ocean  front  began  to  put  on  a  metropolitan  aspect ;  while  the 
creation  of  Venice — the  "  Dream  City  "  of  Abbot  Kinney's  fancy,  made  the  new 
town  of  Ocean  Park  the  center  of  attraction  for  the  entire  state. 

Another  remarkable  feature  was  the  continued  opening  up  of  subdivisions 
which  found  rapid  sale  as  suburban  homes.  Much  of  the  San  Vicente  and 
Ballona  ranches  which  had  been  barley  fields,  or,  later,  bean  patches,  was  now 
platted,  graded  and  improved  to  be  sold  as  lots  or  in  small  tracts.  Westgate 
and  Westgate  Acres,  Irwin  Heights,  Towner  Terrace,  the  Artesian  tract,  Serra 
Vista,  Palisades,  Brentwood  Park  and  Green  Acres,  to  the  north  and  east  of 
Santa  Monica ;  Ocean  Park  Heights,  East  Ocean  Park,  Venice  Park  tract,  Vine- 
land,  Clarkdale  and  many  other  subdivisions  between  Ocean  Park  and  Los 
Angeles  were  put  on  the  market.  Most  of  these  subdivisions  were  on  or  near 
the  line  of  the  trolley  cars.  In  the  case  of  Westgate,  the  promotors,  in  con 
junction  with  the  Los  Angeles  and  Pacific,  built  a  branch  line  from  Sawtelle 
through  the  tract  and  along  the  edge  of  Santa  Monica  canon  and  Ocean  avenue 
to  connect  with  the  Montana-avenue  branch,  thus  giving  the  public  the  most 
picturesque  trolley  ride  to  be  found  in  Los  Angeles  county.  This  line  was  com 
pleted  and  opened  for  use  August  gth,  1906.  This  company  also  constructed 
San  Vicente  boulevard  from  the  Soldiers'  Home  to  the  city  limits  of  Santa 
Monica,  a  distance  of  several  miles,  one  of  the  finest  stretches  of  roadway  in 
the  country. 

All  of  these  tracts  along  the  base  of  the  Santa  Monica  sierras  command 
magnificent  views  of  ocean,  mountains  and  valleys.  They  are  improved  with 
graded  and  oiled  streets,  cement  walks,  parks,  trees,  shrubbery  and  offer  every 
modern  conveniences — water,  electricity,  car  service,  as  well  as  the  unequaled 
location,  the  air,  the  space,  the  quiet  and  seclusion  of  country  life.  Building 
restrictions  were  placed  upon  all  these  tracts  so  that  only  desirable  homes  might 
be  built  and  the  rapidity  with  which  magnificent  country  places,  as  well  as 
artistic  bungalow  and  cottage  homes  have  sprung  up  proves  that  there  was  a 
demand  for  just  such  a  residence  section.  The  amount  of  money  spent  in  im 
proving  these  lands  and  putting  them  on  the  market  would  probably  reach  a 
half-million  dollars  and  the  expenditure  in  buildings  and  improvements  by 
purchasers  would  perhaps  reach  the  same  figure. 

R.   R.   TANNER. 


In  the  spring  of  1905  it  was  announced  that  Frederick  H.  Rindge  would 
build  a  wagon  road  through  the  Malibu  ranch  and  there  was  a  general  feeling 
of  satisfaction  that  at  last  communication  north  along  the  coast  would  be  opened 
up.  But  it  soon  developed  that  this  wagon  road  was  not  for  the  public,  and 
rumors  that  it  was  to  be  a  railroad  or  a  trolley  line  were  rife  before  the  death 
of  Mr.  Rindge  in  August.  In  October  the  Outlook  rejoices  greatly  in  the  fact 
that  the  "  Hueneme,  Malibu  &  Port  Los  Angeles  "  electric  line  will  be  a  great 
acquisition  to  Santa  Monica.  Mr.  H.  W.  Lemcke  of  Santa  Monica  was  ap 
pointed  general  manager,  and  for  some  months  the  papers  were  kept  busy  as 
serting  and  denying  facts  about  this  new  road  which  was — and  remains — an 
enigma  to  the  public.  The  new  passenger  depot  of  the  Los  Angeles-Pacific 
located  in  Linda  Vista  park  was  a  substantial  improvement  which  was  greatly 
appreciated.  Many  improvements  in  the  electric  line  service  were  made  during 
the  year,  not  the  least  of  which  was  the  completion  of  the  Playa  del  Rey-Redondo 
line  and  the  establishment  of  a  five-cent  fare  between  Santa  Monica  and  Playa 
del  Rev. 

One  of  the  most  important  real  estate  transactions  of  the  year  was  the 
formation  of  a  syndicate  by  F.  E.  Bundy  which  was  made  up  largely  of  Ocean 
Park  capitalists,  including  E.  S.  Tomblin,  R.  W.  Armstrong,  A.  E.  Robinson, 
H.  L.  Miller  &  Co.,  Robert  F.  Jones,  A.  W.  McPherson,  E.  A.  Wilson,  Dana 
Burks,  J.  W.  Tomblin,  Smith  Realty  Co.,  I.  E.  Warfield  &  Co.,  and  F.  E.  TBuncly. 
This  later  took  the  name  of  the  "  United  Land  &  Water  Company  "  and  marked 
a  community  of  interests  between  the  two  factions  of  the  Santa  Monica  bay 
region.  This  company  purchased  a  tract  of  land  south  of  the  Oregon-avenue 
line  between  Twenty-sixth  street  and  Sawtelle.  They  planned  to  make  this  a 
model  village  site  and  spent  a  large  sum  in  improvements.  The  tract  was  put 
on  the  market  as  the  "  Serra  Vista  "  and  many  sales  were  made.  It  became 
a  part  of  the  city  when  the  new  territory  was  taken  in  and  is  a  valuable  addition 
to  the  city's  wealth.  The  Irwin  Heights  tract  continued  to  settle  up  and  many 
improvements  were  made  in  this  vicinity.  A  large  sum  was  expended  by  the 
Irwin  Heights  Company  in  developing  water  and  an  excellent  system  was  pro 
vided  for  this  district. 

Another  important  real  estate  move  was  the  opening  up  of  the  original 
Palisades  tract,  lying  between  Ocean  avenue  and  Seventh  street,  north  of  Mon 
tana  avenue.  This  was  improved  by  a  company  composed  of  H.  D.  Lombard. 
R.  A.  Rowan,  W.  S.  Vawter,  T.  H.  Dudley,  W.  T.  Gillis  and  H.  W.  Keller. 
They  spent  $100,000  in  improvements,  grading  and  oiling  streets,  sewering, 
cement  sidewalks  and  in  planting  trees,  etc.  Linda  Vista  park  was  also  im 
proved  in  front  of  this  addition.  Later  the  balance  of  the  land  lying  between 
this  tract  and  the  Santa  Monica  canon  and  extending  north  to  Seventh  street 
was  improved  at  a  very  large  expense,  thus  placing  this,  the  most  desirable 
beach  property  on  Santa  Monica  bay,  on  the  market.  The  large  amount  of 
money  expended  by  private  parties  in  public  improvements  in  the  Palisades, 



as  well  as  the  high  order  of  buildings  and  improvements  made  by  purchasers, 
added  largely  to  the  aggregate  expenditures  for  the  year.  The  Towner  Terrace 
tract  lying  between  Eighth  and  Fourteenth  streets,  Front  and  Colorado,  was 
another  addition  within  the  new  city  limits  which  added  to  the  population  and 
wealth  of  the  place. 

The  building  of  the  White  Star  pier,  now  known  as  Bristol  pier,  was  com 
pleted  in  July  and  its  attractions  were  added  to  those  of  the  other  points  of 
interest  on  the  beach.  A  good  band  was  installed  here  and  a  number  of  "  amuse 
ments  "  provided,  but  there  were  now  so  many  rival  attractions  that  it  was  not 
a  paying  investment  during  its  first  season.  A  number  of  new  business  blocks 

were  added  to  the  business  center 
during  the  year.  The  Odd  Fel 
lows  hall,  a  substantial  two-story 
brick ;  the  Guidinger  block,  on 
Third,  north  of  Oregon ;  the 
Bundy  block,  a  three-story  brick ; 
the  Johnston  block  on  Third,  be 
side  two  or  three  new  business 
buildings  on  Oregon  avenue  were 

The  organization  of  the  Santa 
Monica  Investment  Company 
on  February  27th  was  an 
important  step  in  the  development  which  was  marking  the  north  side. 
This  company  was  made  up  of  leading  business  men  and  capitalists  who 
proposed  to  buy,  build,  sell,  lease  and  otherwise  handle  real  estate.  Its  stock 
holders  included  J.  Euclid  Miles,  who  was  made  manager  of  the  enterprise; 
W.  T.  Gillis,  W.  E.  Sawtelle,  T.  Horace  Dudley,  E.  H.  Sweetser,  George  Boehme, 
E.  W.  Dike,  N.  R.  Folsom,  F.  Niemann,  R.  R.  Tanner,  W.  H.  Dosing,  J.  P. 
Jones.  Dr.  N.  H.  Hamilton,  Dr.  J.  S.  Hunt,  Frederick  H.  Rindge,  B.  A.  Nebeker, 
H.  X.  Goetz,  Roy  Jones,  Robert  F.  Jones,  R.  M.  Miller,  Sherman  &  Clark, 
George  H.  Hutton.  The  company  at  once  purchased  a  tract  on  Fourth  street, 
north  of  California,  which  they  improved  and  built  a  block  of  six  cottages  upon. 
During  the  year  they  built  a  dozen  pretty,  modern  cottages  north  of  California 
street,  thus  providing  what  had  long  been  needed,  modern  homes  at  reasonable 
rates  for  newcomers.  During  the  year  much  property  changed  hands  at  a 
good  figure  and  many  handsome  residences  were  erected.  The  Carnegie  library 
was  well  under  way  on  Oregon  and  the  property  on  the  corner  of  Third  and 
Oregon  had  been  purchased  and  the  handsome  three-story  brick  block  for  the 
Merchants'  National  Bank  had  been  planned.  This  new  bank  was  organized 
in1  May  with  T.  H.  Dudley  president ;  W.  S.  Vawter,  vice-president ;  George  F. 
Doty,  cashier ;  Carl  F.  Schader,  Louis  Blenkenhorn.  W.  C.  Durgin.  R.  R.  Tanner 



and  William  Mead,  directors.  It  opened  for  business  in  the  newly  completed 
Columbia  block  about  August  ist. 

The  Pacific  Land  Company  placed  on  sale  a  tract  of  400  acres  lying  between 
Sawtelle  and  Twenty-sixth  street  and  the  W.  T.  Gillis  Company  reported  sales 
during  the  year  of  over  thirty  pieces  of  property,  ranging  from  a  single  lot  to 
twenty-two  acres  and  valued  at  $45,000.  The  establishment  of  a  large  brick 
and  tile  manufacturing  plant  added  a  solid  factor  to  the  resources  of  Santa 
Monica.  A  company  was  formed  by  R.  F.  Jones,  W.  T.  Gillis,  J.  H.  Spires, 
C.  H.  Sweet  and  R.  M.  Miller.  They  secured  a  tract  of  twenty-two  acres  of 
land  and  began  putting  up  an  extensive  plant,  known  as  the  "'  Sunset  Tile  and 
Brick  Company."  This  later  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  Los  Angeles  Pressed 
Brick  Company,  one  of  the  most  extensive  manufacturers  of  clay  products  in 
the  state.  The  clays  of  Santa  Monica  had  long  been  known  to  be  superior ; 
but  it  is  now  fully  demonstrated  that  they  are  of  the  finest  grade  for  the  best 
class  of  pressed  and  vitrified  brick  and  that  they  are  also  susceptible  of  being 
used  for  a  fine  grade  of  pottery,  under  proper  handling. 

The  consolidation  of  the  United  Electric,  Gas  and  Power  Company  with 
the  Edison  Company  this  year  put  the  lighting  and  heating  of  Santa  Monica 
upon  a  more  metropolitan  basis  and  marked  the  end  of  any  local  interest  in  the 
company.  An  important  industry  inaugurated  this  year  was  the  organization  of 
a  stock  company,  known  as  the  Plant  and  Floral  Company,  to  carry  on  a  nursery 
business  and  deal  in  plants  and  cut  flowers.  Ten  acres  of  land  were  secured  near 
Oregon  and  Twenty-first  streets,  which  were  later  increased  to  twenty  acres,  so 
successful  was  the  enterprise,  now  known  as  the  Golden  State  Plant  Co. 

Another  new  industry,  which  has  brought  much  wealth  into  the  community 
was  the  culture  of  the  Lima  bean.  It  had  been  supposed  until  this  year  that 
Ventura  county  was  the  banner  bean  county  and  need  fear  no  rival.  But  in 
1902  R.  C.  Gillis  made  some  experiments  with  bean  culture  on  lands  near  the 
Soldiers'  Home,  which  resulted  in  a  net  income  of  $40.00  per  acre.  As  a  con 
sequence,  Mr.  Gillis  leased  1500  acres  of  land  to  be  put  into  beans  in  1903,  and 
it  was  estimated  that  nearly  8000  acres  of  beans  were  planted  on  lands  lying 
between  Los  Angeles  and  the  Santa  Monica  bay  region.  The  yield  was  not  so 
large  as  was  expected,  on  account  of  the  season  being  unfavorable ;  yet  the 
profits  were  large  enough  to  justify  a  still  larger  acreage  in  1904.  The  bean 
raising  industry  is  now  firmly  established  in  this  district  and  is  one  of  the  most 
important  sources  of  revenue.  The  acreage  of  1904  was  estimated  as  10,000 
acres  and  the  yield  was  valued  at  $400,000.  As  the  cultivation  and  harvesting 
is  all  done  by  machinery,  the  percentage  of  profit  is  large  and  Los  Angeles  county 
is  now  closely  ranking  Ventura  in  the  matter  of  bean  culture. 

Street  improvements  were  the  order  of  the  day  during  this  year,  over  $72,000 
having  been  spent  and  contracts  let  for  $40,000  more,  according  to  the  estimate 
of  the  Times,  exclusive  of  the  work  done  by  private  contract ;  184  building  per 
mits  were  granted,  covering  an  expenditure  of  $265,000.  The  Dudley  building 

\Y.    T.    GTUJS. 


was  in  process  of  erection.  The  Santa  Monica  Bank  was  improving  its  building 
at  a  cost  of  over  $12,000.  The  Carnegie  library  building  was  completed  and 
occupied  in  July.  The  Hollister-avenue  pleasure  pier  was  under  way,  to  extend 
900  feet  from  shore  and  to  cost  about  $25,000. 

In  the  Pier-avenue  district,  much  street  work  had  been  done  and  many 
improvements  were  made.  The  Hammel  building,  a  three-story  brick,  cost 
about  $20,000 ;  the  Hanniman  and  Yolk  blocks  each  cost  about  $5000 ;  the  Powell 
building,  the  Wisconsin  and  Metropole,  and  the  Maier  &  Zobelein  buildings 
were  all  substantial  structures.  There  was  talk  of  a  hundred  thousand  dollar 
hotel  between  Navy  and  Marine  avenues,  which  would  place  part  of  the  building 
in  Ocean  Park  and  part  in  Santa  Monica.  This  proposition  was  merely  talk, 
however,  until  1905,  when  the  Hotel  Decatur  was  finally  built,  thus  giving  this 
section  a  hostelry  suited  to  its  demands.  After  several  attempts  to  secure  a 
franchise,  the  Home  Telephone  Company  began  work  in  July  under  a  permit, 
and  a  franchise  was  granted  later  in  the  year. 

The  Municipal  League  had  been  revived  and  during  the  spring  held  a  num 
ber  of  meetings  in  which  needed  municipal  improvements  were  discussed. 
Largely  through  the  action  of  the  league  a  bond  issue  was  called  for,  to  secure 
funds  to  build  two  fire  engine  houses,  additional  fire  apparatus  and  a  fire  alarm 
system.  The  cost  was  estimated  at  $14,500.  Included  with  this  was  a  proposal 
for  bonds  to  fill  in  around  bridges  No.  I  and  2  and  build  retaining  walls  at  a 
cost  of  $14,250;  to  repair  and  extend  the  sewer  system,  and  build  septic  tanks, 
$21,000;  to  improve  Linda  Vista,  Seventh  street  and  South  Side  parks,  $20,250, 
and  to  construct  water  works  and  secure  its  own  water  plant,  $150,000.  After 
a  short  and  not  very  enthusiastic  campaign,  the  entire  bond  proposition  was 
defeated  on  August  i6th.  It  was.  of  course,  solidly  opposed  by  the  district 
which  it  was  proposed  to  include  in  Ocean  Park,  and  this  election  gave  a  hint 
of  the  relative  strength  of  the  divisionists  and  the  advocates  of  a  "  greater  Santa 

The  question  of  repairing  the  outfall  sewer  was  now  forced  upon  Santa 
Monica.  There  had  been  much  discussion  of  possible  sewage  disposition  during 
the  year.  Ocean  Park  was  still  using  the  Santa  Monica  outfall  sewer,  although 
the  council  had  demanded  that  their  sewer  be  cut  off  the  first  of  August.  In 
the  meantime  the  new  town  was  making  desperate  efforts  to  solve  the  problem. 
At  one  time  it  was  proposed  that  a  main  trunk  line  be  constructed  along  the 
beach  to  connect  with  the  Los  Angeles  outfall.  Hut  this  was  blocked  by  the 
Playa  del  Rev  interests  and  found  impracticable,  although  Los  Angeles  was 
willing — for  a  consideration.  The  sewage  farm  method  was  also  considered, 
but  proved  impracticable.  So  Ocean  Park  continued  to  depend  upon  Santa 
Monica  for  sewage  disposal  under  the  old  agreement  between  the  city  and  Kinney 
&  Ryan,  made  December  28th,  1897,  which  permitted  those  land  owners  to  con 
nect  with  the  Santa  Monica  outfall  sewer.  The  singular  reversal  of  conditions 
which  has  later  made  Santa  Monica  dependent  upon  Ocean  Park  for  sewage 


outfall  is  one  of  the  many  anomalies  arising  from  the  peculiar  relations  of  the 
mother  town  and  its  offshoot.  But  Santa  Monica  maintained  that  the  old  agree 
ment  was  with  Messrs.  Kinney  &  Ryan  and  not  with  the  town  of  Ocean  Park, 
and  in  November,  1904,  demanded  a  rental  of  $50.00  per  month  for  the  use  of 
their  outfall.  As  the  rental  was  not  forthcoming  the  city  finally  took  steps  to 
sue  to  collect  the  money.  But  the  great  storm  of  March,  1905,  which  almost 
destroyed  the  sewer  wharf  (at  Pier  avenue)  and  caused  a  break  near  shore  in 
the  sewer  pipe,  changed  the  aspect  of  matters.  The  Ocean  Park  bath  house  was 
newly  completed  and  the  discharge  of  sewage  at  Pier  avenue  proved  dangerous 
to  its  success.  The  city  trustees  ordered  the  city  engineer  to  temporarily  repair 
the  breaks ;  but  the  complete  restoration  of  the  outfall  required  a  sum  which 
could  only  be  obtained  by  a  bond  election  and  the  bond  election  for  that  purpose 
having  been  defeated  the  previous  August,  another  election  for  such  bonds  could 
not  be  called  within  the  year.  In  February,  Fraser  and  Jones  had  entered  into 
a  twenty-year  contract  with  the  city  for  the  use  of  the  Pier-avenue  wharf  as 
the  foundation  for  a  pleasure  wharf,  they  to  keep  the  same  in  repair.  .But  on 
the  destruction  of  the  wharf,  Messrs.  Fraser  and  Jones  declined  to  keep  the 
contract  and  there  was  no  apparent  prospect  of  the  wharf  being  again  rebuilt, 
unless  the  city  was  able  to  do  it. 

The  newly  incorporated  town  of  Ocean  Park  had  already  voted  bonds  for 
a  septic  tank  and  sewer  system  and  in  order  to  save  the  situation  at  Pier  avenue, 
the  trustees  of  the  town  now  offered  Santa  Monica  the  use  of  their  new  septic 
tank  for  six  months,  or  until  the  older  city  could  make  some  arrangements  for 
caring  for  her  sewage.  After  some  discussion  the  Santa  Monica  trustees  decided, 
June  27th.  1905,  to  accept  this  proposition.  The  new  septic  tank  was  not  com 
pleted  as  soon  as  was  expected  and  rather  than  have  the  sewage  turned  into 
the  sea  at  Pier  avenue,  it  was  turned  into  the  Ocean  Park  mains  and  discharged 
on  their  dump — thus  creating  a  nuisance  which  caused  complaint  from  the  people 
of  South  Ocean  Park  and  Playa  del  Rey. 

In  the  meantime  the  matter  of  voting  bonds  for  the  repair  and  completion 
of  the  sewer  system  was  again  agitated  in  Santa  Monica.  The  necessity  of 
better  fire  protection  was  also  urgent  and  October  3ist,  1905,  the  city  voted  bonds 
to  the  amount  of  $100,000  to  be  expended — $37,500  for  sewer  system  and  septic 
tank ;  $6500  for  repairing  bridge  No.  4  and  for  retaining  walls  for  bridge  No.  i  ; 
$17,500  for  two  fire  engine  houses,  fire  alarm  system  and  apparatus;  $10,000 
for  garbage  incinerator.  It  was  supposed  that  this  would  settle  the  sewer  ques 
tion  and  soon  result  in  relief  for  Ocean  Park.  But,  after  a  careful  consideration 
of  the  situation,  it  was  found  to  be  impossible  to  provide  a  septic  tank  and  outfall 
sewer  for  the  sum  provided.  As  the  residents  of  the  Pier-avenue  region  were 
strongly  opposed  to  the  further  use  of  the  old  outfall  sewer,  Santa  Monica  trus 
tees  continued  to  use  the  Ocean  Park  septic  tank,  now  completed,  and  put  in  a 
pumping  plant  at  Pier  avenue  to  raise  the  sewage  into  the  Ocean  Park  mains. 
But  the  new  septic  tank  failed  to  deodorize  the  sewage,  as  was  expected,  and 


although  a  wharf  and  outfall  extending  into  the  sea  was  built  at  Center  street, 
there  was  still  complaint  of  odoriferous  breezes  and  other  things,  which  finally 
culminated  in  a  bitter  factional  fight  in  the  city  of  Ocean  Park,  leading  to  the 
attempt  to  disincorporate  the  municipality,  and  which  placed  the  city  of  Santa 
Monica  in  a  most  unpleasant  predicament,  as  she  was  ordered  by  the  courts  to 
cease  using  the  Ocean  Park  mains,  while  she  had  still  no  provision  for  caring 
for  her  own  sewage. 

During  1906  the  garbage  incinerator  was  completed  for  Santa  Monica  and 
various  mains  were  constructed  in  preparation  for  the  erection  of  a  septic  tank. 
But  a  suitable  location  for  the  septic  tank  and  outfall  system  could  not  be  found. 
The  entire  community  was  canvassed ;  innumerable  suggestions  were  made  by 
the  citizens,  the  council  and  by  outsiders ;  hut  no  solution  of  the  matter  that 
promised  to  satisfy  all  was  reached  until  September,  1907,  when  the  board  of 
trade  presented  a  plan,  which  was  adopted  by  the  council  and  which  promises 
to  be  a  complete  success.  This  was.  in  brief,  the  building  of  a  substantial  pier 
at  the  foot  of  Colorado  street ;  the  location  of  a  septic  tank  and  pumping  plant 
at  the  shore  end  of  this  wharf  and  the  discharge  of  the  outfall  at  the  extremity, 
1700  feet  from  the  shore.  This  plan  met  with  approval  all  around  and  was 
ratified  by  the  voting  of  $160,000  bonds  for  carrying  it  out,  September  3Oth,  1907. 
Bids  have  been  called  for  and  the  work  will  be  pushed  on  the  completion  of 
the  system  as  rapidly  as  is  possible. 

It  was  natural  that  when  Santa  Monica  found  herself  surrounded  by  a 
thickly  settled  district  which  was  demanding  school  facilities,  she  should  begin 
to  think  of  expansion.  The  demand  for  school  buildings  to  accommodate  the 
children  of  the  Irwin  Heights  settlement  and  of  the  district  east  of  Seventeenth 
street,  led  to  the  proposition  to  annex  these  districts  to  the  city  before  attempting 
to  vote  bonds  for  school  purposes.  April  I4th,  1905,  a  mass  meeting  of  citizens 
decided  that  at  least  two  new  school  buildings  must  be  provided,  and  that  an 
election  should  be  called  to  vote  $60,000  bonds  for  that  purpose.  The  board 
of  trade  immediately  afterward  proposed  that  the  boundaries  be  extended  from 
Eighth  and  Marine  streets  to  Twenty-seventh  and  Montana  avenue.  A  petition 
for  annexation  was  presented  by  the  people  of  the  district  and  on  August  29th, 
1905,  an  election  was  held  which  resulted  in  an  addition  which  nearly  doubled 
the  size  of  the  corporation. 

On  September  I2th  the  bond  election  was  held  and  $60,000  was  voted  for 
schools.  But  after  consideration,  it  was  decided  that  it  would  be  economy  to 
construct  the  new  buildings  of  brick  and  that  at  least  three  buildings  were 
needed.  December  9th  $15,000  additional  was  voted  to  complete  the  three 
buildings.  But  expanison  in  population  and  territory  was  not  enough.  It  was 
felt  by  many  citizens  and  by  the  board  of  trade  that  an  expansion  in  the  form 
of  city  government  would  give  greater  advantages  to  the  municipality.  It  would 
require  the  division  of  the  city  into  equitable  wards,  give  the  people  a  chance 
to  govern  themselves  according  to  their  own  special  needs,  instead  of  under 




state  laws  and  give  the  municipality  powers  which  it  would  not  have  under  the 
incorporation  as  a  city  of  the  fifth  class.  In  order  to  secure  such  a  charter,  a  city 
must  have  a  population  of  3500  and  to  determine  the  present  population  of  Santa 
Monica,  the  trustees  ordered  a  special  census.  May  I5th  this  census  was  com 
pleted  and  a  total  of  7208  inhabitants  reported.  The  charter  must  be  prepared 
bv  a  board  of  fifteen  freeholders,  each  of  whom  must  have  resided  in  the  city 
and  voted  here  for  five  years  consecutively.  They  are  to  be  elected  by  the 
people  at  a  general  or  special  election.  A  committee  of  the  board  of  trade  sub 
mitted  the  following  list  of  freeholders  as  candidates  for  election :  T.  H.  Dudley, 
C.  A.  Stilson,  George  D.  Snyder,  R.  R.  Tanner,  George  H.  Hutton,  H.  X.  Goetz, 
W.  I.  Hull,  A.  M.  Jamison,"  W.  S-  Vawter,  Robert  F.  Jones,  D.  G.  Holt,  B.  A. 
Nebeker,  E.  J.  Yawter,  Roy  Jones,  A.  N.  Archer.  This  was  known  as  a  non- 
partisan  ticket.  A  "  citizens'  "  ticket  was  also  put  up,  but  seven  of  the  nominees 
declined  to  serve  and  three  of  those  left  were  on  the  non-partisan  ticket,  which 
was  elected  by  a  large  majority  at  a  special  election  held  October  i8th,  1905. 
November  3rd  the  board  organized  for  duty,  C.  A.  Stilson  was  made  presi 
dent  and  committees  on  law,  boundaries,  offices,  public  utilities,  taxation  and 
election,  education  and  libraries,  were  announced.  After  several  weeks  of  stren 
uous  work  on  the  part  of  the  board  of  freeholders,  the  proposed  charter  was 
subrhitted  to  the  consideration  of  the  people  in  January,  1906.  There  was  some 
opposition  to  certain  of  its  terms — it  was  held  that  it  too  greatly  centralized 
power ;  but  it  was  felt  that  generally  its  provisions  were  wise  and  that  it  was 
best  to  adopt  it.  At  the  election  March  28th,  1906,  the  instrument  was  adopted 
by  a  vote  of  376  for  to  183  against.  At  the  same  time  the  uninhabited  territory 
known  as  the  "  Palisades  "  was  annexed  to  the  city  and  the  uniform  shade-tree 
act  was  adopted. 

Santa  Monica,  with  her  new  charter,  with  an  area  of  eleven  square  miles ; 
with  an  assessment  which  increased  from  $3,830,677.00  in  1905  to  $6,523,186.00 
in  1906;  with  her  rapidly  growing  population;  with  ample  school  facilities,  the 
best  streets  in  the  country  and  as  fine  public  buildings  as  are  to  be  found  in  any 
city  of  the  same  size,  was  now  fairly  on  the  way  to  become  the  ideal  city  of 

The  building  of  a  new  brick  manufacturing  plant  by  an  eastern  corporation, 
the  Simmons  Brick  Co.,  added  largely  to  the  clay  manufacturing  possibilities. 
A  large  sum  was  expended  in  improved  machinery  and  in  buildings.  To  this 
company  and  to  the  Los  Angeles  Pressed  Brick  Company  plant  were  awarded 
the  contract  for  furnishing  18,000,000  brick  required  for  the  Los  Angeles  outfall 
sewer.  Another  company  was  also  formed  this  year  to  utilize  the  Santa  Monica 
clays  in  making  pottery,  but  this  industry  is  not  yet  established.  It  is  only  a 
question  of  proper  handling,  however,  as  it  has  been  demonstrated  that  Santa 
Monica  clays  have  no  superior  for  fine  work,  in  the  hands  of  experienced  workers. 

Among  the  incidents  of  the  year  may  be  mentioned  the  visits  of  the  Knights 



of  Columbus, '  a  national  Catholic  organization,  the  members  of  whom  were 
royally  entertained  by  Santa  Monicans  and  .carried  away  golden  memories  of 
this  city  by  the  sea.  One  of  the  worst  fires  on  record  in  the  city  took  place 
September  gth  when  Budy's  livery  stable  on  Third  near  Utah,  was  burned  and 
six  horses  lost  their  lives,  while  a  large  quantity  of  hay  was  destroyed.  On 
June  4th  the  city  was  startled  by  the  news  that  their  postoffice  had  been  robbed 
of  more  than  $3000  worth  of  cash,  stamps  and  registered  mail  matter.  This  was 
one  of  a  series  of  exceedingly  bold  postoffice  robberies  which  occurred  during 
this  summer. 


During  this  year  a  determined  effort  was  made  to  improve  the  streets  of 
Santa  Monica  by  the  latest  methods  of  oiling  and  surfacing.  In  pursuance  of 
this  object  about  12,000  barrels  of  oil  were  used  and  many  streets  which  had 

hitherto  been  dusty  in  summer 
and  muddy  in  winter  became 
practically  as  hard  and  clean  as 
paved  streets.  The  Santa  Monica 
system  of  oil-paved  streets  be 
came  widely  known  and  was 
rated  as  having  an  important 
bearing  on  the  problem  of  road 
construction.  This  method  was 
used  in  improving  San  Vicente 
road,  the  new  boulevard  from 
the  Soldiers'  Home  to  Ocean 
avenue.  This  street  was  130 
feet  wide,  with  the  trolley  lines  in  the  center,  was  curbed  and  lined  with  trees 
and  when  completed  made  one  of  the  finest  drives  in  the  county.  It  was  pro 
posed  to  extend  Sunset  boulevard  and  improve  it  to  connect  with  this  new  road. 
There  was  also  much  talk  during  the  year  of  a  finely  improved  boulevard  from 
Washington  street,  Los  Angeles,  to  Ocean  Park  to  join  the  Del  Rey  speedway. 
A  scheme  for  a  boulevard  to  extend  southward  along  the  coast  to  Redondo  and 
thence  to  San  Pedro  was  also  proposed  and  discussed,  but  has  not  yet  materialized. 
Much  talk  of  the  Gould  line  which  was  supposed  to  be  coming  down  the  coast 
via  the  Malibu  road  which  was  in  course  of  construction,  and  which  would  give 
Santa  Monica  a  new  "  transcontinental "  line,  was  indulged  in.  There  was 
also  much  talk  of  Huntington  purchasing  everything  in  sight  and  building  a 
new  trolley  line  to  Los  Angeles — all  of  which  served  to  fill  the  papers. 

One  of  the  most  beautiful  suburbs  of  Santa  Monica,  located  just  to  the 
north  and  within  view  of  the  ocean,  is  Brentwood  Park.  This  is  a  tract  of  sev 
eral  hundred  acres  which  has  been  highly  improved.  Streets  have  been  graded 
and  oiled,  curbs  and  gravel  walks  laid  and  many  hundreds  of  trees  and  shrubs 



planted  out.     Water  is  piped  to  every  lot  and  electric  lights  have  been  installed. 
A  number  of  handsome  homes  have  been  built  here. 

In  January  the  Odd  Fellows  dedicated  their  handsome  new  building  on 
Third  street  and  January  3ist  the  Merchants'  National  Bank  moved  into  its 
own  quarters  in  the  Dudley  block,  a  structure  that  would  do  credit  to  any  city. 
The  Kensington  apartments,  an  attractive  apartment  house  containing  all  the 
latest  devices  for  comfort,  was  built  on  the  ocean  front  south  of  the  Arcadia,  at 
a  cost  of  $15,000.  Several  new  blocks  were  put  up  on  Pier  avenue.  The  build 
ing  permits  from  January  to  June  reached  the  sum  of  $194,277,  aside  from  the 
three  new  school  buildings,  which  were  to  cost  $75,000,  and  the  $50,000  pavilion 
at  Pier  avenue.  Two  new  fire  engine  houses  were  also  constructed  and 
the  garbage  incinerator  completed.  One  of  the  most  notable  improvements  of 
the  year  was  the  Santa  Monica  hospital  building,  which  was  begun,  after  long 
planning,  and  was  completed  in  the  spring  of  1907.  This  is  a  handsome  two- 
story  brick  structure,  standing  on  a  commanding  eminence  on  South  Fourth 
street.  It  is  completely  equipped  in  the  most  modern  style  and  is  fast  taking 
rank  as  one  of  the  leading  hospitals  of  the  south  coast-  The  handsome  two-story 
brick  building  which  took  the  place  of  the  old  Sixth-street  school  house  was 
completed  and  occupied  in  the  spring  of  1907,  as  was  also  the  Roosevelt  school 
building  on  the  Palisades. 


The  most  important  advance  of  this  year  has  been  the  final  action  in  the 
matter  of  sewage  disposal.  After  long  agitation  a  plan  which  seemed  to  the 
majority  to  be  feasible  and  desirable  was  suggested  and  on  September  3Oth  bonds 
to  the  amount  of  $150,000  were  voted  for  the  building  of  a  1700- foot  pier  at  the 
foot  of  Colorado  avenue  which  will  carry  the  outfall  sewer  pipe  from  the  septic 
tank  at  the  foot  of  Colorado  avenue.  A  number  of  other  improvements  will 
follow  the  completion  of  this  wharf.  During  the  year  building  permits  to  the 
amount  of  $250,000  were  granted.  These  included  the  $10,000  addition  to  the 
M.  E.  church ;  a  new  garbage  incinerator,  the  new  postoffice  building  and  many 
private  residences.  The  Santa  Monica  Development  Company  is  engaged  in 
the  construction  of  a  large  reservoir,  for  impounding  additional  water  for  the 
city  supply,  in  Sepulveda  canon.  It  will  have  a  capacity  of  about  two  million 
gallons  and  will  cost  $75,000.  An  independent  gas  company  has  been  organized 
and  promises  to  become  a  factor  in  the  situation.  The  demand  for  real  estate, 
while  not  so  active  as  during  previous  years,  has  been  steady  and  property  in 
"  old  Santa  Monica  "  continues  steadily  to  increase  in  desirability. 

The  city  of  Santa  Monica,  after  passing  through  many  stages  of  develop 
ment,  is  now  a  clean,  well  ordered,  and  most  attractive  place  of  residence.  At 
present  it  has  no  hotel,  no  first-class  restaurant  and  offers  few  attractions  to  the 
transient,  or  the  crowd ;  but  it  draws  a  constantly  increasing  number  of  perma- 




nent  residents  of  the  better  class ;  while  attractive  cottages  and  apartments  are 
filled  by  the  people  who  wish  to  pass  a  restful  season  at  the  beach. 


The  visit  of  a  fleet  of  sixteen  first-class  war  vessels  of  the  United  States 
navy,  in  April,  1908,  was  one  of  the  greatest  events  in  the  history  of  the  coast. 
Elaborate  preparations  for  the  reception  and  entertainment  of  the  guests  were 
made  and  Santa  Monica  and  Ocean  Park  took  an  active  part  in  the  occasion. 
An  executive  committee  consisting  of  David  Evans,  chairman ;  Abbot  Kinney, 
R.  A.  Phillips,  W.  T.  Wheatley,  Mayor  T.  H.  Dudley,  R.  W.  Armstrong  and 
H.  B.  Eakin,  was  appointed.  It  was  largely  through  the  efforts  of  this  body 
that  the  arrangement  was  made  to  divide  the  fleet  and  station  it  at  different 
points.  As  a  result  of  this  plan  the  third  division,  consisting  of  the  Maine, 
Ohio,  Missouri  and  Minnesota,  anchored  off  these  shores  for  a  week. 

The  citizens  of  the  Bay  region,  under  the  direction  of  various  committees, 
elaborately  decorated  streets  and  buildings ;  planned  entertainments  for  men  and 
officers  and  were  hosts  to  thousands  of  visitors.  Balls  for  the  enlisted  men  were 
given  in  the  pavilions  and  a  most  elaborate  ball  was  arranged  for  the  officers, 
at  the  country  club.  The  W.  C.  T.  U.,  under  Mrs.  Hesther  T.  Griffith,  main 
tained  headquarters  at  Venice  for  the  sailors  and  the  ladies  of  the  Bay  cities 
welcomed  the  guests  with  masses  of  flowers  and  many  courtesies.  Friday,  April 
23rd,  was  observed  as  a  legal  holiday  and  was  given  up  to  entertaining  the  guests. 

On  Saturday,  April  24th,  the  entire  squadron,  in  the  presence  of  the  largest 
crowd  ever  assembled  on  Santa  Monica  Bay  shores,  maneuvered  and  then  sailed 
silently  away  to  the  north. 


1887  $2,405,048.00   1897  1,869,132.00 

1888  2,351,108.00  1898  1,871,588.00 

1889  .         1,807,228.00  1899  1,896,844.00 

1890  1,771,332.00  1900  1,910,158.00 

1891  1,565,773.00  1901  1,991,310.00 

1892  1,648,846.00  1902  2,220,431.00 

1893 1,654,274.00  1903  2,887,574.00 

1894  .  1,705,467.00  1904  3,472,124.00 

1895  1,830,503.00  1905  3,830,677.00 

1,799,545.00  1906  6,523,086.00 

1907  7,886,310.00 



WHEN  the  town  site  of  Santa  Monica  was  laid  out  it  was  surrounded  by 
a  very  large  area  of  unbroken  and  unoccupied  territory.     The  great  San 
Vicente  ranch  was  mostly  devoted  to  sheep  pasturage.     A  few  native 
Californians  cultivated  small  tracts  on  the  Boca  de  Santa  Monica ;  but  that  tract 
was  also  largely  devoted  to  sheep  grazing.     On  La  Ballona,  Anderson  Rose  and 
one  or  two  others  had  begun  to  farm  and  the  Machados  raised  some  grain,  but 
the  greater  portion  of  the  tract  was   uncultivated. 

In  1874  Mrs.  Nancy  A.  Lucas,  a  wealthy  widow,  with  three  sons,  purchased 
a  tract  of  861  acres  from  the  Machados.  This  joined  the  San  Vicente  on  the 
north  and  extended  as  far  south  as  the  present  city  limits  of  the  city  of  Santa 
Monica,  the  line  having  followed  the  lines  of  the  Lucas  tract.  The  price  paid 
was  $14.00  per  acre.  Mrs.  Lucas  at  once  began  to  improve  her  property 
and  in  1875  she  erected  a  house  on  the  highest  point  of  her  ranch — the  hill 
between  what  is  now  Strand  and  Hill  streets  and  Third  and  Fourth.  The 
house  was  an  ambitious  two-story  affair,  costing  some  $12,000,  and  was  for 
years  the  finest  residence  in  the  vicinity  of  Santa  Monica  and  a  landmark  of 
note  until  its  destruction  by  fire  in  December,  1904. 

Her  sons  farmed  on  a  large  scale,  raising  fine  crops  of  barley  on  the  place. 
Two  of  them  opened  a  lumber  yard  in  Santa  Monica  and  they  were  prominently 
connected  with  affairs  in  the  early  days  of  the  community.  In  1881,  Mrs.  Lucas, 
who  was  rather  eccentric  and  lived  on  the  place  much  of  the  time  alone  except 
for  her  Chinese  cook,  died  suddenly  under  circumstances  which  gave  rise  to 
suspicion  and  much  comment.  She  was  said  to  have  died  from  the  effects  of 
strychnine  poisoning,  supposedly  used  for  killing  rats.  The  property  passed 
into  the  hands  of  her  heirs  and  was  soon  broken  up.  The  house,  with  three 
acres  of  land,  was  sold  to  Miss  Mary  Green,  in  her  day  known  as  one  of  the 
most  beautiful  women  in  California.  She  soon  afterward  married  Dan  Mooney, 
a  well-known  character  of  early  days.  He  had  been  a  miner  in  Arizona  and 
had  acquired  considerable  fortune.  They  took  up  their  residence  in  the  Lucas 
house  which  was  thereafter  known  as  the  "  Mooney  Mansion." 

August  i7th,  1885,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Mooney  started  to  drive  to  Los  Angeles. 
While  on  the  way,  Mr.  Mooney's  pistol  fell  from  his  pocket  and  inflicted  a 
mortal  wound  in  his  back.  Later  Mrs.  Mooney  married  Col.  A.  B.  Hotchkiss, 


a  well-known  and  brilliant  attorney,  who  was  for  many  years  a  Southern  Pacific 
representative.  He  was  also  the  editor  of  a  magazine,  Public  Resources,  which 
did  some  effective  work  in  advertising  the  country.  He  died  April  3rd,  1905. 
Col.  and  Mrs.  Hotchkiss  owned  and,  at  times,  occupied  the  Mooney  Mansion 
until  its  destruction.  Many  romantic  tales  have  been  set  afloat  at  one  time 
and  another  about  the  old  house  which  stood  alone  in  state  upon  the  hill  over 
looking  the  ocean  for  so  many  years.  Its  burning  was  also  mysterious — so 
mysterious  that  the  insurance  companies  refused  to  pay  up  without  a  lawsuit. 

In  1875  Mrs.  Lucas  sold  a  fifty-acre  tract,  adjoining  the  new  town  and 
fronting  the  ocean,  to  Ivar  A.  Weid,  a  well-known  Los  Angeles  capitalist.  He 
at  once  advertised,  "  South  Santa  Monica — Five  minutes'  walk  from  the  new 
Wharf.  Block  No.  4,  with  Ocean  Frontage  of  370  feet."  Later  he  changed  his 
ad  to,  "  SOUTH  SANTA  MONICA,  Lots  60x150  feet.  Villa  Sites  purchased 
by  Judges  Bicknell  and  Glassell,  Captain  Thorn,  and  others."  In  March,  1876, 
the  Outlook  announces  that  Captain  Thorn  had  sent  down  a  carload  of  shrub 
bery  to  be  planted  on  his  place  at  South  Santa  Monica.  March  22nd,  1876, 
this  item  appears  in  the  Outlook: 

"  Improvements  are  progressing  rapidly  over  at  South  Santa  Monica. 
Major  Mitchell,  Captain  Thorn  and  Judges  Bicknell  and  Glassell  are  all  build 
ing  and  planting  trees.  We  understand  that  General  Stoneman  and  Major 
Hancock  will  begin  building  within  a  few  days.  A  well  has  been  sunk  and  a 
windmill  and  tank  erected  which  is  the  common  property  of  several  lot  owners. 
C.  H.  Edwards  &  Co.,  of  Los  Angeles,  are  planting  the  shrubbery  and  making 
an  excellent  job  of  it."  This  little  settlement,  which  seems  to  have  had  rather 
a  military  flavor,  remained  for  some  years  the  most  exclusive  and  fashionable 
beach  resort  in  the  vicinity  of  Los  Angeles.  Some  of  these  old  cottages  still 
remain  on  the  bluff  and  are  surrounded  by  fine  trees.  The  Thorn  place  with 
its  luxuriant  growth  of  trees  and  shrubbery  is  still  kept  up. 

Another  early  settlement  in  South  Santa  Monica  was  the  Central  tract, 
laid  out  by  J.  W.  Scott  in  1876.  A  number  of  giant  eucalyptus  still  remain  of 
the  trees  planted  by  him  at  this  time. 

A  portion  of  the  Lucas  ranch  was  divided  into  twenty-acre  blocks  by  E. 
H.  Lucas,  one  of  the  sons.  A  number  of  these  were  sold  in  the  early  eighties 
to  various  parties,  including  several  Englishmen.  The  land  was  fertile  and 
water  was  easily  obtained  by  putting  down  wells  and  some  prosperous  little 
ranches  were  established  here.  Among  these  early  settlers  were  Walter  H. 
Wrenn,  Nathan  Bundy,  Thomas  Carlisle,  Joseph  and  John  Bontty.  In  1884 
the  Vawters  purchased  100  acres  of  the  Lucas  lands,  lying  south  of  Hollister 
avenue  and  east  of  the  electric  tracks.  They  paid  $40.00  per  acre  for  it,  and 
in  1887  disposed  of  about  half  of  it  for  a  large  sum.  In  1886,  the  Crippens,  a 


real  estate  firm  of  Los  Angeles,  bought  350  acres,  extending  from  Eighth  street 
east  and  to  the  San  Vicente  ranch  line.  In  December  this  was  put  upon  the 
market  as  East  Santa  Monica,  villa  lots  of  two  and  one-half  acres  being  offered 
for  $500.00,  although  the  land  had  been  sold  the  previous  year  for  $40.00 
an  acre. 

The  boom  struck  this  portion  of  Santa  Monica  with  considerable  force. 
The  Vawters  sold  the  Santa  Fe  tract  of  53  acres  to  R.  R.  Tanner  and  Thomas 
A.  Lewis,  who  put  down  a  well,  subdivided  into  lots,  put  in  sidewalks  and 
advertised  an  auction  sale  to  take  place  August  loth,  1887.  The  highest  price 
paid  for  one  of  these  lots  was  $725.00.  Houses  were  built  on  the  tract  by  T. 
A.  Lewis,  Messrs.  Tanner,  W.  S.  Vawter  and  others.  In  March,  the  Wave 
Crest  tract  was  put  on  sale  with  an  auction,  and  the  newspapers  report  sales  to 
amount  of  $52,490.00  for  90  lots.  H.  L.  Jones  subdivided  a  tract  to  which  he 
gave  the  name  of  Ocean  Spray,  120  lots,  which  met  with  ready  sale.  The 
Arcadia,  Ocean  View,  Commercial  Company's  tract  and  others  were  •  opened 
up  during  this  period  and  a  large  number  of  improvements  were  made.  George 
Kintz  built  the  Crystal  Springs  bath  house  and  plunge  during  the  latter  part 
of  '87,  and  the  Ballona  and  Santa  Monica  road  was  incorporated,  to  build  a 
standard  guage  road  from  the  Port  of  Ballona  to  Santa  Monica,  a  distance  of 
seven  miles.  M.  L.  Wicks,  J.  Bernard,  Jr.,  and  James  Campbell  were  among 
the  incorporators.  Work  was  at  this  time  being  pushed  on  what  was  fondly 
hoped  to  be  the  terminus  of  the  Santa  Fe  road  at  Ballona,  and  Santa  Monica 
was  strong  in  the  hope  of  a  new  "  transcontinental  "  line. 

But  after  the  sudden  rise  in  values  in  1887  and  1888,  came  a  depression 
when  progress  was  at  a  standstill ;  many  of  the  town  lots  lapsed  into  acreage 
property  and  there  was  little  sale  for  acreage  even,  although  the  drop  in  prices 
was  not  so  noticeable  here  as  in  many  localities.  South  Santa  Monica,  although 
included  as  far  east  as  Eighth  street  in  the  city  boundaries,  as  adopted  in  1886, 
was  still  a  rural  community  with  scattered  residences  and  dusty  roads.  The 
street  car  line  had  been  extended  from  Santa  Monica  to  the  city  limits  in  1887, 
but  the  service  was  infrequent  and  slow. 

In  the  spring  of  1889  the  Ostrich  Farm  was  established  at  South  Santa 
Monica.  A  tract  of  seven  acres,  known  as  the  "  Santa  Monica  Tract,"  was 
fenced  in  and  thirty-four  birds,  with  the  nucleus  of  what  was  intended  to  be  a 
menagerie,  were  brought  here  from  Kenilworth,  in  the  Cahuenga  valley,  where 
they  had  been  located.  In  1882,  Dr.  Charles  S.  Sketchley,  an  Englishman  who 
had  been  engaged  in  ostrich  farming  in  South  Africa,  came  to  California  and 
selected  a  site  near  Anaheim  as  the  best  location  he  could  find  in  California  for 
an  ostrich1  farm.  His  attempt  here  was  so  successful  that  about  1885  a  syndicate 
was  formed  and  Dr.  Sketchley  was  sent  again  to  Africa  to  pecure  new  birds.  He 


returned  with  thirty-four  fine  birds  which  were  placed  on  the  Los  Feliz  rancho 
in  the  Cahuenga  foothills.  A  park  and  menagerie  were  planned  and  it  was 
hoped  to  make  this  one  of  the  leading  attractions  of  Los  Angeles.  In  1887  the 
Ostrich  Farm  railway  was  built  to  Burbank  and  Kenilworth  as  the  station  at 
the  Ostrich  Farm  was  named  ;  but  this  location  proved  too  out  of  the  way  and 
the  venture  was  not  a  financial  success.  Then  South  Santa  Monica  was  chosen 
as  a  more  accessible  spot,  offering  other  attractions  as  well. 

About  thirty  birds  were  brought  here  under  the  management  of  Mr. 
Henry  Beauchamp,  also  English.  But  the  Outlook  states  that  Mr.  Beauchamp 
was  a  "  Moody  and  Sankey  convert  "  and  refused  to  keep  his  place  open  on 
Sundays,  "  which  is  good  religion  but  poor  business."  After  a  couple  of 
years  the  ostriches  were  removed  to  a  new  location  near  the  Southern  Pacific 
depot  and  under  the  management  of  Mr.  Harold  Perry,  the  place  was  made 
very  attractive.  Later  Mr.  Frank  Ellis  became  manager,  and  in  1893  sold  six 
birds  to  Sells  circus,  which  were  declared  by  the  circus  people  to  be  the  finest 
ostriches  they  had  ever  seen.  Many  old  resident  will  remember  the  chase 
which  followed  the  escape  of  a  full  grown  African  bird  from  the  enclosure. 
The  frantic  creature,  after  being  driven  over  the  hills  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
Soldiers'  Home  was  finally  headed  homeward,  only  to  dash  past  the  farm,  into 
the  ocean — to  its  death.  About  1895  the  remaining  birds  were  removed  to 
Anaheim  and  this  attraction  ceased  to  be  counted  among  the  charms  of  South 
Santa  Monica. 

Up  to  1890  this  section  had  no  school  facilities  and  the  children  were 
obliged  to  attend  the  Sixth  street  school  in  Santa  Monica — a  long  and  difficult 
journey.  After  a  good  deal  of  discussion  and  several  petitions  for  relief,  the 
school  trustees  finally  decided,  February,  1890,  to  establish  a  school  in  South 
Santa  Monica. 

February  25th,  1888,  the  board  of  school  trustees  voted  to  purchase  two 
lots,  12  and  13  of  the  Santa  Fe  tract,  at  $1,000.00  each.  Nothing  further  in 
reference  to  providing  a  school  for  the  south  side  appears  until  February  loth, 
1890,  when  the  minutes  state  that  a  proposition  was  received  from  E.  Emerson, 
to  build  a  house  at  South  Santa  Monica  suitable  for  school  purposes  and  to 
rent  the  same  to  the  district  for  six  months  at  a  rental  of  $50.00  per  month. 
This  proposition  was  accepted  by  the  board  and  February  28th  they  elected 
Miss  Ellen  L.  Huie  as  teacher,  at  a  salary  of  $60.00  per  month.  What  happened 
in  the  interim  does  not  appear  but  on  the  records  under  date  of  March  4th,  all 
the  "  above  action  "  is  rescinded,  and  Miss  Huie  was  allowed  $7.50  to  reimburse 
her  for  her  expenses  in  coming  to  Santa  Monica.  At  a  special  meeting  of  the 
board  held  August  2ist,  1890,  Miss  Huie  was  again  employed  to  teach  "the 
south  side  "  school  at  a  salary  of  $50.00  per  month,  the  "  school  to  be  discontinued 
at  the  pleasure  of  the  board." 


A  small  school  house  was  built  on  the  school  lots,  probably  during  the 
summer  of  1890.  In  August,  1895,  a  special  tax  of  $1,500.00  was  voted  to  build 
a  school  house  on  the  "  south  side  "  and  a  one-room  building  was  put  up  and 
in  the  fall  was  occupied,  with  Miss  Alice  M.  Frazier  as  teacher. 

Early  in  the  seventies  an  Englishman,  Col.  Hutchinson,  loaned  money  to 
the  Machados,  taking  mortgages  upon  various  pieces  of  land  as  security.  One 
of  these  was  a  narrow  strip  of  beach  frontage  extending  from  Strand  street  to 
the  southern  limits  of  La  Ballona  grant.  This  strip  of  sand  was  supposed  to 
be  worthless  for  any  purpose,  unless  a  wharf  for  commercial  purposes  could  be 
built  from  it.  Apparently  the  belief  was  general  that  the  only  thing  needed 
to  make  a  commercial  city  of  Santa  Monica  was  a  wharf  where  vessels  might 
land.  After  the  abandonment  of  the  "  old  wharf,"  in  1878,  five  acres  of  land 
were  donated  by  Mrs.  Lucas  and  others  and  Juan  Bernard  began  the  construction 
of  a  wharf  which  is  was  fondly  hoped  might  restore  Santa  Monica  to  the  ship 
ping  lists  of  the  Pacific  coast.  But  the  structure  was  never  completed  and  no 
boat  ever  landed  there.  In  1888,  Messrs.  Lewis  and  Van  Every  proposed  to 
build  a  wharf  from  the  foot  of  Bicknell  avenue  and  in  1891  the  proposition 
of  the  Terminal  Wharf  Company  came  up,  various  grants  and  concessions  being 
made  in  consequence;  but  no  wharf  was  built. 

In  1892  the  Santa  Fe  and  Santa  Monica  railroad  was  incorporated  and 
proceeded  to  secure  a  right  of  way  from  Inglewood  to  Santa  Monica.  A 
concession  of  twelve  acres  of  land  was  made  them  by  the  Terminal  Wharf  Com 
pany  and  Kinney  and  Ryan,  on  condition  that  the  company  expend  at  least 
$15,000  in  improvements,  including  a  wharf  and  a  pavillion.  Considerable 
difficulty  was  met  with  in  obtaining  the  right  of  way,  condemnation  proceedings 
being  necessary  in  some  cases ;  but  a  strip  130  feet  wide  was  finally  secured  from 
the  city  limits  to  the  Southern  Pacific  reservation.  A  depot  was  located  near 
the  Ostrich  Farm  and  on  June  i8th,  1892,  the  Santa  Fe  brought  in  its  first 
train,  with  a  widely  advertised  excursion  to  the  "  Coney  Island  of  the  Pacific." 
Later  a  building  known  as  "  the  pavilion  "  was  erected  on  Hill  street  and  a 
cement  sidewalk  laid  to  the  ocean  front. 

A  group  of  trees  on  land  near  this  depot  was  then  known  as  Vawter  Park ; 
with  the  Ostrich  Farm,  the  new  pavilion,  and  the  many  beach  improvements 
being  made  by  Messrs.  Abbot  Kinney  and  F.  G.  Ryan,  who  had  lately  secured 
title  to  the  Hutchinson  property  on  the  ocean  front,  South  Santa  Monica  began 
to  count  itself  as  a  "  resort." 

The  Outlook  for  May  6th,  1893.  says:  "It  is  quite  lively  on  the  South 
Side.  Three  new  cottages  have  just  been  completed  on  the  Santa  Monica  tract, 
to  be  given  away  with  the  lots  distributed  on  the  first  of  June.  A  number  of 
summer  residences  are  either  completed  or  in  course  of  construction.  The  land 


company  is  now  putting  down  a  plank  walk  from  the  tract  across  the  sand 
hills  to  the  sea,  and  it  is  on  the  programme  to  begin  the  construction  of  a 
bath  house  at  an  early  date.  Altogether  we  can  safely  say  that  the  '  Souhh 
Side  '  will  be  in  the  swim  this  summer." 

The  houses  alluded  to  were  built  by  Messrs.  Kinney  and  Ryan  on  their 
Santa  Monica  tract  and  were  given  away  with  lots  sold  by  distribution.  Prices 
were  $100.00  per  lot,  on  easy  terms. 

In  the  spring  of  1893  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association  of  Southern 
California,  after  considerable  discussion  and  looking  about,  decided  to  accept 
the  proposition  of  Messrs.  Kinney  and  Ryan  to  donate  them  a  strip  of  land 
between  the  Santa  Fe  tract  and  ocean,  250  feet  on  ocean  front  and  extending 
back  to  the  Santa  Fe  right  of  way,  about  five  acres  included.  June  2ist,  the 
Young  Men's  Christian  Association  Ocean  Park  Company  was  duly  organized 
with  a  capital  stock  of  $10,000,  and  the  following  incorporators :  J.  C.  Salisbury, 
M.  H.  Merriman,  F.  H.  Rindge,  A.  D.  Childress,  S.  H.  Wheeler,  A.  A.  Adair, 
of  Riverside ;  Charles  E.  Day,  president ;  R.  G.  Lunt,  vice-president ;  George 
W.  Parsons,  secretary ;  F.  M.  Potter,  treasurer ;  O.  T.  Johnson,  J.  H.  Brawley, 
W.  F.  Bosbyshell,  C.  C.  Reynolds,  Lyman  Stewart,  and  other  prominent  men 
of  Southern  California  In  announcing  its  decision,  the  incorporators  give  as 
reasons  for  their  selection :  "  The  land  is  about  three-fourths  of  a  mile  south 
of  Arcadia  Hotel,  is  close  to  the  railroad  station  of  the  great  Santa  Fe  route, 
which  reaches  nearly  every  hamlet  and  village  in  Southern  California.  It  has 
a  fine,  clean,  sandy  beach,  of  gentle  slope,  making  a  safe  and  delightful  place  for 
bathing.  Near  this  land  is  a  fine  /o  by  1000  feet  grove,  with  pavilion  erected 
therein,  making  a  pleasant  place  for  a  picnic  and  the  only  accessible  place 
where  a  grove  and  the  beach  are  so  close  together.  A  fine  wharf  will  be  con 
structed  close  to  this  land  in  the  near  future,  when  the  coast  steamers  will  connect 
with  the  Santa  Fe  route  for  all  points  on  their  line.  It  will  be  one  of  the  most 
popular  lines  between  Los  Angeles  and  Catalina  Island."  Which  shows  that 
the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  people  were  no  better  at  prophesying  future  results  than  the 
sanguine  "  wharf  boomers  "  of  Santa  Monica. 

In  consideration  of  the  donation  by  Messrs.  Kinney  and  Ryan  and  Messrs. 
Vawter,  the  "  Ocean  Park  Company  ",  named  from  the  eucalyptus  grove  of  the 
Vawters,  was  to  build  a  commodious  bath  house  and  an  auditorium,  which  it 
was  expected  would  be  the  scene  of  many  religious  conventions  and  assemblies. 
The  bath  house  was  built  during  the  summer  and  many  new  cottages  were  put 
up.  In  July  an  auction  sale  of  lots  took  place,  80  lots,  25  by  100  feet,  being  sold 
at  about  $45.00  apiece. 

During   this   summer   St.   David's    Mission,    Episcopalian,   held    services    in 


the  school  house  and  the  South  Santa  Monica  Baptist  Mission  was  organized 
by  Rev.  H.  S.  Baker,  and  in  1894  the  Baptist  chapel  was  erected. 

In  May,  1895,  Kinney  and  Ryan  named  their  settlement  "  Ocean  Park  'r 
and  the  Santa  Fe  giving  this  name  to  their  station,  the  existence  of  the  district 
of  Ocean  Park  may  be  said  to  date  from  this  year.  The  Y.  M.  C.  A.  people 
put  up  some  new  buildings  this  summer  and  Kinney  and  Ryan  put  in  a  half 
mile  of  beach  sidewalk,  the  first  on  the  beach  and  a  greatly  appreciated  improve 
ment.  In  September,  the  Santa  Fe  fulfilled  its  promise  of  a  wharf  by  putting 
in  a  new  type  in  such  structures,  using  iron  pipe  for  piles.  It  was  located  about 
300  feet  south  of  Hill  street  and  was  only  500  feet  in  length,  and  thus  the 
connection  with  the  great  world,  which  had  been  hoped  for,  was  again  delayed. 

The  Y.  M.  C.  A.  and  the  summer  visitors  were  favored  by  many  pleasant 
entertainments,  concerts  and  lectures  during  this  season  and  Ocean  Park  began 
to  be  regarded  as  a  most  desirable  location  for  those  who  wished  a  quiet  and 
inexpensive  summer  outing.  Many  lots  were  leased  or  purchased  and  many 
modest  cottages  were  put  up  as  summer  homes.  These  first  beach  cottages 
were  very  simple  affairs — a  long  box  of  upright  boards,  with  a  couple  of  parti 
tions,  being  the  usual  pattern.  At  this  time  there  were  few  buildings  south  of 
Hill  street  and  the  "  hills  "  were  still  the  favorite  place  of  residence.  A  cluster  of 
small  business  buildings  had  grown  up  about  the  street  car  terminus  and  the 
Santa  Fe  station. 

Ocean  Park,  although  within  the  corporate  limits  of  Santa  Monica,  had 
not  been  supplied  with  water  by  the  municipality.  Messrs.  Kinney  and  Ryan 
had  their  own  water  supply  piped  to  the  beach ;  but  the  people  on  other  tracts 
began  to  discuss  the  advisability  of  having  a  water  system  and  in  December, 
1895,  the  "  City  Water  Company  "  was  formed,  with  a  capital  stock  of  $20,000, 
and  with  J.  H.  Claudius,  E.  J.  Vawter,  D.  M.  Clark,  G.  R.  Green  and  E.  J. 
Vawter,  Jr.,  as  incorporators.  Its  object  was  to  supply  South  Santa  Monica 
with  water  and  to  secure  this  wells  were  put  down  on  the  Vawter  tract  and  pipes 
laid  through  the  district.  This  company  was  later  succeeded  by  the  Ocean  Park 
Water  Company. 

On  June  3Oth,  1896,  the  first  electric  car  made  its  initial  trip  through  South 
Santa  Monica,  after  a  day  of  strenuous  labor  on  the  part  of  the  employees  and 
officials  of  the  Los  Angeles  and  Pacific  electric  line.  Their  subsidy  of  $5,000, 
given  by  W.  S.  and  E.  J.  Vawter,  for  what  was  known  as  the  "  loop  line," 
expired  at  midnight  of  June  3Oth,  and  the  work  had  been  delayed  to  the  last 
possible  moment.  At  9:55  p.m.,  the  first  car  left  the  corner  of  Ocean  and 
Oregon  avenues  and,  after  crossing  the  bridge,  ran  down  Second  street  to  Hill 
street,  thence  eastward  to  Fourth  and  returned  to  Ocean  avenue.  The  car  and 
its  occupants  were  given  an  informal  but  none  the  less  hearty  welcome  by  the 


South  Siders,  who  felt  that  at  last  they  were  to  be  brought  into  touch  with  the 
world  (Xorth  Beach).  The  coming  of  the  electric  line  was,  indeed,  a  great 
advance  for  this  settlement  which  had  been  so  long  hampered  by  poor  trans 
portation  facilities.  This  year  Santa  Monica  began  to  talk  seriously  of  the 
sewage  problem  and  proposed  to  locate  its  outfall  at  a  point  south  of  the  city 
limits.  From  this  time  on  date  the  sewer  troubles  of  the  beach. 

In  July  an  old-time  auction  sale  with  all  its  accompaniments,  took  place, 
H.  L.  Jones  reviving  his  "  Ocean  Spray  "  tract  which  had  been  first  exploited 
in  1887  and  going  one  better  on  the  methods  of  boom  days  by  offering  "  one  lot 
free  to  the  lucky  holder  of  a  thirty  round-trip  ticket."  At  this  time  the  Santa 
Fe  was  giving  transportation  at  very  reasonable  rates  to  prospective  purchasers 
of  Ocean  Park  property.  Ben  E.  Ward,  now  of  lamented  memory,  was  the 
auctioneer  and  eighty-eight  lots  were  disposed  of  by  his  beguiling  words — 
and  the  very  real  attractions  of  the  location. 

May  3rd,  1897,  witnessed  a  serious  loss  to  Ocean  Park  in  the  burning  of 
the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  auditorium,  a  large  two-story  building,  which  had  cost  about 
$3,000  when  erected  in  1893.  This  was  a  misfortune  as  plans  had  already  been 
made  for  the  most  elaborate  exercises  yet  held  by  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  assembly 
during  the  coming  season.  The  loss  was  complete  as  there  was  no  water  to 
save  the  property,  after  the  fire,  which  was  evidently  incendiary,  was  discovered. 
There  was  no  insurance ;  but  Mr.  Day,  president  of  the  Ocean  Park  Company, 
was  equal  to  the  occasion.  He  at  once  set  about  securing  new  quarters  and  in 
August  the  University  Assembly,  with  a  full  program  of  excellent  speakers 
and  music,  was  successfully  carried  out.  Among  the  speakers  were  Bishop 
Fallows,  of  New  York,  and  Professor  Syle,  of  the  State  University.  Miss 
Ida  Benfey  gave  a  number  of  dramatic  readings  and  a  series  of  brilliant 
their  summer  guests  appeared  to  find  the  attractions  of  the  surf  and  the  military 
concerts  were  presented.  But,  it  must  be  confessed  that  Santa  Monicans  and 
encampment,  the  tennis  court  and  polo  races  greater  than  such  a  feast  of  reason 
and  culture  and  the  assembly  was  not  a  financial  success. 

In  May  the  new  City  Water  Company  turned  the  water  into  a  mile  and  a 
half  of  mains,  the  water  coming  from  two  wells  and  being  stored  in  a  50,000 
gallon  tank.  Thus,  at  last,  the  South  Side  hills  had  an  adequate  water  supply 
and  a  chance  at  fire  protection.  The  electric  light  system  was  also  extended 
to  Ocean  Park  this  year  and  added  to  the  metropolitan  claims  of  the  new 
resort.  Many  new  buildings,  including  several  stores,  a  ten-room  house  erected 
by  Mrs.  Bernard,  forty  or  more  beach  cottages  were  added  this  year. 

Ocean  Park  had  now  become  ambitious.  She  had  grown  so  rapidly  and 
attained  such  distinction  that  the  citizens  felt  themselves  entitled  to  every 
advantage  enjoyed  by  the  "  other  side."  The  South  Santa  Monica  Municipal 


League  was  organized  to  "  promote  all  measures  that  will  benefit  the  city ;  to 
encourage  all  improvements,  both  public  and  private,  to  oppose  saloons  and 
disreputable  places  in  South  Santa  Monica,"  etc.  A  Ladies'  Mutual  Benefit 
Association  was  also  organized,  its  main  object  being  to  build  a  hall  for  public 
meetings  and  use,  a  lot  having  been  donated  by  Kinney  and  Ryan  for  the  purpose. 
All  of  these  efforts  added  to  the  natural  advantages  offered  and  the  spirit  of 
enterprise  which  had  been  shown  in  developing  what  had  seemed  an  almost 
worthless  territory,  brought  about  a  development  that  became  one  of  the 
phenomena  of  the  times. 


The  settlement  known  as  Ocean  Park  was  separated  from  Santa  Monica 
by  the  arroyo  and  the  wide  unimproved  tract  belonging  to  the  Southern  Pacific 
reservation.  This  was  unfortunate,  as  it  made  communication  between  the 
two  points  difficult.  The  Santa  Fe  service  was  irregular;  the  horse  car  line 
and  its  successor,  the  electric  line,  gave  infrequent  service ;  the  drive  over 
dusty,  ungraded  roads,  and  rickety  bridges  was  not  tempting,  and  the  walking 
through  a  mile  of  sand  or  dust  was  certainly  not  attractive.  The  settlement 
about  the  Santa  Fe  depot  and  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  holdings  was  largely  made  up  of 
transient  visitors  from  the  interior,  who  rented  cottages,  or  buih  upon  leased 
lands.  They  seldom  visited  Santa  Monica  and  scarcely  realized  that  they  were 
within  that  municipality.  It  was  natural  that  they  should  object  to  the  long 
journey  to  the  postoffice  and  begin  to  express  a  desire  for  a  postoffice  of  their 
own.  During  1898  the  subject  was  agitated  and  promises  secured,  although  the 
office  did  not  open  for  business  until  July,  1899. 

This  year  Kinney  and  Ryan  opened  the  Ocean  Park  race  track  and  golf 
links,  which  were  improved  by  grading  and  planting  a  large  number  of  trees. 
One  of  the  first  golf  tournaments  held  in  California  took  place  on  these  links 
when  they  were  opened  to  the  public,  in  July,  1898.  The  same  gentlemen  had 
contracted  with  the  city  trustees  to  build  a  wharf  on  the  piling  used  to  carry  the 
outfall  sewer.  This  wharf  was  located  at  what  was  known  as  Pier  avenue  and 
was  completed  in  August.  It  was  1,250  feet  in  length  and  afforded  a  fine 
opportunity  to  fishermen  and  pleasure  seekers.  The  proprietors  invited  the 
public  to  a  free  barbecue  and  clambake  on  the  evening  of  Monday,  August 
29th,  which  was  attended  by  a  big  crowd  who  enjoyed  the  feast,  music,  speeches 
and  dancing. 

By  coincidence,  the  old  Santa  Fe  wharf  was  condemned  by  the  city  trustees 
on  the  day  the  new  wharf  was  opened  and  a  few  days  later  the  old  wharf  was 
practically  destroyed  by  a  storm.  The  completion  of  the  new  wharf  stimulated 
the  building  of  the  long  proposed  beach  walk  connecting  the  Kinney  and  Ryan 
walk  with  Santa  Monica.  The  Southern  Pacific  began  by  constructing  a  board 


walk,  16  feet  wide,  in  front  of  its  property  from  Railroad  avenue  to  the  Crystal 
plunge,  and  the  North  Beach  Company  followed  with  a  walk  connecting  this 
and  the  bath  house.  The  city  and  citizens  later  built  walks  and  thus  about  1902 
easy  communication  was  at  last  established  between  the  "  north  side  "  and  the 
"  south  side." 

The  "  Ocean  View,"  an  eighteen-room  hotel,  was  built  by  G.  H.  Strong, 
and  was  opened  July  loth,  with  a  spread;  but  only  a  few  days  later  the  new 
hotel  was  destroyed  by  fire.  Ocean  Park  suffered  much  during  its  early  history 
from  fires  which  seemed  to  be,  in  many  ca-^s,  incendiary  and  which  were  very 
destructive  on  account  of  the  lack  of  fire-fighting  appliances  and  water.  A  few 
weeks  later  the  store  of  Chambers  &  Co.  was  burned  with  its  stock  of  groceries. 
There  was  a  long  dispute  over  the  insurance  in  this  case  and  a  good  deal  of 
feeling  was  aroused  by  the  circumstances. 

The  Methodist  church  began  holding  services  in  the  Santa  Fe  depot  in 
October,  with  Rev.  Robert  S.  Fisher  as  pastor;  in  August,  1899,  the  church 
was  organized  as  the  South  Santa  Monica  M.  E.  church ;  the  old  Methodist 
chapel  was  donated  to  them  by  the  North  Side  church  and  removed  to  its 
present  location  on  Lake  street. 


The  untimely  death  of  Francis  G.  Ryan,  of  the  firm  of  Kinney  &  Ryan, 
who  had  practically  created  Ocean  Park,  led  to  a  change  and  in  1899  T.,  H. 
Dudley  married  Mrs.  Ryan  and  became  interested  with  Mr.  Kinney  in  the 
development  of  the  now  promising  beach  resort.  Aggressive  advances  were 
made  in  the  spring  of  this  year.  The  Outlook  of  March  roth  says:  "  All  told, 
there  are  now  200  cottages  on  this  property,  a  great  many  of  which  were  erected 
last  year.  There  are  now  some  ten  or  twelve  in  process  of  erection  and  contracts 
for  new  ones  are  being  made  every  week.  These  cottages  are  not  mere  shacks, 
but  will  be  neat  and  commodious,  costing  all  the  way  from  $350  to  $1000. 
They  are  being  put  up  by  first-class  tenants,  mostly  professional  and  business 
men  from  Los  Angeles.  Water  is  supplied  from  the  city  water  works  and 
electric  lights  are  being  put  into  the  more  pretentious  structures.  Beach  lots 
are  rented  at  about  $15  per  year  to  those  who  will  put  up  neat  and  substantial 
cottages.  No  land  is  sold  outright,  but  long  leases  are  given." 

Messrs.  Kinney  and  Dudley  purchased  the  old  Y.  M.  C.  A.  bath  house 
this  year,  moved  it  a  block  south  and  refitted  it.  In  July,  Pier  avenue  was 
opened,  Kinney  and  Dudley  giving  a  deed  to  the  necessary  land  to  the  city. 
The  first  building  put  up  was  a  bowling  alley,  situated  near  the  beach  and 
carried  on  by  Mr.  J.  G.  Holborow.  July  28th  the  post  office  of  "  Oceanpark  " 
was  opened  for  business.  This  office  had  been  secured  after  a  long  and  hard 
contest  by  Mr.  Kinney,  it  being  the  only  instance  of  two  separate  post  offices 


established  within  a  single  municipality.     Mr.  L.  B.  Osborne  was  the  first  post 
master  and  the  office  was  located  in  his  grocery  store  on  Second  street. 

This  year  Mr.  E.  J.  Vawter  began  the  development  of  the  carnation  beds 
which  have  become  one  of  Santa  Monica's  best-known  industries.  He  devoted 
fifteen  acres  of  land  on  South  Fourth  street  to  the  culture  of  flowers,  mostly 
carnations  and  roses.  A  5,ooo-gallon  tank  stored  water  for  irrigation  of  the 
tract.  The  soil  and  conditions  proved  to  be  favorable  for  the  production  of  the 
finest  varieties  and  the  venture  proved  most  successful.  Large  green  houses 
and  increased  acreage  are  now  devoted  to  the  propagation  of  flowers  which  are 
marketed  in  Los  Angeles  and  shipped  to  distant  points.  Many  street  improve 
ments  were  made  during  this  year  and  Kinney  and  Dudley  planted  out  nearly 
twenty  acres  to  trees,  using  10,000  eucalyptus  trees  alone,  in  the  vicinity  of 
the  race  track. 


Early  in  the  season  improvements  began  to  multiply  in  "  Oceanpark  "  as 
the  growing  settlement  was  now  officially  known,  although  it  was  in  reality  a 
part  of  the  city  of  Santa  Monica  and  more  properly  "  South  Santa  Monica." 
The  Santa  Fe  company  astonished  its  tenants,  who  had  erected  cottages  on 
leased  lots,  by  ordering  them  to  vacate  at  once ;  the  unfortunate  cottage  owners 
had  to  hustle  to  find  new  locations  for  their  buildings.  The  company  leveled 
the  ground  and  made  some  improvements ;  but  in  August  it  was  announced 
that  the  entire  South  Santa  Monica  holdings  of  the  Santa  Fe  company  had  been 
purchased  by  Messrs.  Hart  and  Fraser,  of  Los  Angeles.  The  new  proprietors 
named  the  tract  "  Central  Beach  "  and  immediately  began  grading  and  putting 
streets  through  it.  The  first  street  opened  through  and  paved  between  the  beach 
and  the  railroad  tracks  was  India,  now  Hill  street.  In  a  short  time  lots  on  the 
ocean  front  were  selling  for  $1,000,  and  lots  on  the  side  streets  at  from  $300  up. 
Building  restrictions  were  put  on  the  property,  which  included  185  lots,  25  by 
100  feet  in  size,  extending  from  Hart  avenue  on  the  north  to  Grand  on  the 
south  and  between  the  beach  and  the  railway  tracks. 

In  February  the  Oceanpark  Fire  Company  was  organized  with  A.  N. 
Archer,  president ;  J.  H.  Hassinger,  secretary  and  treasurer ;  William  Menzies, 
foreman ;  C.  J.  Marvin  and  J.  Rudisill,  assistants.  A  "  bucket  brigade  "  was 
organized,  later  a  hose  cart  and  hose  was  procured.  In  1902,  Mr.  William 
Martin,  owner  of  the  Martin  block,  on  the  corner  of  Ash  and  Second  streets, 
gave  the  use  of  a  part  of  a  lot  for  a  fire  house  and  the  board  of  city  trustees 
provided  the  lumber  for  a  small  building,  and  bought  a  fire  bell. 

Oceanpark  now  had  her  own  water  systems,  fire  company,  school,  churches 
and  business  houses.  Many  of  its  residents  were  newcomers  who  knew  little 
about  the  past  history  of  the  place  or  about  the  "  north  side."  It  was  quite 


natural  that  they  should  think  that  they  might  better  manage  their  own  affairs 
and  pay  their  taxes  for  improvements  in  their  own  section.  As  a  consequence, 
it  was  not  surprising  that  a  movement  for  the  division  of  the  territory  south 
of  Front  street  from  "  old "  Santa  Monica  should  arise.  Petitions  for  the 
division  were  duly  drawn  up  and  presented  and  then  the  people  on  both  sides 
began  to  discuss  the  question  in  all  of  its  bearings.  When  the  election  came 
on  November  I2th,  1900,  to  the  surprise  of  the  principal  movers  in  the  action 
who,  by  the  way,  were  all  old  settlers  and  were  actuated  perhaps  more  by 
personal  feeling  in  the  matter  than  by  any  serious  consideration  for  the  good 
of  the  community  at  large,  the  proposition  was  snowed  under.  The  vote  stood 
341  against  division  and  only  59  for  it.  Even  the  warmest  advocates  of  division 
were  compelled  to  admit  that  they  had  been  mistaken  in  the  sentiment  of  the 
people  of  South  Santa  Monica ;  and  the  possibility  of  creating  two  towns  out  of 
Santa  Monica  was  forever  settled  by  this  decision. 


The  growth  of  "  Ocean  Park  "  as  the  district  extending  from  Azure  street, 
now  Hollister  avenue,  along  the  beach  to  the  south  beyond  the  city  limits  of 
Santa  Monica,  had  progressed  by  leaps  and  bounds  since  1898.  But  the 
development  of  1901  and  the  two  or  three  succeeding  years  threw  all  previous 
records  of  beach  development  into  the  shade.  Ocean  Park,  started  as  a  gathering 
place  for  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  and  kindred  societies ;  a  quiet  colony  of  summer 
homes,  occupied  by  people  of  moderate  means,  for  the  most  part,  suddenly 
became  the  most  popular  and  fashionable  beach  resort  in  Southern  California. 
And  with  equally  surprising  suddenness  it  developed  into  a  bustling  business 
town,  having  stores,  hotels,  banks  and  newspapers  and  all  the  necessary 
commercial  facilities  for  a  community  of  several  thousand  inhabitants. 

The  extension  of  the  electric  line  south  of  Hill  street  and  the  erection  of 
a  power  house  south  of  the  city  limits  were  indications  of  the  southward  trend 
of  improvements.  The  pushing  forward  of  this  work,  of  course,  was  followed 
by  rapid  settling  up  of  the  territory  thus  opened  up.  The  electric  line  was 
completed  to  a  point  one  mile  south  of  Second  and  Hill  streets  on  April  3Oth. 
In  August  it  became  known  that  the  Los  Angeles-Pacific  had  acquired  a  new 
and  more  direct  right  of  way  between  Los  Angeles  and  Ocean  Park.  They 
had  purchased  the  old  right  of  way  abandoned  by  the  Santa  Fe  Railroad  com 
pany,  and  begun  the  construction  of  a  double  track  via  Palms.  This,  with 
the  new  cut-off  by  way  of  Rosedale  cemetery,  would  considerably  shorten  the 
time  between  the  city  and  this  beach. 

Messrs.  Kinney  and  Dudley  had  already  extended  their  beach  walk  some 
distance  south  of  Pier  avenue  and  had  provided  electric  lights,  water  and  sewer 


system  for  this  new  district.  The  beautiful  beach,  the  opportunity  to  build 
almost  within  reach  of  the  ocean  spray,  the  convenient  trolley  service,  and  the 
fine  class  of  people  who  had  already  located  here ;  as  well  as  the  fishing, 
bathing  and  amusements  offered,  attracted  residents  and  visitors.  While  the 
rapid  increase  in  the  value  of  property  attracted  investors,  both  little  and  big. 
Many  people  who  had  leased  or  bought  merely  for  a  beach  home  during  the 
summer  had  found  themselves  unexpectedly  enriched  by  the  changed  conditions, 
and  immediately  re-invested  their  gains.  Many  capitalists  were  also  attracted 
by  the  chance  to  make  quick  money.  By  the  first  of  March  more  than  fifty  lots 
in  the  new  Short  Line  Beach  tract  had  been  sold  and  a  number  of  buildings 
were  under  way. 

One  of  the  most  important  improvements  of  this  year  was  the  Club  House 
built  just  north  of  the  golf  links,  laid  out  the  year  before.  This  building,  50  by 
80  feet,  with  a  ten-foot  veranda  below  and  a  roof  veranda  was  put  up  by 
Messrs.  Kinney  and  Dudley.  Some  $15,000  was  spent  on  the  building  and  the 
improvements  in  the  tennis  courts,  golf  links  and  race  course  and  the  place  was 
made  an  ideal  home  for  a  country  club.  The  Ocean  Park  Country  Club  was 
organized  with  Messrs.  Kinney,  Dudley  and  H.  M.  Grindley  as  directors.  They 
at  once  planned  a  week's  sports  for  August  and  in  that  month  a  successful  tennis 
tournament,  and  polo  races  and  golf  tournament  attracted  a  large  number  of 
visitors  and  participants. 

In  April.  Messrs.  Hart  and  Fraser  reported  that  only  three  lots  of  the 
Central  Beach  tract,  put  on  the  market  in  the  fall,  were  left,  and  that  $85,000 
had  been  expended  in  buildings  erected  on  this  tract.  Among  those  locating 
here  were  Mr.  G.  A.  Hart,  Mr.  A.  R.  Fraser,  Judge  R.  B.  Stevens,  W.  D. 
Winston,  J.  R.  Newberry,  A.  Lichtenberger,  William  Hammel,  and  other  business 
men  of  Los  Angeles,  many  of  whom  built  permanent  homes  here. 

The  Ocean  Wave  tract,  south  of  Central  Beach,  was  offered  for  sale  in 
March  by  Messrs.  Kinney  and  Dudley  and  was  all  sold  out  in  less  than  a  month. 
South  Second  street  was  paved  and  sidewalked  during  the  year  and  several  new 
business  blocks  put  up  on  Second  street- — this  still  being  the  business  center  of 
Ocean  Park.  Pier  avenue  was  surveyed  and  graded  from  the  railroad  tracks 
to  the  ocean  front  and  the  lots  offered  for  sale.  In  October  a  two-story  frame 
building,  with  two  store  rooms  below,  was  put  up,  the  second  building  on  this  street 
About  July  ist,  it  was  announced  that  Abner  Ross,  a  Los  Angeles  capitalist, 
would  build  a  seventy-room  hotel  on  Pier  avenue.  This  substantial  two-story 
building,  which  was  long  the  principal  hotel  of  Ocean  Park,  was  erected  in  just 
twenty-four  days  from  the  time  work  began.  Early  in  August  it  was  opened 
to  the  public  under  the  management  of  J.  G.  Holborow  and  wife,  who  furnished 
it  and  gave  it  the  name.  This  building  was  later  known  as  the  Metropole  and 
is  now  the  Hotel  Savoy.  It  was  estimated  that  over  200  cottages  were  built 


on  the  sand  during  the  year,  the  building  expenditures  reaching  $118,691, 
excluding  the  hotel  and  the  Casino;  $18,50x3  was  expended  in  improving  the 
water  system,  and  at  least  $25,000  was  paid  out  for  improvements  made  by  the 
L.  A. -P.  railway. 


But,  rapid  as  was  the  pace  set  in  1901,  the  advance  made  in  1902  excelled  it. 
A  change  took  place  at  the  beginning  of  the  year,  which  meant  much  in  the 
history  of  this  section.  This  was  the  sale  announced  February  I2th,  of  Mr. 
Dudley's  interests  in  the  Kinney  and  Dudley  property  to  Messrs.  A.  R.  Fraser, 
H.  R.  Gage  and  G.  M.  Jones ;  Abbot  Kinney  retaining  his  half  interest.  This 
sale  included  the  beach  from  Azure  street,  now  Fraser  avenue,  to  a  point  700 
feet  below  the  Country  Club  house,  now  Horizon  avenue,  and  the  club  house 
and  grounds. 

If  such  a  thing  were  possible,  new  energy  was  given  to  the  developments 
along  the  ocean  front  by  the  new  management.  It  was  announced  that  the 
wharf  would  be  rebuilt,  a  bath  house  and  pavilion  built  at  Pier  avenue,  and  the 
old  plank  walk  on  the  ocean  front  rebuilt.  The  entire  tract  was  to  be  sewered 
and  the  alley  between  the  front  and  the  tracks,  now  Speedway,  would  be 
improved.  But  the  most  important  move  was  the  change  of  policy  with  regard 
to  leasing  lots.  It  was  announced  that  no  more  lots  would  be  leased  and  that 
leasers  would  be  given  until  May  ist,  to  purchase  their  lots  or  vacate.  Here 
after  lots  would  only  be  sold  with  building  restrictions  which  would  put  an  end 
to  the  building  of  cheap  "  beach  cottages."  Many  of  the  lease  holders  purchased 
their  lots  and  removed  the  old  buildings  to  put  up  modern  cottages  which  would 
yield  an  income  on  the  increased  valuation  of  the  property.  Many  of  those 
who  did  this  realized  handsomely  on  the  investment.  To  many,  however,  the 
prices  charged  for  lots  and  the  building  restrictions  seemed  prohibitive  and  the 
cottages  were  removed  to  cheaper  property.  During  1902-03,  it  was  a  common 
sight  to  find  a  cottage  on  wheels  moving  back  from  the  ocean  front  to  the  hills, 
under  the  escort  of  William  Menzies. 

In  March,  1902,  the  Ocean  Park  bank  was  organized  with  T.  H.  Dudley, 
Abbot  Kinney,  Martin  Dudley  and  Plez  James  as  stockholders.  It  opened  for 
business  April  8th  in  a  building  on  Second  street ;  but  work  was  soon  begun  on 
a  brick  and  steel  building  on  Pier  avenue  and  before  the  end  of  the  year  the 
new  bank  was  occupying  handsomely  fitted  quarters  and  had  added  a  savings 

The  previous  year  the  old  school  house  had  proved  inadequate  and  the 
Baptist  church  was  rented  for  the  higher  grades.  The  rapidly  increasing  school 
population  made  a  new  building  for  the  Ocean  Park  school  imperative,  and  after 
an  enthusiastic  public  meeting  on  the  South  Side,  followed  by  another  public 



discussion  of  the  question  on  the  North  Side,  the  school  trustees  called  for  a 
bond  election  to  vote  $12,000  for  a  suitable  school  house  for  Ocean  Park.  The 
bonds  were  carried,  practically  without  opposition ;  the  two  old  buildings  were 
disposed  of  and  the  handsome  eight-room  structure,  now  known  as  the  Wash 
ington  school  house,  was  built  on  the  old  location,  the  corner  of  Ash  and  Fourth 
streets.  Two  additional  lots  were  purchased  for  the  grounds  and  the  entire 
building  and  grounds  cost  over  $16,000. 

The  election  of  W.  S.  Vawter  as  city  trustee  to  represent  the  South  Side, 
and  the  fact  that  T.  H.  Dudley  was  president  of  the  board  of  city  trustees, 
assured  this  section  of  full  representation  in  civic  affairs  and  still  further 
obliterated  the  old  feeling  of  estrangement  between  the  two  sections  of  the  city. 
The  building  boom  continued.  June  I2th,  the  Los  Angeles  Saturday  Post 
writes  thus  of  this  beach : 

"  There  are  seven  hundred  cottages  at  Ocean  Park.  They  are  all  tasteful 
and  many  of  them  are  pretentious.  Ocean  Park  is  not  a  place  with  a  stiff, 
ceremonious  air.  There  is  a  hospitable  individuality,  a  generous  atmosphere, 
in  their  architecture  that  shows  as  much  as  anything  else  that  the  good  people 
of  Ocean  Park  are  not  divided  into  social  cliques  or  factions." 

During  this  year  Pier  avenue  became  the  leading  business  street.  Among 
the  business  blocks  of  the  year  were  the  Rice  and  Kellogg  block,  of  three 
stores,  with  housekeeping  rooms  above ;  a  two-story  building  put  up  by  Gillett 
&  Co.;  the  new  bank  building,  occupying  four  lots  and  costing  $10,000:  a  two- 
story  block  erected  by  Abbot  Kinney.  The  rapid  rise  in  values  is  well  repre 
sented  by  Pier  avenue  property.  In  1900,  lots  on  this  street  sold  for  a  few 
dollars;  in  1901,  $500  would  have  been  considered  a  high  price  for  a  lot;  in 
1902,  twenty-five-foot  lots  sold  for  $40  per  front  foot;  in  1903,  a  lot  which 
had  been  purchased  for  $30  per  front  foot,  was  sold  for  $85  per  foot.  In  1904, 
C.  J.  Wilson  sold  a  block  on  Pier  avenue  with  a  two-story  frame  building  and 
a  lot  of  54  feet  frontage  for  $21,000,  and  it  is  stated  that  the  property  was  then 
yielding  10  per  cent,  on  the  investment. 

The  company  spent  several  thousand  dollars  this  year  in  improving  the 
sewer  service.  Twelve  miles  of  new  sidewalks  were  laid  by  the  city  and  private 
parties  and  many  streets  were  graded.  It  is  estimated  that  street  improvements 
reached  about  $20,000.  On  Saturday,  November  I5th,  1902,  appeared  the  first 
issue  of  the  Ocean  Park  Reznew,  with  A.  Bert  Bynon  as  editor. 

On  August  2nd,  the  new  line  of  the  trolley  road  by  way  of  Palms,  was 
opened,  the  event  being  celebrated  by  an  excursion  of  the  Jonathan  Club  of 
Los  Angeles,  and  distinguished  citizens,  who  were  entertained  with  a  fish 
dinner  at  the  country  club.  The  Ocean  Park  Country  Club  sent  out  elaborate 


Invitations,  announcing  a  polo  match,  tea,  dinner,  and  reception,  with  speeches 
and  dancing,  in  honor  of  the  occasion.  The  invitations  read : 

"  The  Los  Angeles-Pacific  Railway  company  will  open  its  Short  Line  cut-off 
from  Los  Angeles  to  Ocean  Park,  tomorrow,  Saturday,  August  2nd,  1902.  And 
in  honor  of  this  event  the  Los  Angeles  Country  Club  has  arranged  for  a  demon 
stration  that  will  mark  the  epoch  as  the  most  important  in  the  history  of  Ocean 
Park  up  to  this  date. 

"  The  opening  of  this  line  of  railway  communication  is  recognized  as  of  such 
importance  to  the  future  welfare  and  prosperity  of  Ocean  Park  that  the  head 
moulders  of  the  present  and  future  greatness  of  that  noted  beach  resort  appreciate 
the  necessity  of  this  great  proposed  demonstration. 

"  And  these  head  moulders  of  the  present  and  future  greatness  are  Messrs. 
Fraser,  Jones,  Kinney  and  Gage,  the  proprietors  of  the  Country  Club,  and  it 
is  these  gentlemen  who  extend  a  cordial  invitation  to  participate  in  the  exercises 
and  the  reception  of  the  Jonathan  Club  of  Los  Angeles  and  the  other  guests." 


The  new  year  showed  no  diminishniMit  in  building  or  in  general  improve 
ment  in  the  "  sand  district."  Work  was  begun  early  in  the  year  on  the  pavilion 
at  the  foot  of  Pier  avenue,  which  was  to  be  the  most  complete  pleasure  resort 
on  the  beach.  \Yhen  it  was  opened  to  the  public  in  the  spring,  it  at  once 
attracted  the  Sunday  crowds.  The  question  of  granting  a  restaurant  liquor 
license  for  the  pavilion  greatly  harassed  many  of  the  older  residents  of  Ocean 
Park,  who  had  greatly  prided  themselves  upon  the  high  moral  tone  of  their 
community.  The  matter  was  discussed  warmly  and  was  made  an  issue  in  the 
spring  election  which  was  hotly  contested,  the  liquor  question  and  the  traction 
franchises  being  the  mooted  points.  The  result  of  the  election  was  not  satisfac 
tory  to  the  "  no-license  "  element  who  forced  a  special  election,  at  which  they 
lost  heavily  in  votes.  And  the  liquor  license  was  granted  for  the  pavilion — 
the  first  one  ever  granted  in  Ocean  Park  district. 

The  Traction  matter  was  quite  as  important  in  its  bearing  on  Ocean  Park- 
affairs.  This  company  had  been  interested  in  a  project  to  build  a  line  to  Santa 
Monica  Bay  by  Abbot  Kinney,  who  was  its  representative  in  its  negotiations 
here.  A  right  of  way  had  been  secured ;  after  a  long  fight  which  developed 
much  opposition,  the  necessary  franchises  were  granted  by  the  city  of  Santa 
Monica  and  work  was  actively  begun  on  a  competing  electric  line  which  held 
out  hopes  of  a  twenty-five  cent  fare.  The  new  road  was  well  under  way  when 
the  sale  by  Messrs.  Fraser  and  Jones,  of  the  Ocean  Park  right  of  way — the  old 
Santa  Fe  right  of  way — to  Sherman  and  Clark  of  the  Los  Angeles-Pacific, 


and  the  later  sale  to  the  Harriman  interests,  put  an  end  to  this  prospect  of 
competition ;  as  the  new  road  thus  lost  its  terminals. 

Several  new  tracts  were  opened  up  for  settlement  during  the  year.  The 
Ocean  Villa  Tract,  east  of  the  electric  road  and  opposite  the  Country  Club  was 
sold  in  half  acre  lots  which  were  quickly  subdivided  and  a  new  residence  dis 
trict  grew  up.  In  September,  Ocean  Park  Villa  Tract  No.  2,  60  acres  extend 
ing  from  Ballona  avenue  to  Eighth  street  was  put  on  the  market  and  made  a 
record  as  a  quick  seller.  These  ventures  were  so  successful  that  E.  J.  Vawter 
offered  60  lots  for  sale  on  the  hill  in  the  vicinity  of  Hill  and  Fourth  streets,  all 
of  which  were  soon  disposed  of.  Pier  avenue  continued  to  hold  its  own  as  the 
principal  business  street.  A  three-story  brick  block  was  erected  by  Maier  and 
Zobelin,  and  a  new  block  designed  especially  to  accommodate  the  postoffice  was 
built.  July  23d  the  postoffice  was  moved  from  Second  street  to  its  new  home 
and  several  of  the  business  houses  on  Second  street  followed  it  to  the  new  loca 
tion.  Lots  on  the  ocean  front,  near  Pier  avenue,  sold  this  summer  for  $2,300 
to  $2,600.  Marine  avenue  was  opened  up,  paved  and  sidewalked  this  year  and 
Hart  and  Fraser  avenues  were  "  parked."  The  placing  of  the  sidewalk  in  the 
middle  of  a  street,  with  gardens  bordering  it  on  either  side  was  an  innovation 
which  has  proved  very  attractive  in  the  beach  districts,  and  has  now  been 
adopted  in  many  places,  although  Ocean  Park  claims  it  as  original  with  her. 

The  beautiful  home  built  for  J.  M.  Davies,  a  ten-room  house,  complete  in 
every  detail  of  artistic  finish,  and  an  equally  handsome  home  for  Thomas  Fitz 
gerald,  now  owned  by  Nat  Goodwin,  marked  a  new  era  in  beach  residences.  The 
selection  of  Ocean  Park  as  a  permanent  home  by  such  men  as  Frank  Wiggins, 
W.  T.  Gibbon,  and  many  other  prominent  business  men  of  Los  Angeles,  made 
the  place  a  suburban  as  well  as  a  resort  town. 

The  rapid  growth  of  South  Santa  Monica  and  of  the  territory  south  of  the 
city  limits  naturally  gave  rise  to  much  discussion  as  to  the  future  government 
of  this  prosperous  young  city.  The  attempt  to  divide  the  city  of  Santa  Monica 
had  proved  so  impracticable  that  it  was  now  proposed  to  incorporate  a  new  town 
to  the  south,  with  the  hope  that  when  the  new  town  was  fairly  organized,  the 
Ocean  Park  district  of  Santa  Monica  might  experience  a  change  of  sentiment 
and  cast  its  fortunes  with  the  new  corporation.  The  matter  was  fully  discussed 
in  all  of  its  bearings  and  in  the  fall  the  necessary  steps  were  taken  and  the  elec 
tion  called  for  February,  1904.  On  that  date,  the  new  town  began  its  existence 
and  the  name  "  Ocean  Park  "  became  the  property  of  a  district  which  had  been 
in  existence  less  than  eighteen  months,  leaving  the  postoffice  of  "  Ocean  Park  " 
within  the  bounds  of  Santa  Monica,  and  creating  endless  confusion  as  to  the 
location  of  and  the  meaning  of  the  name  "  Ocean  Park.'' 




The  dissolution  of  the  Ocean  Park  Improvement  Company,  which  had  been 
the  controlling  element  in  Ocean  Park  affairs,  was  announced  February  3rd, 
1904,  and  was  an  event  of  importance  in  South  Santa  Monica.  By  this  arrange 
ment,  Mr.  Kinney,  who  had  owned  a  one-half  interest  in  the  company,  sold  to 
his  partners  all  of  his  interest  in  the  property  of  the  company,  both  lands  and 
buildings,  between  Navy  and  Kinney  streets  in  Santa  Monica,  thus  giving  Fraser, 
Jones  and  Gage  the  entire  control  of  the  Santa  Monica  holdings,  including  the 
Pier  avenue  improvements.  Mr.  Kinney  received  in  exchange  all  title  to  the 
holdings  of  the  company  south  of  Navy  street.  As  a  result  of  this  move,  Mr. 
Kinney  planned  Venice,  while  Messrs.  Fraser  and  Jones  devoted  themselves  to 
the  development  of  their  Pier  avenue  interests.  Another  result  was  the  raising 
of  prices  for  all  lots  belonging  to  the  Improvement  Company  from  $45  per  front 
foot  to  $60. 

It  had  already  been  announced  that  the  Los  Angeles-Pacific  had  purchased 
Mr.  Kinney 's  interests  in  the  proposed  electric  line  that  was  to  have  been  built 
through  Ocean  Park.  They  had  also  previously  purchased  the  right  of  way 
owned  by  Fraser,  Jones  and  Gage,  thus  giving  them  additional  lands  and  right 
of  way.  The  railroad  company  at  once  began  making  improvements  which  were 
greatly  appreciate.!  by  the  residents  of  this  district.  The  building  of  the  plank 
walk  between  their  tracks  was  a  great  boon  to  people  who  had  been  compelled 
to  wade  through  deep  sand  to  reach  the  cars.  The  erection  of  stations  and 
improvements  of  the  trolley  way  gave  the  town  a  new  street  and  the  company 
also  graded  and  improved  a  tract  east  of  the  line  and  put  it  on  the  market. 

In  1901  Captain  Donahue  brought  a  gasoline  launch  to  Santa  Monica  which 
was  operated  from  the  wharf  at  Pier  avenue,  carrying  fishermen  and  pleasure 
seekers  on  trips  up  and  down  the  coast.  This  little  craft  had  been  the  source  of 
much  pleasure  to  beach  residents  and  visitors  and  it  was  with  regret  that  they 
learned  of  her  total  wreck  which  occurred  March  23rd,  1904,  off  the  Short 
Line  beach. 

June  3Oth  the  new  Holborow,  located  in  the  handsome  three-story  brick  put 
up  by  Maier  and  Zobelin,  was  opened  to  the  public.  This  was  then  the  finest 
hotel  south  of  the  Arcadia  and  was  very  popular. 


In  February,  1905,  occurred  one  of  the  heaviest  storms  ever  known  on  the 
Santa  Monica  bay  coast.  This  washed  out  a  large  section  of  the  Pier  avenue 
wharf  and  later  in  the  month  another  storm  completed  the  wrecking  of  the  pier. 

E.  J.  YAWTER,  JR. 


As  a  consequence,  the  outfall  sewer  of  Santa  Monica  was  badly  wrecked  and 
the  beginning  of  sewer  troubles  followed.  Another  storm  in  March  carried  away 
700  feet  of  the  wharf  and  destroyed  a  mile  of  the  beach  walk.  According  to  the 
'terms  of  the  agreement  made  between  the  city  and  the  company  who  built  the 
pier  on  the  piles-  intended  for  carrying  the  outfall,  Messrs.  Kinney  and  Ryan 
were  to  keep  the  pier  in  repair  for  twenty  years.  The  interest  of  Messrs.  Kinney 
and  Ryan  had  now  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  Ocean  Park  Improvement  Com 
pany.  A  dispute  as  to  who  should  stand  the  expense  of  the  repair  resulted  in 
the  sewer  matter  remaining  unsettled.  In  the  meantime  a  company  was  formed 
to  build  a  new  pier  and  it  was  proposed  also  to  build  another  pier  from  the  foot 
of  Marine  avenue.  A  permit  for  the  Marine  avenue  pier  was  let  to  M.  R.  King, 
and  later  the  idea  of  the  horseshoe  pier  developed.  A  seaside  theater  was  opened 
for  the  first  time  in  the  Pavilion  at  Pier  avenue. 

The  First  National  Bank  of  Ocean  Park  was  organized  in  April,  with  J.  M. 
Elliott,  W.  D.  Longyear,  E.  J.  Vawter,  Jr.,  J.  W.  Lincoln,  A.  Eraser,  C.  H. 
Mullen  and  E.  J.  Vawter,  ST.,  as  directors.  E.  J.  Vawter,  Sr.,  was  president, 
J.  M.  Elliott,  vice-president;  Thomas  Meldrum,  cashier.  June  ist,  the  Com 
mercial  State  Bank  opened  for  business,  with  Lon  A.  Pratt,  president ;  Warren 
Gillelen,  vice-president;  J.  W.  Lawrence,  cashier. 

Considerable  feeling  was  aroused  by  an  attempt  to  remove  the  postoffice 
from  Pier  avenue  to  Marine  street  and  then  make  it  the  official  office  of  the  new 
town.  A  postoffice  inspector  was  called  in  to  straighten  out  postoffice  matters ; 
but  after  a  conference  with  all  parties  interested,  it  was  finally  decided  that  the 
Ocean  Park  postoffice  be  left  as  it  was  and  the  new  postoffice  be  named  Venice. 
On  the  completion  of  the  Masonic  Temple,  a  handsome  three-story  brick  build 
ing,  located  on  Marine  avenue,  the  postoffice  was  again  changed,  despite  a  vig 
orous  protest,  to  a  handsomely  fitted  up  room  in  this  building.  But  this  was 
still  within  the  limits  of  Santa  Monica. 


_>    ^ 

C    'e.Cft.n       liV^ 




AS  in  every  other  American  community,  one  of  the  first  interests  of  the  new 
settlement  of  Santa  Monica,  in  1875,  was  to  provide  school  advantages. 
The  first  shack  to  house  the  men  working  on  the  wharf  was  put  on  the 
ground  in  April,  1875 ;  the  first  lots  in  the  new  town  site  were  sold  in  July.  On 
November  3rd,  the  citizens  of  the  town  held  a  meeting  in  the  dining-room  of 
the  Hotel  Santa  Monica  to  discuss  school  matters  and  take  steps  to  secure  the 
formation  of  a  school  district.  As  a  result  of  this  effort,  the  Santa  Monica 
School  District  was  formed  by  the  board  of  supervisors.  It  included  within  its 
limits  the  San  Vicente,  Santa  Monica  and  Malibu  ranches,  the  tract  of  land 
belonging  to  Mrs.  Lucas,  and  a  portion  of  the  Ballona  grant — a  somewhat 
extensive  domain. 

On  December  3rd  the  first  school  election  was  held  and  John  Freeman,  L. 
T.  Fisher  and  J.  W.  Scott  were  chosen  as  trustees ;  at  the  same  time  it  was 
reported  that  there  were  seventy-two  children  in  the  new  district.  An  election 
was  called  in  February,  1876,  to  vote  a  tax  for  school  purposes;  but  owing  to 
some  irregularity  of  form  it  was  postponed  until  March  nth,  when  a  special  tax 
of  $5,000  was  voted  for  a  school-house,  and  Loren  Heath  was  appointed  as 
assessor  and  collector  of  the  same.  The  first  assessment  of  the  district  shows  a 
valuation  of  $1,035,580.  Jones  and  Baker  had  already  donated  two  lots  on  Sixth 
street  as  a  site  and  during  the  summer  a  neat  frame  building,  containing  two 
school-rooms  below  and  a  large  room  above  was  erected  and  ready  for  use  in 
the  fall. 

In  the  meantime  the  children  had  not  lacked  for  educational  opportunities. 
November  8th,  1875,  the  "  Santa  Monica  Academy,"  D.  G.  C.  Baker,  principal, 
opened  for  its  first  term  of  twelve  weeks,  prepared  to  give  courses  "  in  all 
branches,  including  the  Fourth  Reader  and  Hebrew,"  and  "  with  accommoda 
tions  for  a  very  few  young  ladies  to  board  and  lodge  at  reasonable  rates."  Mrs. 
M.  J.  D.  Baker  was  instructor  in  elocution  and  Miss  Ida  M.  Atkinson  taught 
music  and  drawing.  Thus  every  need  of  a  full  school  curriculum  was  supplied. 
The  first  school  exhibition  given  in  Santa  Monica  was  presented  by  the  pupils 
of  this  school  in  the  Presbyterian  chapel,  February  Qth,  1876.  The  Outlook 
also  announces  that  the  second  term  of  Mrs.  Frink's  private  school  would  com 
mence  on  February  7th.  March  4th,  1876,  the  first  session  of  the  public  school 
opened  in  the  Presbyterian  church,  located  on  the  corner  of  Third  and  Arizona, 
the  building  still  standing  in  the  rear  of  the  present  church.  Among  the  pupils 
of  this  school  were  a  number  who  have  since  been  well  known  residents  of  Santa 


Monica — George,  Henry  and  Eugene  Boehme,  Julia,  May  and  George  Suitsr 
Mary  Collins  and  Claude  Sheckles.  H.  P.  McCusick  was  the  teacher  and  before 
the  end  of  the  second  month  he  had  an  enrollment  of  77  pupils.  The  next  fall 
when  school  opened  in  the  new  school-house,  September  loth,  Mr.  McCusick 
was  assisted  by  Miss  Lucy  Whiten  and  the  two  lower  rooms  were  used,  while 
the  "  big  "  room  was  useful  as  an  assembly  room  and  a  meeting  place  for  pub 
lic  occasions.  Many  happy  memories  are  associated  with  this  room  in  the  minds- 
of  older  residents  of  Santa  Monica.  One  memorable  occasion  was  an  entertain 
ment  and  dance  held  on  the  evening  of  December  3ist,  1881,  the  proceeds  to  be 
used  for  the  purchase  of  an  organ  for  the  school-house.  The  Los  Angeles  papers 
announce  that  the  affair  was  a  great  success  and  that  the  tableaux  would  have 
been  creditable  to  a  first-class  theater.  It  should  certainly  have  been  a  well 
rehearsed  affair,  for  in  a  dispute  over  one  of  the  rehearsals,  the  teacher,  W.  H. 
P.  Williams,  an  impetuous  southerner,  shot  and  seriously  wounded  one  McDon 
ald  whom  he  thought  to  be  interfering  with  his  plans.  Naturally  the  young  pro 
fessor  was  requested  to  resign,  but  the  entertainment  was  carried  out  by  his 
successor,  W.  W.  Seaman,  who  later  became  a  well  known  state  official.  The 
minutes  of  the  school  board  for  December  3Oth,  1881,  state,  "  A  Wilcox  and 
White  organ  was  presented  to  the  public  school  of  Santa  Monica,  the  money 
for  same  having  been  raised  by  a  series  of  public  entertainments  gotten  up 
through  the  instrumentality  of  Mr.  M.  R.  Gaddy  and  others." 

In  1877  the  district  showed  an  enrollment  of  157  children,  Mr.  A.  C. 
Shafer  was  the  principal  and  was  assisted  by  Miss  Yda  Addis,  whose  name  and 
brilliant  though  erratic  career  are  known  to  all  older  residents  of  Southern  Cali 
fornia.  February  I4th,  1878,  a  special  tax  for  school  purposes  was  voted.  The 
school  continued  with  two  teachers  until  1884,  when  the  upper  room  was  fur 
nished  and  three  teachers  employed.  In  August,  1887,  more  room  for  the  schools 
had  become  imperative  and  $5,000  bonds  were  voted  and  four  rooms  added  to 
the  school  building.  Four  teachers  were  now  employed,  with  Elmer  P.  Rowell 
as  principal.  Mr.  Rowell  was  connected  with  the  schools  of  Santa  Monica  for 
four  years  and  many  advances  were  made  under  his  able  leadership.  In  1888 
the  rapid  increase  in  population  made  even  the  new  accommodations  inadequate 
and  a  tax  of  $2,500  was  voted  to  still  further  enlarge  the  school  building,  after 
which  six  teachers  were  required. 

In  1889,  after  a  good  deal  of  agitation,  steps  were  taken  to  provide  the 
south  side  with  a  school.  This  was  opened  in  a  private  house;  but  in  1888  lots 
had  been  secured  at  the  corner  of  Ash  and  Fourth  streets  and  in  1890  a  small 
building  erected.  In  1891  another  small  building  was  put  up  in  Garapatos  can 
yon.  This  section  of  the  district  has  since  been  cut  off  from  the  Santa  Monica 
district.  In  1894  a  neat  building  was  provided  for  the  pupils  resident  in  Santa 
Monica  canvon. 


In  May,  1885,  the  first  class  graduated  from  the  grammar  grade  depart 
ment,  under  the  county  laws  governing  grammar  grades.  The  Santa  Monica 
schools  were  counted  as  of  the  grammar  grade  until  1891,  when  the  high  school 
was  established,  under  a  new  state  law,  and  opened  its  first  year  of  work  in 
September,  with  Prof.  Lerov  D.  Brown  as  principal.  Prof.  Brown  was  an  able 
educator  and  made  a  strong  mark  upon  the  character  of  the  city  schools.  He 
was  later  principal  of  the  Los  Angeles  schools  and  his  untimely  death  was  a 
sorrow  to  many  who  had  enjoyed  his  instruction.  The  high  school  was  opened 
in  the  Sixth  street  building  and  the  first  class  of  five  members,  Roy  Arthur  Sul- 
liger,  Florence  Corle  Rubicam,  George  G.  Bundy,  Hilda  H.  Hasse  and  Delia 
Sweetser,  graduated  in  1894. 

For  several  years,  beginning  with  1889,  Professor  E.  P.  Rowell,  Dr.  A.  W. 
Plummer,  Professor  Brown  and  others  conducted  a  very  successful  summer 
institute  in  Santa  Monica,  for  teachers  and  others  desiring  special  instruction. 
These  institutes  provided  interesting  and  profitable  classes  and  lectures,  con 
certs  and  instruction  in  music  and  many  enjoyable  social  affairs  grew  out  of 
them.  For  several  years  they  attracted  a  number  of  teachers  and  would-be 
teachers  to  this  place  for  the  summer  courses. 

In  1893,  two  more  rooms  were  added  to  the  Sixth  street  building,  and  in 
1895  another  school  room  was  added  to  the  south  side  school.  September  5th, 
1897,  bonds  to  the  amount  of  $15,000  were  voted  for  a  high  school  building, 
although  in  April  of  the  same  year  a  proposition  to  vote  $12,000  for  the  same 
purpose  was  lost,  chiefly  because  it  was  felt  that  the  sum  was  not  enough  to 
build  a  suitable  building  on  the  lots  already  secured  at  Tenth  and  Oregon. 
The  contract  for  the  building  was  let  to  H.  X.  Goetz  and  in  June,  1898,  the 
building  was  completed  and  dedicated  by  holding  the  graduating  exercise  for 
the  year  in  it. 

In  1902  $12,000  bonds  were  voted  for  a  new  building  on  the  south  side 
and  the  next  year  an  eight-room  building,  costing  when  complete  about 
$16,000,  was  ready  for  occupancy.  The  city  was  now  growing  so  rapidly,  both 
by  annexation  and  from  within,  that  the  school  accommodations  were  felt  to 
be  entirely  inadequate.  In  1905  $60,000  bonds  were  voted  and  plans  were 
made  for  three  school  houses,  an  eight-room  building  at  Seventh  and  Michigan, 
now  known  as  the  Garfield  building ;  a  four-room  school  at  Irwin  avenue  and 
Twenty-second — the  Grant,  and  a  four-room  building  on  Twentieth  between 
Oregon  and  Arizona.  It  was  decided  to  construct  all  of  these  buildings  of 
brick  and  to  make  them  complete  in  equipment.  But  the  growth  of  the' school 
population  was  still  beyond  the  capacity  of  the  accommodations  and  in  1906  it 
was  decided  to  replace  the  old  Sixth  street  school,  which  had  been  added  to 
until  little  of  the  original  building  could  be  found,  with  a  modern  building. 



In  consequence  the  people  were  again  called  upon  to  bond  themselves  for  school 
purposes  and  the  sum  of  $15,000  to  complete  the  three  buildings  already  under 
way,  was  voted  December  9th,  1905,  and  of  $60,000  for  the  Sixth  street  school 
and  a  four-room  building  in  the  new  Palisade  tract.  The  Sixth  street  school 
was  first  occupied  in  the  spring  of  1907  and  is  the  equal  of  any  school  building 
in  the  country. 

The   Santa   Monica   schools   are   now    fully   equipped    for   effective   service. 
Fifty   teachers   are    employed   and   the   attendance    for    1907-8   will    surpass   all 


previous  years.  The  number  of  children  of  school  age  in  May,  1907,  was 
2,499.  Departments  of  music  and  drawing,  with  supervising  instructors  are 
maintained.  Full  courses  in  manual  training  and  domestic  science  are  given. 
The  school  district  now  has  nine  buildings :  The  Lincoln — the  High  School — 
located  at  Oregon  and  Tenth ;  Jefferson,  the  old  Sixth  street  school ;  Washing 
ton,  Fourth  street  and  Ashland  avenue ;  Garfield,  Seventh  street  and  Michigan 
avenue;  Grant,  Irwin  avenue  and  Twenty-second  street;  McKinley,  Twentieth 
street  between  Idaho  and  Montana ;  Roosevelt,  Sixth  street  between  Idaho  and 
Montana ;  Westgate  and  Canyon.  The  entire  valuation  of  school  property  is 


Beside  the  public  schools,  the  Academy  of  the  Holy  Names,  under  the  care 
of  the  Sisters,  was  established  in  1899.  The  beautiful  building  occupied  by  this 
school  was  dedicated  February  22nd,  1901. 

In  1906  the  California  Military  Academy  was  established  in  Santa  Monica, 
in  response  to  the  desire  of  parents  who  wished  to  place  their  sons  in  a  genuine 
military  academy.  Its  sessions  were  held  in  tents  located  in  the  park  until 
December  9th,  when  the  school  was  transferred  to  the  Arcadia  Hotel  building 
and  the  hotel  ceased  to  exist  after  serving  the  public  for  twenty  years.  The 
school  has  a  boarding  and  day  department  and  prepares  its  pupils  for  college. 
Ceftainly  no  more  delightful  and  healthful  location  for  such  a  school  could 
be  found. 


1876-77— John  Freeman,  L.  T.  Fisher,  J.  W.   Scott   (clerk). 
1877-78 — M.   D.   Johnson,  J.   W.   Scott,   George   Boehme    (clerk). 
1878-79 — Loren   Heath,  J.   W.    Scott,   George   Boehme    (clerk). 
1879-80 — Loren  Heath,  George  Boehme,  W.   S.  Vawter   (clerk). 
1880-81— M.   D.   Johnson,   Loren   Heath,   W.    S.   Vawter    (clerk). 
1 88 1 -82— George  Giroux,  W.   R.   Gadcly,   W.   S.   Vawter    (clerk). 
1882-83— Mrs.  L.  B.  Huie,  J.  W.  Scott,  M.  R.  Gaddy  (clerk). 
1883-84— Mrs.  E.  E.  McLeoud,  Mrs.  Geo.  B.  Dexter,  E.  K.  Chapin  (clerk). 
1884-85— Mrs.  Geo.  B.  Dexter,  Mrs.  E.  E.  McLeoud,  E.  K.  Chapin  (clerk). 
1885-86— Mrs.  Geo.  B.  Dexter,  Mrs.  E.  E.  McLeoud,  E.  K.  Chapin  (clerk). 
1886-87— F.  H.  Howard,  E.  J.  Vawter,  E.  K.  Chapin   (clerk). 
1887-88— W.  O.  Baxter.  Geo.  D.   Pendleton,  E.  J.  Vawter   (clerk). 
1888-89— W.  O.   Baxter,  Geo.   D.   Pendleton,  W.   S.  Vawter   (clerk). 
1889-90— Geo.  D.   Pendleton,  John   C.   Morgan,  W.    S.   Vawter    (clerk). 
1890-91— John   C.   Morgan,  Dr.   H.   G.   Cates,   N.   A.   Roth    (clerk). 
1891-92— John  C.  Morgan,  W.  S.  Vinyard,  Dr.  J.  J.  Place   (clerk). 
1892-93— John  C.   Morgan,  R.  R.  Tanner,  Dr.  J.  J.  Place    (clerk). 
1893-94— Dr.  J.  J-   Place,  R.  R.  Tanner,  Nathan  Bundy   (clerk). 
1894-95— R.   R.  Tanner,  R.   P.  Elliott,   Nathan  Bundy    (clerk). 
1895-96 — R.   P.   Elliott,   Dr.   J.   J.   Place,   Nathan   Bundy    (clerk). 
1896-97— R.   P.   Elliott,   S.   F.    Carpenter,   Fred   H.   Taft    (clerk). 
1897-98— R.   P.  Elliott,   S.   F.   Carpenter,   F.   H.   Taft    (clerk). 
1898-99— R.  P.  Elliott  S.  F.  Carpenter,  F.  H.  Taft   (clerk). 
1899-00— R.   P.   Elliott,   S.   F.    Carpenter,   D.   G.   Holt    (clerk). 
1900-01— S.   F.   Carpenter,  D.   G.   Holt    (clerk),  F.   K.  Rindge. 
1901-02—8.  F.  Carpenter,  F.  K.  Rindge,  D.  G.  Holt   (clerk) 
1902-03— S.  F.  Carpenter,  F.  K.  Rindge,  D.  G.  Holt    (clerk). 
1903-04  the  change  was  made   from  a  board   of  school  trustees  to  ;i   city 



board  of  education,  the  first  board  under  the  re-organization  being:  S.  F. 
Carpenter,  J.  H.  Hassinger,  W.  E.  Devore,  Dr.  J.  S.  Hunt,  J.  H.  Jackson. 
This  board  held  until  1906  when  the  present  board,  W.  E.  Devore,  A.  B.  Clapp, 
E.  V.  Dales,  D.  G.  Holt,  and  W.  S.  Vawter  was  elected. 


1876-77— H.   P.   McCusick. 
1877— A.    C.    Shatter. 
1878 — A.   McPherson. 
1878-79— Chas,  H.  Hall. 
1879-80 — Miss   Blanche  L.   Downs. 
1880-81—  Florella   King. 
1881— W.  H.  P.  Williams. 
1882-86— W.  W.  Seaman. 

1886-90— E.  P.  Rowell. 

1890-92 — Leroy  D.  Brown. 

1893-00 — N.  F.  Smith. 

1900-02 — C.   I.  D.  Moore. 

1902-07 — D.  A.  Eckert  (superin 
tendent)  . 

1907 — Horace  Rebok  (superinten 


The  following  table  shows  the  increase  in  school  enrollment  and  attendance 
in  the  Santa  Monica  school  district  since  the  year   1876: 



1876 103 

1876-1877 145 

1877-1878 149 

1878-1879 122 

1879-1880 98 

1880-1881 103 

1881-1882 108 

1882-1883 136 

1883-1884 179 

1884-1885 176 

1885-1886 198 

1886-1887 264 

1887-1888 332 

1888-1889 354 

1889-1890 344 

1890-1891 355 

Av.  Daily 








1891-1892 392 

1892-1893 496 

1893-1894 544 

1894-1895 614 

1895-1896 669 

1896-1897 739 

1897-1898 682 

1898-1899 699 

1899-1900 668 

1900-1901 660 

1901-1902 755 

1902-1903 973 

1903-1904 1331 

1904-1905 1352 

1905-1906 1604 

1906-1907 1641 

Av.  Daily 









The  people  who  settled  the  town  of  Santa  Monica  were  of  the  intelligent 
and  progressive  class.  They  at  once  took  steps  to  provide  themselves  with 
schools  and  churches,  and  on  March  1st,  1876,  the  Outlook  announces:  "A 
Library  Association  is  about  to  be  formed  in  Santa  Monica.  All  those  inter- 
•ested  in  this  movement  are  requested  to  meet  at  the  home  of  Mrs.  Devere,  on 
Sixth  street,  on  Thursday  evening,  when  the  plans  will  be  explained." 

The  association  was  formed  and  met  once  a  week  on  Saturday  evenings, 
when  discussions  were  held  and  papers  read.  Books  and  periodicals  were 
contributed  for  the  use  of  the  members.  At  a  meeting  of  the  association  held 
April  igth,  1878,  Dr.  J.  S.  Elliott  was  chosen  president;  George  Boehme, 

treasurer ;  and  M. 
C.  Olmstead,  secre 
tary  and  librarian. 
The  initiation  fees 
of  the  society  were 
$l.oo  and  the  mem 
bership  $2.00  annu 
ally,  the  money  to 


be  devoted  to  the 
purchase  of  books. 
There  were  twenty- 
five  members,  and 
June  1 9th,  1876,  the 
first  installment  of 
books  for  the  Santa 
Monica  Library  was 
received,  the  list  including  a  number  of  standard  works.  This  was  certainly  a 
good  start  toward  a  library.  How  long  this  society  existed,  or  what  became  of 
the  books  purchased  for  it,  is  not  known. 

The  next  movement  for  a  library  and  a  free  reading  room  was  made 
about  1884  by  some  of  the  ladies  of  the  town,  who  felt  that  the  young  people 
needed  such  opportunities.  Mrs.  Asenath  Lorimer,  Miss  Ella  G.  Dow,  the 
Misses  Vawter,  Miss  Niles,  and  others  were  interested.  A  subscription  list 
was  started,  Col.  R.  S.  Baker  being  the  first  contributor.  Entertainments  were 
given  for  the  fund  and  a  room  in  the  rear  of  Dr.  Fred  C.  McKinnie's  drug 
store  was  secured  for  a  reading  room.  The  work  was  carried  on  for  some  time 
by  the  women  interested ;  but  after  the  organization  of  the  Woman's  Chris 
tian  Temperance  Union,  the  reading  room  was  turned  over  to  their  charge.  It 
was  then  removed  to  the  building  still  occupied  by  the  organization,  being 
located  in  the  down-stairs  room.  Of  their  work  the  Outlook  notes: 


"  A  few  unselfish  ladies  of  the  W.  C.  T.  U.  have  been  engaged  for  some 
time  in  establishing  a  library  and  free  reading  room  in  Santa  Monica.  They 
have  labored  faithfully  and  already  there  is  gratifying  evidence  that  their  work 
has  not  been  in  vain.  Their  free  reading  room  is  handsomely  fitted  up  and 
is  one  of  the  specially  inviting  places  in  Santa  Monica.  For  a  time  they  rented 
a  room  but  they  finally  concluded  to  purchase  a  lot  and  building  and  take  the 
chances  of  paying  for  it.  In  accordance  with  this  plan  they  bought  a  25-foot 
lot  and  a  two-story  building  on  Third  street  for  $2,500.  Mr.  John  Steere,  of 
whom  they  made  the  purchase,  has  given  the  ladies  their  own  time  to  pay  for 
the  property,  only  exacting  the  interest.  By  renting  a  portion  of  the  building, 
they  have  reduced  the  rent  to  a  small  amount  per  month.  On  their  shelves  there 
are  about  400  volumes  of  well  selected  books  and  the  tables  of  the  pleasant 
reading  room  are  supplied  with  many  popular  magazines  and  papers.  The 
only  charge  is  two  bits  a  month  for  books  taken  from  the  room,  while  all  are 
allowed  free  use  of  everything  within  the  library.  The  officers  are  Mrs.  Jane 
Austin,  president;  Mrs.  D.  B.  Hubbell,  vice-president,  and  Miss  E.  A.  Dow, 
secretary.  A  number  of  other  ladies  are  taking  an  active  interest  in  the 
institution  which  deserves  a  most  liberal  support  from  our  own  residents,  and 
it  is  to  be  hoped  that  some  benevolent  visitor  will  come  along  some  day  and 
determine  to  help  this  worthy  undertaking. — Outlook,  July  18,  '88. 

The  ladies  of  Santa  Monica  did,  indeed,  labor  hard  to  aid  this  work.  They 
gave  dinners  and  suppers,  socials  and  fairs,  and  worked  harder  to  earn  money 
for  this  purpose  than  they  would  have  dreamed  of  working  to  earn  money  for 
themselves.  One  instance  is  told  of  an  auction  sale  on  the  South  Side,  where 
the  W.  C.  T.  U.  ladies  furnished  the  dinner.  One  of  the  owners  of  the  tract, 
Mr.  Tom  Lewis,  offered  to  give  a  commission  of  $100  to  the  ladies  if  they 
would  sell  the  house  and  lot  on  the  tract  offered.  After  the  dinner,  one  of  the 
ladies,  Mrs.  D.  B.  Hubbell,  heard  of  the  offer,  rounded  up  a  purchaser  for  the 
property  and  made  a  sale.  In  course  of  time  the  $100  was  paid  over  to  her  and 
she  asserts  that  the  day  on  which  she  spent  a  hundred  dollars  all  at  once  for 
books  for  the  Santa  Monica  library,  was  a  red  letter  day  in  her  life. 

In  1888,  the  ladies  of  Santa  Monica,  under  the  direction  of  Mrs.  Chapin, 
Mrs.  W.  S.  Vawter,  and  others,  and  with  the  aid  of  Mr.  Tyler,  prepared  a 
floral  exhibit  for  the  second  Floral  Festival  held  in  the  old  Hazard  Pavilion,  in 
Los  Angeles.  A  full-rigged  ship  was  seen  floating  on  the  ocean,  the  wharf 
and  the  bluff  were  represented— all  in  the  most  exquisite  of  flowers.  The 
Santa  Monica  booth  was  unanimously  declared  the  most  beautiful  among  many 
elaborate  exhibits  and  received  the  first  prise,  $200.  This  after  deducting 
expenses  the  ladies  turned  over  to  the  reading  room  fund. 

But  the  purchase  of  the  building  and  the  maintenance  of  the  reading  room 
and  library  proved  too  heavy  a  burden  for  the  women  to  carry  indefinitely.  In 


1889,  Mr.  Steere  very  generously  returned  the  money  which  had  been  paid  on 
the  building  and  canceled  the  sale.  But  upon  his  death,  in  1892,  he  left  this 
building  to  the  Women's  Christian  Temperance  Union  on  condition  that  a  free 
reading  room  be  maintained  in  it. 

In  1890  the  ladies  who  were  interested  in  the  library  proposed  to  turn  it 
over  to  the  city,  provided  the  city  would  carry  it  on.  The  proposal  of  the 
ladies  who  had  gathered  together  a  well  selected  library  of  800  volumes  was 
as  follows : 

"  It  appearing  to  the  members  of  this  society  that  said  society  is  unable  to 
pay  the  current  expenses  of  the  library  belonging  to  them,  and  believing  it  will 
be  for  its  best  interest  to  donate  the  said  library  to  the  town  of  Santa  Monica, 
a  municipal  organization  duly  incorporated  and  existing  under  the  laws  of  this 
state,  to  be  carried  on  by  the  said  town  in  accordance  with  the  laws  of  this 
state  regulating  public  libraries,  it  is  therefor 

"  Resolved,  that  this  society  does  hereby  give,  donate  and  bequeath  to  said 
town  of  Santa  Monica  all  its  said  library,  together  with  all  appurtenances 
belonging  thereto,  for  the  purpose  of  maintaining  a  public  library  in  connection 
with  a  free  reading  room. 

"  We,  the  undersigned  members  of  the  foregoing  society,  do  hereby  consent 
to  this  disposition  of  the  library. 

"  Signed  by  Laura  E.  Hubbell,  president;  J.  A.  Austin,  secretary;  Rebecca 
B.  Guilberson,  I.  D.  Richmond  (per  Mrs.  Richmond,  his  wife).  Trustees, 
Mamie  E.  Guilberson,  Mrs.  I.  D.  Richmond,  Mrs.  J.  A.  Dexter. 

November   I4th,   1890." 

The  town  trustees  accepted  the  gift  and  appointetd  W.  W.  Webster,  E.  H. 
Sweetser,  H.  A.  Fisher,  Abbot  Kinney  and  L.  T.  Fisher  as  library  trustees. 
Two  rooms  were  engaged  in  the  bank  building  and  December,  1890,  Miss 
Elfie  Mosse  was  appointed  librarian. 

The  first  monthly  report  of  the  library  after  it  was  turned  over  to  the  city, 
December,  1890,  reads:  "Report  of  Santa  Monica  Public  Library,  commencing 
December  5th.  The  book  list  names  808  books ;  the  records  show  fifteen  books 
taken  that  have  been  out  for  several  months.  The  list  of  subscribers  during 
month  is  twenty-eight — sixteen  of  them  new  on  the  list.  Receipts  for  the 
month,  $7-25-  Donation  of  a  year's  subscription  of  the  following  magazines  by- 
Mr.  Abbot  Kinney:  Scribner's,  Popular  Science  Monthly,  The  Forum,  Harper's 
Monthly,  Puck  and  Judge.  Mr.  H.  A.  Winslow  donated  American  Encyclo 
pedia,  10  volumes ;  Mr.  T.  A.  Lewis,  '  Memoirs  of  W.  T.  Sherman,'  2  volumes, 
Elfie  Mosse,  librarian." 

A  subscription  of  twenty-five  cents  a  month  was  still  required  and  still  at 
the  end  of  the  first  year  the  library  was  badly  in  need  of  funds.  If  it  was  to  be 


J.   H.   CLARK. 


carried  on,  something  must  be  done  and  a  subscription  of  $200  was  made  up 
among  citizens  to  help  it  out. 

.March  1st,  1893,  the  library  was  made  free  to  the  public,  the  occasion 
being  celebrated-  by  an  evening  gathering,  speeches,  etc.  The  library  now  had 
i, 800  volumes  on  its  shelves.  The  growth  was  steadily  maintained.  In  1898 
it  became  necessary  to  secure  an  additional  room.  On  the  completion  of  the 
new  city  hall,  it  was  removed  March  2ist,  1903,  to  the  room  now  occupied  by 
the  council,  which  gave  more  commodious  quarters. 

But  it  had  already  been  suggested  that  Santa  Monica  might  possibly  be 
able  to  secure  a  Carnegie  library,  as  so  many  other  towns  in  Southern  California 
had  done.  Early  in  1903  Mrs.  J.  H.  Clark  wrote  to  Mr.  Carnegie,  setting 
forth  the  needs  of  Santa  Monica  and  making  a  plea  for  consideration  for  this 
city.  After  some  correspondence  she  received  the  following  letter: 


2  East  91st  St., 

New  York. 

13th  April,  1903. 
Mrs.  J.  H.  Clark, 

Santa   Monica,   Cal. 

Madam: — Responding  to  your  communication  on  behalf  of  Santa  Monica.  If  the 
city  agree  by  resolution  of  Councils  to  maintain  a  Free  Public  Library  at  cost  of  not 
less  than  Twelve  Hundred  and  Fifty  Dollars  a  year,  and  provide  a  suitable  site  for  tne 
building,  Mr.  Carnegie  will  be  pleased  to  furnish  Twelve  Thousand  Five  Hundred 
Dollars  to  erect  a  Free  Public  Library  Building  for  Santa  Monica. 

Respectfully  yours, 


P.   Secretary. 

1  he  city  was  already  raising  more  than  the  required  amount  annually  for 
the  support  of  the  library.  It  only  remained  to  secure  a  site.  A  subscription 
was  started  and  in  a  few  weeks  the  sum  of  $3,982.50  had  been  raised.  The 
site  on  the  corner  of  Oregon  avenue  and  Fifth  street  was  purchased. 
January  1st,  1904,  work  on  the  new  library  was  begun.  July  23rd  of  the  same 
year  saw  the  building  completed  and  on  the  evening  of  August  nth  the  library 
was  opened  with  a  reception  to  the  public. 

The  architecture  of  the  building  is  Romanesque,  with  a  handsome  facade 
and  entrance.  Within  an  octagonal  delivery  room  is  the  central  feature,  all 
the  rooms  being  built  around  it  and  opening  from  it,  in  such  a  way  that  super 
vision  can  be  had  over  the  whole  from  the  central  desk.  A  juvenile  room  with 
suitable  chairs  and  tables  and  a  ladies'  rest  room  add  to  the  conveniences 
for  patrons. 

In  the  regulations  governing  the  library  and  in  the  library  work,  modern 
methods  have  been  adopted  and  improvements  are  constantly  in  progress.  At 
the  present  date  the  library  contains  8,300  volumes  and  the  home  issue  for  the 
year  just  ended  was  39,738.  Three  days  in  the  week  there  is  a  book  exchange 
from  Pier  avenue,  the  station  being  in  the  drug  store  of  Clapp  Brothers. 


In  the  reading  and  reference  rooms  are  currently  received  ninety-five 
periodicals.  Special  work  in  the  children's  rooms,  such  as  posters,  stereoscope 
system  of  views,  etc.,  and  also  meeting  the  demand  for  books  in  connection 
with  the  public  school  work,  is  made  a  feature  of  much  interest. 

The  success  of  this  library  has  been  greatly  due  to  the  faithful  and  efficient 
librarian,  Miss  Elfie  Mosse,  who  has  had  it  in  charge  since  1890.  For  four 
teen  years  she  was  entirely  without  assistance  except  during  the  summer  months. 
Alone  and  unaided  she  has  striven  zealously  to  keep  the  Santa  Monica  library 
fn  the  front  rank  and  to  keep  pace  with  the  growth  of  the  city.  All  the  latest 
methods  and  improvements  have  been  adopted  through  her  efforts,  and  at  the 
National  Librarians'  Convention,  which  she  attended,  her  work  received  high 

In  August,  1902,  Miss  Grace  Baxter  was  made  assistant  librarian  and  a 
student's  class  was  inaugurated. 

The  following  table,  giving  the  home  use  of  books  since  the  library  came 
under  "  city  government,"  will  be  of  interest : 

January,    1891    to    1892 5»3°4 

January,    1892   to    1893 7,5o8 

January,    1893   to    1894 9,941 

January,    1894  to    1905 1 5,106 

January,    1905   to    1906 19,183 

January,    1896  to    1897 18,805 

January,    1897  to    1898 26,397 

January,    1898  to    1899 25,029 

January,    1899   to    1900 27,281 

January,    1900  to    1901 21,533 

January,    1901    to    1902 1 7,550 

January,    1902   to    1903 21 ,260 

January,    1903   to   1904 22,670 

From  January  to  June,  1004  (6  months) n,I34 

From  June  30,  1904,  to  June  30,  1905 26,575 

From  June  30,  1905,  to  June  30,  1906 35-°4I 

From  June  30,  1906,  to  June  30,  1907 39-738 


Artesian   Company    $  300.00             P.radshaw,  Wm.   G 25.00 

Abbott  &  Elliott    5.00  Brand,    L.     C.     (Guarantee 

Aiken,  H.  C 25.00               Title)    40.00 

Busier,    A 25.00             Brooks,    Miss    25.00 

Bundy,   Frank    25.00             fienson,  A.  B 5.00 

Bundv,    Guv    10.00             Bandina,    Don    Jaun    100.00 



Charles,   Chris    25.00 

Chambers,   W.   H 25.00 

Crosier,  J.    C 5.00 

Cook,  G.  W 5.00 

Clark,  J.  H 100.00 

Carpenter,   S.  F 25.00 

Conaway,  C.  W 10.00 

Dudley,  T.  H 50.00 

Dudley,  Mrs.  T.  H 100.00 

Dow,   Miss  Ellen    -  25.00 

Dike,  Mrs.  E.  W 25.00 

Dales   Bros 25.00 

Daley,  F.   B ';' 50.00 

Duryea,   Mrs.   A 10.00 

Dunston,  H.  G 10.00 

Duncan,    E 2.50 

Edison  Electric    100.00 

Eaton,    Fred    50.00 

Edmond,   Geo.   W 25.00 

Feather,  M.  D 5.00 

Freeman,   Ed 5.00 

Gillis,  W.  T 25.00 

Guidinger,  A.  M 25.00 

Gardner,  Mrs.  M.  W 25.00 

Grimes,  R.  R 5.00 

Ciilman  and  Dorner    25.00 

Hunt,  Dr.  J-  S 25.00 

Hamilton,  Dr.  N.  H 50.00 

Hutton,  Geo.  H 50.00 

Hull,  W.   I 25.00 

Holt,  D.  G 25.00 

Huhbell,  Mrs.  L.  E 25.00 

Hemingway,  J.   C 5.00 

Jones,   Roy    500.00 

Tames,  T.  H 5.00 

Jenkins.   Rob    5.00 

Keller.  H.  W 25.00 

Kennedy,   John    25.00 

Knesel,  J.  S 25.00 

Lindsey,  C.  M lo.'oo 

Lindsey,  Mrs.  M.  C 25.00 

La  Berge,  J 5.00 

Leonardt,    Carl    20.00 

Miller,  R.  M 25.00 

Moody,  T.  A 25.00 

Martin,  Miss  E 25.00 

Montgomery,   A.    M 25.00 

Mosse,  Miss  E 10.00 

Miles,  J.  Euclid 10.00 

Michel,  H 15-00 

Morris,    Alf 10.00 

Bassett  and   Nebeker    100.00 

Nieman  &  Co 25.00 

Rindge,  F.  H 5o°-O° 

Robie,  J.   B 100.00 

Sherman  and  Clark    .'.  '.,  300.00 

Sweetser,  E.  H.   ... . .  .  25.00 

Sawtelle,  W.  E 25.00 

Schrader,   Carl    25.00 

Saxman,  W.  H 5-OQ 

Taft,  F.  H 25.00 

Tanner,  R.  R 50.00 

Tullis,  O.  G 25.00 

Tegner,  Chas 5-°° 

Vawter,  W.   S '. .'.".  25.00 

Vawter,  E.   J 20.00 

Vawter,   Misses    10.00 

Volkman,  M.  F 10.00 

Walkley,  Mrs.  Caroline  ...  100.00 

Webb  and  Vogel   25.00 

Wilson,  J.  S 10.00 

Wilson,  E.  A lo.oo 

83   Subscribers. 





The  first  fire  company  in  Santa  Monica  was  the  Crawford  Hook  and  Ladder 
Company,  organized  October  27th,  1875,  with  ].  C.  Morgan,  president ;  S.  B. 
Adams,  secretary;  W.  Beach,  treasurer;  Harry  DuPuy,  foreman:  John  Mott, 
first  assistant ;  Johnny  Doyle,  second  assistant.  Their  outfitting  was  very  simple, 
being  buckets  and  axes,  but  they  were  enthusiastic  and  on  occasions  made  a 
brave  fight  with  their  buckets.  One  of  the  most  serious  fires  with  which  they 
had  to  contend  occurred  on  July  igth,  1876,  when  the  "  Club  House  "  was  set  on 

fire  by  an  incendiary  for  the  purpose  of  rob 
bery,  the  thieves  getting  away  with  $850 
from  the  bar  during  the  excitement.  This  fire 
company  was  an  important  factor  in  the  social 
life  during  early  days,  as  they  had  their 
annual  balls  and  benefits  of  various  sorts. 
The  organization  died  out,  however,  and  for 
some  years  the  town  was  without  a  regular 
fire  department  of  any  sort.  Everybody 

^^  grabbed    a    bucket    and    ran    when    an    alarm 

Ftlttt  I          ||.  J-  was  given. 

No  other  fire  company  was  organized 
here  until  .March  22nd,  1889.  when  Santa 
Monica  Plose,  Hook  and  Ladder  Company 
was  formed  with  forty-six  members,  many  of 
whom  were  leading  business  men  of  the  city. 
"  P>ob  "  Eckert.  who  had  been  a  pioneer  fire 
man  in  Los  Angeles,  was  the  first  foreman 
The  first  equipment  at  this  time  consisted  cf 
a  four-wheel  hose  cart  and  1,000  feet  of  hose, 
with  ladders,  axes,  etc.  Hydrants  had  been 

been  provided  and  the  old  engine  house,  back  of  the  bank  building  on  Oregon 
avenue,  had  been  built  in  1888.  The  first  officers  of  the  company  were  Robert 
Eckert,  foreman ;  William  Jackson,  first  assistant  foreman ;  George  P>.  Dexter, 
second  assistant  foreman ;  Fred  C.  McKinney,  secretary,  and  A.  G.  Smith, 
treasurer.  In  1890,  George  B.  Dexter  was  made  foreman,  a  position  which  he 
held  continuously  until  1903  when  the  department  was  organized  under  the  new 
city  administration. 

In  1890  a  two-wheel  cart  and  a  hook  and  ladder  wagon  were  added  to  the 
equipment.  The  two  carts  with  2,000  feet  of  hose  made  it  a  very  heavy  task 
for  the  firemen  to  pull  the  apparatus  to  a  fire,  especially  when  they  had  to  plough 
through  a  mile  or  two  of  sand  or  dust  to  reach  South  Santa  Monica.  Yet  for 

FIRE    HOTSE,    DEPT.    -NO 


ten  years  the  firemen  were  obliged  to  meet  these  conditions,  added  to  which  was 
often,  perhaps  usually,  an  inadequate  supply  of  water,  or  a  pressure  too  weak 
to  be  effectual.  This  company  was  volunteer  and  received  no  compensation  for 
their  services,  except  such  funds  as  were  raised  in  various  ways  through  the 
efforts  of  the  firemen  or  by  contribution. 

During  that  time  the  fire  department  had  to  cope  with  many  exciting  blazes. 
One  of  the  most  serious  was  the  Santa  Monica  Hotel  which  was  burned  in  1889. 
Another,  which  many  will  remember,  was  the  burning  of  the  large  livery  stable 
belonging  to  William  Flores  when  several  horses  and  a  large  amount  of  hay 
was  lost.  The  destruction  of  the  old  Neptune  Gardens,  in  1893,  was  a  pictur 
esque  fire ;  in  1895  the  burning  of  the  St.  James  Hotel  caused  a  heavy  loss  and 
some  narrow  escapes ;  the  fire  department  by  good  work  saved  the  adjoining 
buildings,  although  they  were  too  late  to  save  even  the  furnishings  of  the  hotel. 
In  1899,  the  Casino  building  on  Third  street  was  destroyed  by  fire. 

In  1900  the  board  of  trustees  after  careful  consideration  purchased  a  new 
combination  hose  wagon  and  chemical  engine  and  also  a  team  of  horses.  Mr. 
A.  J.  Myers  was  installed  as  driver.  The  engine  house  was  rebuilt,  a  new 
fire  bell  had  been  put  in  place  and  an  electrical  fire  alarm  system  had  been 
installed  in  1896.  Mr.  W.  I.  Hull  served  as  president  of  the  company  for 
fifteen  years  1892  to  1907.  The  present  officers  are:  C.  J.  Marvin,  chief;  E. 
P.  Xittinger,  assistant  chief.  The  board  of  fire  commissioners  is  made  up  of 
Mayor  Dudley,  president ;  A.  N.  Archer  and  H.  G.  Dunston. 

In  1906  steps  were  taken  to  provide  the  fire  department  with  suitable 
quarters,  the  old  fire  house  having  become  entirely  unsuited  to  its  needs.  At 
a  bond  election  held  in  1906,  bonds  were  voted  for  building  two  fire  houses,  one 
on  city  property  rear  of  the  city  hall,  one  on  Surf  and  Lake  streets.  These 
handsome  buildings,  fitted  with  all  modern  conveniences,  were  turned  over  to 
the  city  in  the  spring  of  1907. 

A  volunteer  fire  department  was  organized  in  Ocean  Park  February  3rd, 
1900,  with  an  enrollment  of  eighteen  members,  its  officers  being  A.  N.  Archer, 
president;  Wm.  H.  Menzies,  foreman;  C.  J.  Marvin,  assistant  foreman;  J.  H. 
Hassinger,  secretary  and  treasurer ;  E.  Rudisill,  second  assistant  foreman.  The 
city  trustees  turned  over  to  this  company  the  old  four-wheeled  cart  and  600 
feet  of  hose,  and  furnished  lumber  to  put  up  a  small  building  which  was  erected 
on  private  property  by  voluntary  labor  and  subscription.  This  company  was 
increased  to  thirty  members  and  did  efficient  service  many  times,  although  much 
hampered  by  lack  of  water  pressure.  The  present  fire  house  is  fully  equipped. 


The  newspaper  history  of  Santa  Monica  is  practically  the  history  of  the 
Santa  Monica  Outlook.  The  first  number  of  this  paper  was  issued  October 

D.  G.  HOLT. 


I3th,  1875,  with  L.  T.  Fisher  as  editor.  Outside  of  the  Los  Angeles  Express, 
started  in  1871,  and  the  Herald,  first  published  in  1873,  it  is  the  oldest  newspaper 
in  the  county  and  one  of  the  oldest  papers  in  Southern  California. 

The  editor  had  published  a  paper  at  San  Pedro  before  locating  in  the  then 
embryo  city  of  Santa  Monica.  His  first  number  was  a  four-page,  seven-column 
sheet,  well  filled  with  news  and  advertisements.  The  office  of  the  Outlook  at 
this  time  was  on  Third  street,  between  Arizona  and  .Nevada,  the  property  now 
known  as  the  General  Sargeant  place.  The  editor  rejoices,  in  his  early  numbers, 
in  the  fact  that  he — for  the  first  time  in  his  life — owns  his  own  home,  and  in 
the  rapid  growth  of  his  trees  and  shrubbery.  The  magnificent  trees  on  this 
place  still  bear  mute  testimony  to  Mr.  Fisher's  energy. 

The  Outlook  boosted  Santa  Monica  manfully  during  those  early  years  of 
existence.  The  editor  was  convinced  that  the  progress  of  Santa  Monica,  the 
completion  of  the  Los  Angeles  and  Independence  road  and  the  supremacy  of 
Santa  Monica  as  a  commercial  port,  were  the  most  important  subjects  to 
himself  and  his  readers  and  he  wrote  editorials  on  these  which  were  masterpieces 
in  their  way.  April  5th.  1876,  he  published  the  first  "special  edition"  of  the 
Outlook,  reviewing  the  advance  made  during  the  six  months'  existence  of  the 

When  the  shadow  of  coming  disaster  began  to  loom  up,  Mr.  Fisher  fought 
the  "  Southern  Pacific  monopoly  "  bravely,  until  the  sale  of  the  Independence 
road  to  the  Southern  Pacific  company  was  finally  confirmed.  Then  he  yielded 
as  bravely  as  he  had  fought  and  announced :  "  We  should  accept  the  situation 
as  we  find  it  and  make  the  best  of  it.  If  we  can't  stem  the  current,  the  next 
best  thing  is  to  float  as  gracefully  as  possible  with  it."  During  1877,  H.  A. 
Downer  bought  an  interest  in  the  paper,  but  soon  retired  and  Mr.  Fisher  con 
tinued  the  paper  until  after  the  abandonment  of  the  wharf  by  the  S.  P. 
December  igth,  1878,  he  announces  that  the  next  issue  will  be  omitted,  as  the 
week  is  a  holiday.  The  next  issue  did  not  appear  until  January  5th,  1887. 

During  1886,  after  the  wave  of  activity  and  prosperity  had  again  struck 
Santa  Monica,  E.  A.  Fay  started  a  weekly  paper  known  as  The  Wave.  When 
L.  T.  Fisher  returned  and  began  the  publication  of  the  Outlook  again,  the  Wave 
soon  vanished  from  the  field  and  the  Outlook  remained  the  newspaper  of  the 
town.  In  all  the  rapid  advancement  of  that  boom  period,  the  Outlook  led  the 
procession.  Mr.  Fisher  put  up  a  strong  fight  for  the  new  wharf,  which  he 
believed  would  make  Santa  Monica  a  shipping  port;  for  sewers  and  municipal 
improvements ;  for  the  location  of  the  harbor  at  Santa  Monica,  and  for  small 
farms,  good  roads  and  tree  planting.  His  paper  was  always  strictly  non- 
partisan,  except  for  one  number  in  September,  1888,  when  it  was  proposed  to 
start  a  new  paper  in  Santa  Monica,  the  Review,  to  be  Republican  in  pol 
icy.  Then  the  Outlook  announces  that  it  will  support  the  Democratic 


ticket — Cleveland  and  Thurman.  But  the  new  paper  failed  to  materialize  and" 
the  Outlook  continued  to  follow  its  old  policy  which  is  outlined  as:  "The 
Outlook  is  doing  its  best — and  is  doing  it  in  its  own  way.  Our  chief  desire- 
is  to  advance  Santa  Monica  in  the  line  which  will  exemplify  the  good  old 
democratic  doctrine,  'The  greatest  good  to  the  greatest  number.'  ' 

In  March,  1891,  Mr.  Fisher  sold  the  Outlook  to  W.  S.  Rogers  and  Eugene 
Day ;  but  in  September  of  the  same  year  Mr.  Day  retired  and  Mr.  Fisher  again 
assumed  editorial  control  of  the  paper.  Mr.  Fisher  retained  his  interest  in  the 
paper  until  October,  1894,  when  he  sold  out  to  E.  B.  Woodworth.  But  before 
his  final  retirement  he  saw  his  long  desired  dream  of  a  commercial  wharf 
realized  and  during  1893  he  published  very  full  and  exultant  accounts  of  the 
building  and  business  of  the  long  wharf  and  Port  Los  Angeles,  making  predic 
tions  of  future  commercial  importance  for  Santa  Monica,  which  time  has  not 
yet  verified. 

Mr.  Woodworth  remained  sole  proprietor  of  the  paper  until  October,  1895, 
when  Robert  C.  Gillis  purchased  half  interest  in  the  paper.  In  February,  1896, 
Mr.  Gillis  became  sole  proprietor  of  the  Outlook;  in  April,  D.  G.  Holt  joined" 
Mr.  Gillis  in  the  publication  of  the  Outlook.  Since  that  date  Mr.  Holt  has 
contiued  as  editor  and  publisher  of  the  paper. 

On  Monday,  June  8th,  1896,  appeared  the  first  number  of  the  Santa  Monica 
Evening  Outlook,  a  four-page,  five-column  daily.  It  continued  in  this  forrrr 
until  November,  1891,  when  it  was  enlarged  to  six  columns.  June  i4th,  1902, 
the  paper  was  doubled  in  size,  becoming  eight  pages. 

The  Santa  Monica  Outlook  has  always  been  a  clean,  clear-cut  exponent 
of  the  interest  of  its  home  city.  This  is  the  object  of  its  existence  although 
the  interests  of  the  county  and  the  state' are  not  neglected.  In  1896  Messrs. 
Woodworth  and  Barrackman  began  the  publication  of  the  Southern  Signal, 
which  later  became  the  Signal,  a  weekly  and  daily  paper.  In  1897,  Eugene 
Day  was  editor  and  proprietor.  The  paper  continued  to  exist  until  May,  1898, 
when  it  passed  out  of  existence  finally. 


The  first  postoffice  in  Santa  Monica  was  located  in  a  building  still  standing 
on  the  east  side  of  Second  street,  near  Colorado.  The  first  postmaster  was  W. 
H.  Williams,  who  held  the  office  until  his  death  in  January,  1877.  He  was 
succeeded  by  J.  M.  Rogers.  During  September,  1877,  the  office  was  made  a 
money-order  office.  In  1880,  M.  B.  Boyce  was  appointed  postmaster  and  held 
the  office  until  1886,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  Miss  Maggie  Finn.  The  build 
ing  between  the  Giroux  and  Rapp  buildings  on  Second  street  was  then  used 
as  the  office.  In  February,  1890,  W.  S.  Vawter  received  the  appointment,  and 
assumed  the  office  April  ist.  1890.  He  removed  it  to  the  new  bank  building 


on  Third  street  and  established  it  in  handsomely  fitted  up  quarters,  with  J.  S. 
Summerfield  as  acting  deputy.  In  1893  Mr.  Yawter  resigned  to  be  succeeded 
by  I.  C.  Steele.  During  his  administration  the  office  was  located  in  the  Gates 
block.  In  May.  1898,  George  B.  Dexter  was  appointed,  to  be  succeeded  in  April, 
1902,  by  the  present  incumbent,  K.  B.  Summerfield. 

In  July,  1888.  the  office  was  raised  to  the  third  class.  In  1899  the  Ocean 
Park  postoffice  was  established,  with  L.  B.  Osborne  as  postmaster,  this  office 
being  in  Santa  Monica  also.  February  lyth,  1900,  the  electric  postal  service 
was  inaugurated,  which  gave  much  better  service  than  had  before  been  enjoyed. 
The  steady  growth  of  the  postal  business  in  both  postoffices  has  long  since  en 
titled  the  city  to  postal  delivery  ;  but  the  fact  of  there  being  two  separate  offices 
has  stood  in  the  way  of  the  completion  of  arrangements,  although  free  delivery 
lias  been  promised  for  some  time.  The  increased  business  of  the  Santa  Monica 
office  led  to  a  demand  for  increased  room  and  facilities  and  in  1907  a  building 
was  erected  especially  to  accommodate  the  postoffice  and  has  been  equipped  with 
every  convenience  for  the  postoffice  force  and  for  the  public. 


December  6th,  1888,  the  citizens  of  Santa  Monica,  after  some  preliminary 
discussion,  organized  a  Board  of  Trade,  selecting  Mr.  M.  R.  Gaddy  as  president 
and  J.  J.  Carrillo  as  secretary.  After  a  general  •discussion  as  to  the  needs  of 
the  community  and  what  could  be  done  to  aid  in  building  up  the  place,  a  com 
mittee  of  six  was  appointed  to  take  up  the  matter  of  securing  a  wharf — that 
being  regarded  as  the  most  important  improvement  that  could  be  made  at  this 
time.  During  the  year  the  Board  met  rather  irregularly  and  discussed  many 
plans  for  the  wharf,  for  a  boulevard  to  Los  Angeles  and  for  various  possible 
advance  moves.  In  1889,  E.  J.  Vawter  was  elected  president,  J.  J.  Carrillo 
retaining  the  secretaryship.  In  1890,  M.  R.  Gaddy  was  again  president.  In 
February,  1890,  the  Board  of  Trade  passed  a  resolution  declaring  that  Santa 
Monica  was  the  most  advantageous  location  for  a  harbor  and  requesting  Repre 
sentative  Vandever  to  use  his  influence  towards  securing  an  appropriation  for 
that  purpose.  This  Board  of  Trade  continued  to  exist  and  to  hold  semi- 
occasional  meetings  until  March,  1895,  when  it  became  a  Chamber  of  Commerce, 
duly  incorporated  for  the  sum  of  $10,000.  The  incorporators  were :  R.  F.  Jones, 
F.  L.  Simons,  T.  H.  Wells,  M.  H.  Kimball,  Walter  G.  Schee,  J.  J.  Carrillo, 
Roy  Jones,  E.  B.  Woodworth,  N.  A.  Roth,  W.  T.  Gillis.  H.  W.  Keller. 

The  old  members  of  the  Board  of  Trade  were  eligible  to  membership  and  a 
campaign  for  new  membership  was  made.  The  meeting  at  which  the  re-organi 
zation  was  effected  passed  resolutions  thanking  Hon.  J.  J.  Carillo  for  "  faithful 
and  efficient  official  service  during  the  seven  years  last  past,  all  of  which  time 
he  has  been  Secretary  of  the  Board."  The  president  of  the  new  Chamber  of 
Commerce  was  Robert  F.  Jones :  first  vice-president.  F.  L.  Simons ;  second-vice- 


president,  H.  W.  Keller;  treasurer,  M.  H.  Kimball.  The  new  organization  laid 
out  a  broad  scheme  of  work ;  twelve  different  committees  were  appointed 
to  deal  with  municipal  improvements  and  affairs.  One  of  the  first  matters 
taken  up  was  the  planning  of  a  float  for  La  Fiesta.  Another  topic  which 
absorbed  much  attention  and  was  exhaustively  handled  by  a  committee  con 
sisting  of  Roy  Jones  and  H.  W.  Keller,  was  that  of  securing  a  sewer  system. 

They  engaged  an  engineer  and  had  careful  estimates  and  plans  made, 
which  were  later  adopted  by  the  city  council.  When  the  Chamber  of  Com 
merce  asked  the  Board  of  Trustees  to  call  an  election  to  vote  on  sewer  bonds, 
the  Board  declined,  fearing  that  the  issue  would  not  carry.  The  Chamber  of 
Commerce  then  held  a  "  straw  election."  which  was  carried  out  with  all  the 
completeness  of  a  genuine  election  and  the  bonds  were  carried  by  a  handsome 
majority.  As  a  result  a  bond  election  was  called  by  the  city  and  $40,000  bonds 
were  voted  for  sewers. 

A  road  to  Calabasas  was  another  subject  which  received  attention 
and  which  was  successfully  carried  out,  largely  owing  to  the  work  of  Mr.  J. 
J.  Carillo.  Of  course  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  took  every  opportunity  to 
advance  Santa  Monica's  interests  in  the  harbor  fight,  then  on,  and  some  very 
interesting  meetings  were  held  in  connection  with  this  matter.  The  Chamber 
of  Commerce  raised  a  fund  to  send  Mr.  John  W.  Mitchell  to  Washington  as 
their  representative. 

The  enthusiasm  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  seems  to  have  worn  itself 
out  in  1898.  At  any  rate  in  December  of  that  year  it  was  proposed  to  organize 
an  "  Improvement  Club  "  which  it  was  believed  would  eventually  make  the  town 
doubly  a  paradise.  Frank  A.  Miller,  then  mine  host  of  the  Arcadia,  was  one 
of  the  moving  spirits  in  this  organization  and  it  started  out  with  energetic — 
talk.  J.  J.  Davis  was  president ;  F.  B.  McComas,  vice-president ;  F.  H.  Taft, 
secretary ;  Dr.  P.  S.  Lindsey,  treasurer.  The  executive  committee  included 
F.  A.  Miller,  Wr.  S.  Vawter,  N.  A.  Roth,  Roy  Jones,  Abbot  Kinney,  A.  Mooser, 
A.  W.  McPherson,  E.  P.  Clark,  T.  H.  Dudley,  F.  H.  Rindge,  L.  B.  Osborne. 
The  Club  made  a  vigorous,  although  unsuccessful,  campaign  to  secure  lower 
fares  to  Los  Angeles.  It  also  took  up  the  matter  of  liquor  licenses,  recom 
mending  that  only  six  saloon  licenses  be  issued  and  that  the  license  be  raised  to 
$600.  The  Improvement  Club  did  some  efficient  work  in  arousing  public  opinion 
of  the  saloon  situation,  and  for  three  or  four  months  the  Outlook  contains  long 
reports  of  its  meetings — then  apparently  the  Improvement  Club  went  the  way 
of  the  Board  of  Trade  and  Chamber  of  Commerce. 

The  Outlook  of  September  6th,  1901,  announces:  "Santa  Monica  is  well 
on  the  road  looking  to  an  efficient  organization  of  business  men  and  other  repre 
sentative  citizens.  The  ball  was  started  rolling  last  evening  when  a  largely 
attended  meeting  was  held  in  the  town  hall  for  the  purpose  of  organizing  a 


Board  of  Trade."  The  organization  was  completed  on  September  24th  when  A. 
Mooser  was  elected  president ;  W.  I.  Hull,  vice-president ;  Fred  H.  Taft, 
secretary;  W.  Lee  Chambers,  treasurer;  O.  G.  Tullis,  J.  H.  Jackson,  B.  Sues, 
George  D.  Snyder  and  A.  Montgomery,  were  the  executive  committee.  The 
question  of  bonds  for  civic  improvement;  of  a  sanitarium,  and  various  subjects 
of  public  interest  were  brought  before  the  public  by  the  efforts  of  the  Board  of 
Trade ;  but  it  seems  soon  to  have  lost  its  grip. 

July  gth,  1903,  the  ever  hopeful  scribe  of  the  Outlook  writes :  "  It  would 
seem  that  the  business  men  of  Santa  Monica  have  at  last  awakened  to  the 
necessity  of  doing  something  in  the  way  of  raising  the  standard  of  the  amuse 
ments,  improvements,  etc.,  of  this  town,  and  that  they  mean  to  stay  awake." 
A  large  and  "  enthusiastic  "  meeting  of  the  business  men  was  held  to  discuss 
the  situation  and  it  was  agreed  by  all  that  something  must  be  done  at  once,  or 
Santa  Monica  would  lose  her  prestige  as  a  summer  resort  entirely.  As  many 
of  those  present  had  been  members  of  the  old  Chamber  of  Commerce,  it  was 
decided  to  revive  that  organization.  The  officers  of  this  renewed  Chamber  of 
Commerce  were :  Robert  F.  Jones,  president ;  W.  I.  Hull,  first  vice-president ; 
R.  Fogel,  second  vice-president ;  Frank  W.  Vogel,  treasurer.  A  committee  to 
secure  amusements  and  music  for  the  summer  season  was  appointed  and  secured 
funds  for  band  concerts  during  the  season.  It  also  arranged  for  dances  and 
various  attractions  on  the  beach,  but  this  seems  to  have  been  the  extent  of  their 
efforts  and  nothing  more  is  heard  of  the  organization. 

The  next  organizations  to  "  improve  "  the  city  of  Santa  Monica  was  the 
Municipal  League.  This  was  formed  May  i8th,  1904,  with  Robert  F.  Jones 
as  presiding  officer;  Dr.  Rathbone,  vice-president;  D.  G.  Holt,  secretary;  A. 
Mooser,  treasurer.  It  proposed  among  other  things,  to  prepare  a  pamphlet 
setting  forth  the  advantages  of  Santa  Monica,  for  distribution ;  also  to  prepare 
an  exhibit  for  the  Los  Angeles  Chamber  of  Commerce,  but  the  only  real 
accomplishment  seems  to  have  been  a  Fourth  of  July  celebration,  and  the 
securing  of  a  band  to  play  during  the  summer  season. 

June  ist,  1905,  the  Santa  Monica  Municipal  League  changed  its  name  to 
become  the  Santa  Monica  Board  of  Trade,  with  W.  I.  Hull,  president ;  R. 
Fogel,  vice-president ;  J.  Addison  Smith,  secretary,  and  A.  Mooser,  treasurer. 
This  organization  has  proved  vital  and  has  been  an  important  factor  in  the 
rapid  progress  of  the  past  two  years.  Among  some  of  the  achievements  of 
the  first  year's  real  work  were  the  issuing  of  20,000  copies  of  a  neat  booklet 
advertising  Santa  Monica;  the  publishing  of  an  advertisement  of  Santa  Monica 
in  the  Pacific  Monthly  for  six  months ;  efficient  aid  in  the  securing  of  annexation 
of  territory  to  the  city,  and  in  securing  better  lighting  and  other  improvements 
for  the  municipality.  At  the  second  annual  meeting,  August  loth,  1906,  W.  I. 


Hull  was  again  elected  president,  and  J.  Addison  Smith,  secretary ;  C.  D.  Middle- 
kauff  was  treasurer,  and  R.  Fogle,  vice-president. 

Much  valuable  work  for  the  good  of  Santa  Monica  was  accomplished 
during  the  new  year  of  1906-07.  One  of  the  most  important  moves  was  the 
effort  made  to  secure  free  mail  delivery  and  the  promise  finally  secured  that 
such  delivery  would  be  provided  for  as  soon  as  arrangements  could  be  com 
pleted.  Attention  of  the  department  was  also  drawn  to  the  inadequate  accom 
modations  furnished  the  Santa  Monica  postoffice  and  the  result  has  been  the 
securing  of  new  and  ample  quarters.  Another  important  step  was  the  action 
of  the  board,  in  recommending  that  Santa  Monica  merchants  withdraw  their 
business  from  the  L.  A.  P.  road  until  that  company  granted  a  five-cent  fare 
within  the  city  limits.  Largely  through  the  action  of  this  body,  the  fine  system 
of  lighting  Ocean  avenue  was  adopted.  But  the  most  important  work  of  the 
organization  was  in  connection  with  the  sewer  problem.  It  secured  and  pre 
sented  the  plan  of  disposal  which  has  finally  been  adopted  and  which  it  is 
confidently  believed  will  settle  for  all  time  this  troublesome  subject  which  has 
disturbed  the  peace  of  mind  of  the  community  .for  many  years.  At  the  third 
annual  meeting  held  in  October,  1907,  Mr.  Hull  declined  to  be  re-elected, 
and  J.  J.  Seymour  was  chosen  as  president,  R.  Fogel  was  elected  vice-president, 
and  W.  K.  Cowan,  treasurer. 


1886.— Board  of  trustees,  J.  W.  Scott,  W.  S.  Vawter,  A.  E.  Ladd,  John 
Steere,  Dr.  E.  C.  Folsom ;  clerk,  Fred  C.  McKinnie ;  John  Steere,  president : 
treasurer,  Col.  E.  K.  Chapin ;  marshal,  Hamilton  Bagg,  succeeded  by  Michael 

1888. — Board  of  trustees,  T.  A.  Lewis,  J.  J.  Carrillo,  Thomas  Rhodes,  were 
elected,  Dr.  E.  C.  Folsom  and  W.  S.  Vawter  held  over,  Dr.  Folsom  was  presi 
dent  of  the  board.  Rhodes  soon  resigned  and  E.  J.  Vawter  took  his  place. 
Fred  McKinnie,  clerk;  Col.  E.  K.  Chapin,  treasurer;  attorney,  J.  C.  Morgan. 

1890.— J.  L.  Allen,  John  Steere,  J.  J.  Carrillo,  T.  A.  Lewis  and  E.  J. 
Vawter  were  trustees,  with  J.  J.  Carrillo  president  of  the  board ;  Emmet  Pollard. 
Clerk ;  Col.  Chapin,  treasurer ;  M.  K.  Barretto,  marshal ;  attorney,  J.  C.  Morgan. 

1892.— J.  J.  Carrillo,  E.  J.  Vawter.  R.  R.  Harris.  T.  A.  Lewis.  H.  C. 
Beville,  J.  J.  Carrillo  being  president  of  the  board ;  clerk,  C.  S.  Dales ;  treasurer. 
George  Boehme ;  marshal,  M.  K.  Baretto ;  city  attorney,  R.  R.  Tanner. 

1894.— Robert  F.  Jones,  X.  A.  Roth.  J.  J.  Carrillo,  T.  L.  Lewis  and  E. 
J.  Vawter  were  trustees,  J.  J.  Carrillo  being  president  of  the  board ;  clerk,  C.  S. 
Dales :  treasurer,  George  Boehme :  marshal,  M.  K.  Barretto ;  attorney,  R. 
R.  Tanner;  library  trustees,  H.  A.  \Yinslow,  O.  G.  Tullis,  H.  S.  DeVan,  D.  L. 
Bancroft,  H.  C.  Wevse. 


1896. — Board  of  trustees,  Robert  F.  Jones,  J.  J.  Carrillo,  R.  C.  Gillis,  Moses 
Hostetter,  N.  A.  Roth,  Jones  being  president;  clerk,  C.  S.  Dales;  treasurer,  E. 
W.  Boehme ;  marshal,  George  B.  Dexter ;  attorney,  R.  R.  Tanner ;  library 
trustees,  Dr.  P.  S.  Lindsey,  Fred  H.  Taft,  J.  Walter  Gray,  T.  H.  Wells,  William 

1898. — Board  of  trustees,  Robert  F.  Jones,  N.  A.  Roth,  J.  J.  Carrillo,  Moses 
Hostetter,  R.  C.  Gillis,  R.  F.  Jones  was  president;  clerk,  J.  C.  Steele;  treasurer, 
E.  W.  Boehme;  marshal,  M.  K.  Barretto;  library  trustees,  S.  D.  Belt,  J.  Walter 
Gray,  P.  S.  Lindsey,  Fred  H.  Taft,  T.  H.  Wells 

1900. — Board  of  trustees,  Robert  F.  Jones,  C.  H.  Sammis,  J.  C.  Morgan, 
T.  H.  Dudley,  N.  R.  Folsom ;  clerk,  John  B.  Proctor ;  treasurer,  E.  W.  Boehme ; 
marshal,  M.  K.  Barretto;  library  trustees,  J.  C.  Hemingway,  P.  S.  Lindsey,  C. 
I.  D.  Moore.  Fred  H.  Taft,  T.  H,  Wells. 

1902.— Board  of  trustees,  T.  H.  Dudley,  W.  S.  Vawter,  J.  C.  Steele,  C.  H. 
.Sammis,  J.  C.  Morgan,  T.  H.  Dudley  serving  as  president ;  clerk,  J.  C.  Heming 
way  ;  treasurer,  E.  W.  Boehme ;  marshal,  M.  K.  Barretto ;  attorney,  Fred  H.  Taft. 

1903.— First  election  under  charter.  Council,  T.  H.  Dudley,  H.  X.  Goetz, 
A.  F.  Johnston,  J.  C.  Steele,  W.  S.  Vawter ;  clerk,  J.  C.  Hemingway ;  treasurer, 
Frank  W.  Vogel ;  assessor,  C.  S.  Dales;  recorder,  A.  M.  Guidinger;  marshal, 
M.  K.  Baretto;  school  board,  W.  E.  Devore,  J.  H.  Hassinger,  Dr.  J.  S.  Hunt, 
J.  S.  H.  Jackson,  S.  F  Carpenter, 

1906. — Mayor,  T  H.  Dudley.  Members  of  city  council — First  ward,  G.  D. 
Snyder;  Second  ward,  W.  A.  Armstrong;  Third  ward,  Abe  S.  Reel;  Fourth 
ward,  Alf  Morris;  Fifth  ward,  H.  L.  Coff  man ;  Sixth  ward,  J.  Euclid  Miles; 
Seventh  ward,  Roscoe  H.  Dow.  President  of  council,  Alf  Morris;  city  clerk, 
J.  C.  Hemingway ;  treasurer  and  tax  collector,  Ralph  Bane ;  assessor,  C.  S. 
Dales ;  attorney,  S.  W.  Odell ;  engineer,  Thomas  H.  James ;  street  superin 
tendent,  H.  L.  Johnson;  building  superintendent,  H.  L.  Mitchell;  police  judge, 
J.  J.  Carrillo;  chief  of  police,  M.  K.  Barretto;  chief  of  fire  department,  C.  J. 
Marvin :  health  officer,  Dr.  W.  H.  Parker ;  superintendent  of  schools,  Horace 
M.  Rebok.  Board  of  education,  W.  E.  Devore,  president ;  A.  B.  Clapp,  E.  V. 
Dales,  D.  G.  Holt,  W.  S  Vawter ;  board  of  library  trustees,  G.  A.  Lonsberry, 
president;  Lewis  E.  Bradt,  A.  M.  Jamison,  C.  M.  Lindsey,  John  Morton. 


United  States  census 1880  417 

United   States  census 1890  1.580 

LTnited  States  census 1900  3.°57 

Census  taken  by  city 1905  7,028 




THE    oldest    record    of    the    Methodist    church    of    Santa    Monica    reads : 
"  Minutes  of  the  First  Quarterly  Conference  for  Santa  Monica,  held  Oc 
tober  26th,  1875,  at  the  residence  of  D.  G.  C.  Baker.    The  presiding  elder, 
A.  M.  Hough,  in  the  chair.     The  session  was  opened  with  prayer  by  the  presiding 
elder.     On   motion   Rev.   J.   D.    Crum   was  appointed   secretary.     Organization : 

The  following  named  persons,  members  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  church, 
being  present,  proceeded  to  organize  a  society :  J.  D.  D.  Crum,  pastor ;  O.  A. 
Snow,  local  preacher ;  D.  G.  C.  Baker,  A.  Dutton,  M.  J.  D.  Baker,  Eliza  Corey, 
Ida  May  Atkinson,  Margaret  Atkinson,  Minnie  Atkinson  and  Mary  A.  Crum. 
Abner  Dutton  was  appointed  class  leader.  Stewards:  D.  G.  C.  Baker,  O.  A. 
Snow  and  Margaret  Atkinson.  D.  G.  C.  Baker,  recording  secretary.  Trustees: 
O.  A.  Snow,  R.  M.  Widney,  Samuel  Atkinson.  D.  G.  C.  Baker  and  J.  D.  Crum. 


It  was  resolved  that  the  trustees  be  instructed  to  incorporate  and  secure  lots 
from  the  Santa  Monica  Land  Company  and  erect  a  church  building  thereon. 
Margaret  Atkinson  and  Mrs.  M.  J.  D.  Baker  were  appointed  a  committee  to 
secure  subscriptions  to  aid  in  the  erection  of  a  church." 

The  Reverend  Crum  preached  for  the  first  time  in  Santa  Monica,  October 
I5th,  1875,  m  an  upper  room  of  the  buildng,  then  occupied  as  a  hardware 
store,  on  the  corner  of  Oregon  and  Fifth  street.  On  October  29th  Rev.  Hough 
preached.  The  society  continued  to  use  this  room  until  January  i3th,  1876, 
when  the  pastor  gave  notice  that  there  would  be  no  service  on  the  next  Sabbath, 
but  that  he  hoped  they  would  worship  in  a  building  of  their  own  on  the  second 
Sunday.  And  this  was  done.  The  Santa  Monica  Land  -Company  donated  two 
lots  for  the  use  of  the  church  on  the  corner  of  Sixth  street  and  Arizona  avenue ; 
the  people  of  the  little  town,  still  largely  a  tent  city,  donated  money  and  labor. 
Rev.  A.  M.  Hough  and  R.  M.  Widney  of  Los  Angeles  subscribed  liberally,  and 
the  pastor,  being  of  the  long  line  of  Methodist  elders  who  were  able  to  work 
with  hands  as  well  as  with  brain  and  heart,  himself  labored  with  carpenter's 
tools.  The  church  when  completed,  represented  a  value,  including  lots  of 
$1,361.66.  This  building,  after  being  removed  to  the  corner  of  Fourth  and 
Arizona,  enlarged  several  times,  was  finally  removed  to  South  Santa  Monica 
to  house  the  new  M.  E.  church  there. 

This  building  was  dedicated,  free  from  debt,  on  February  3rd,  1776.  Rev. 
Crum  was  pastor  of  the  church  most  of  the  time  until  1878-79.  He  came  of 
a  family  of  ministers,  his  grandfather  having  been  one  of  the  founders  of  the 
United  Brethren  church  and  having  had  nine  grandsons  who  entered  the  Method 
ist  ministry.  He  had  spent  fifteen  years  in  the  Southern  Illinois  conference 
before  coming  to  this  state,  where  his  first  charge  was  the  Santa  Monica  church, 
which  he  so  ably  led  under  many  discouragements.  It  is  of  record  that  for  his 
first  year  of  labor  here  he  received  $230,  and  his  salary  in  the  subsequent  years 
was  pitifully  inadequate. 

Rev.  Crum  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  S.  S.  Russell,  who  only  remained  a 
year,  and  then  for  three  years  the  church  was  pastorless  and  practically  dis 
organized.  A  pastor  was  sent  here  in  1883-4,  Rev.  J.  B.  Howard,  who  found 
but  three  resident  members  of  the  church.  He  nevertheless  succeeded  in 
gathering  a  number  of  new  members  and  strengthened  the  church  by  changing 
the  location.  The  lots  on  Sixth  street  were  sold  and  the  present  location  on 
Fourth  street  and  Arizona  avenue  was  purchased  and  the  building  removed. 

The  church  continued  to  gain  slowly  under  various  pastors  until  1890, 
when  a  serious  disagreement  occurred  between  the  pastor,  the  official  board 
and  the  membership,  and  as  a  result  thirty-one  out  of  the  fifty-three  members 
withdrew  and  formed  the  Prohibition  Congregational  church.  The  blow  was  a 
severe  one  and  the  church  did  not  recover  its  strength  for  two  or  three  years. 



In  1892  Mr.  and  Mrs.  F.  H.  Rindge  became  members  of  the  church  and  rendered 
much  assistance  to  it.  Rev.  Wm.  Stevenson  was  pastor,  and  under  his  minis 
trations  the  church  was  doubled  in  membership  and  began  an  advance  move 
which  has  since  continued.  The  Epworth  League  was  formed  this  year.  Dr. 
Stevenson  remained  as  pastor  of  the  church  until  1897  and  was  then  given 
a  farewell  reception  which  expressed  somewhat  the  honor  and  love  which  he 
had  inspired,  not  only  in  the  church,  but  among  the  citizens  of  the  town 

In  June,  1895,  it  was  announced  that  Frederick  H.  Rindge  proposed  to 
build  a  new-  church  building,  free  of  all  cost  to  the  church,  provided  it  would 
agree  to  meet  the  pastor's  salary  and  all  incidental  expenses.  In  consequence 
on  August  i3th,  1895,  ground  was  broken  for  this  building  and  on  the  first 
Sabbath  in  1896,  the  most  beautiful  Methodist  church  building  in  Southern 
California  was  dedicated. 

In  1897-98  Rev.  R.  C.  Wuestenberg  was  pastor  and  the  membership  was 
increased  to  150,  while  the  Sunday  school  numbered  from  250-270.  In  July, 
1898,  it  was  voted  to  remove  the  old  church  to  South  Santa  Monica,  where  a 
mission  was  holding  service  in  the  old  Santa  Fe  depot.  But  after  some  agitation 
the  action  was  not  taken.  In  August,  1899,  a  church  was  organized,  then 
known  as  South  Santa  Monica  M.  E.  church,  with  Rev.  F.  G.  H.  Stevens  as 
pastor,  the  mission  having  been  served  by  Rev.  Robert  Fisher.  In  December, 
the  old  church  was  donated  to  the  new  organization  and  was  moved  to  Ocean 
Park.  A  new  parsonage  was  erected  on  the  site  of  the  old  parsonage. 

Rev.  C.  T.  Wilson  and  Rev.  T.  H.  Woodward  served  as  pastors  and  Rev. 
J.  C.  Healy  served  during  1901  to  1903.  During  his  term  the  parsonage  was 
completed,  a  neat  cottage  which  was  a  decided  addition  to  the  advantages  of 
the  church.  In  1903  came  Rev.  F.  G.  H.  Stevens,  who  still  remains — one  of 
the  ablest  and  best  beloved  of  the  many  good  men  who  have  served  this  church. 

Now,  in  1907,  the  church  has  a  membership  of  240,  while  the  Sunday 
school  reaches  350.  So  rapid  has  been  the  growth  of  the  church  and  congre 
gations  that  the  church  of  ten  years  ago  is  inadequate  and  an  addition  which 
will  more  than  double  the  seating  capacity  of  the  structure  is  in  course  of 


The  history  of  the  Presbyterian  church  of  Santa  Monica  dates  back  to 
September  I2th,  1875,  when  a  Sunday  school  was  organized  at  the  house  of 
W.  D.  Vawter,  on  Fourth  street,  the  present  home  of  the  Misses  Vawter.  Later 
this  school  met  in  a  hall  on  the  corner  of  Fifth  and  Oregon,  generously  offered 
to  them  by  Mr.  J.  O.  Brady. 

On  Septetmber  24th,  a  petition  signed  by  twelve  persons,  was  sent  to  the 


Rev.  Dr.  White,  chairman  of  the  committee  of  the  Presbytery,  asking  him  to 
come  to  Santa  Monica  and  organize  a  Presbyterian  church.  ( )n  Tuesday, 
September  28th,  Dr.  White  met  with  the  petitioners  and  organized  them  in 
accordance  with  their  request  into  the  "  First  Presbyterian  Church  of  Santa 
Monica."  The  names  of  the  petitioners  were  as  follows:  Mr.  R.  S.  P>assett, 
Mrs.  E.  Bassett,  Miss  Rose  Bassett,  Mr.  T.  H.  Clark,  Mrs.  E.  Mountain,  Misses 
Mattie  A.  Mountain,  Mr.  L.  M.  Perkins,  Mrs.  S.  P.  Perkins,  Mrs.  C.  A. 
Vawter,  Miss  May  Yawter,  Miss  Jennie  Yawter,  Miss  Emma  Yawter.  The 
trustees  of  the  new  organization  were :  Y.  S.  Grinshaw,  E.  J.  Yawter,  G.  W. 
Brady,  W.  S.  Yawter. 

The  new  society  proceeded  at  once  to  provide  themselves  with  a  permanent 
place  of  worship.  Messrs.  Jones  and  Baker  presented  the  church  with  two 
lots  at  the  corner  of  Third  and  Arizona,  and  on  these  was  erected  the  chapel 
which  for  eleven  years  was  used,  and  was  then  moved  to  the  rear  of  the  lots, 
enlarged,  and  used  for  infant  classes,  mid-week  meetings  and  socials.  The 
Presbyterian  Board  of  Church  Erection  assisted  in  building  this  first  church, 
work  on  which  was  commenced  January  ijth,  1876,  and  which  was  dedicated 
March  I2th. 

On  Sunday,  July  loth,  1887,  a  move  was  made  for  building  a  more  com 
modious  place  of  worship.  On  that  day  Col.  Elliott  F.  Shepherd,  proprietor 
of  the  New  York  Mail  and  Express,  and  an  elder  of  the  Fifth  Avenue  Presby 
terian  church  of  New  York  City,  happened  to  be  present  and,  hearing  that  the 
church  intended  to  build,  started  the  list  with  a  subscription  of  $230.  Encour 
aged  by  this  beginning,  a  committee  consisting  of  Mrs.  Mary  E.  Treadwell  and 
Miss  Jennie  Vawter  was  appointed  to  canvas  the  congregation  and  community. 
By  their  energetic  efforts  sufficient  funds  were  soon  subscribed  to  erect  and 
enclose  the  new  church  building.  But  before  the  completion  of  the  work  came 
the  collapse  of  the  boom  and  many  of  the  subscriptions  were  not  paid  in.  The 
ladies  of  the  church  met  this  condition  and  it  is  largely  due  to  their  efforts  that 
the  church  was  finally  completed  and  dedicated,  Sunday,  September  4th,  1892. 
The  ladies  held  a  memorable  series  of  entertainments  during  the  four  years  of 
church  building.  The  success  of  the  Santa  Monica  ladies  in  taking  the  first  prize 
at  the  Floral  Festival  in  Los  Angeles,  suggested  the  idea  of  a  Floral  Festival  at 
home.  In  1889  a  "Feast  of  Flowers"  was  held  in  the  new  church  building,  then 
unfinished,  which  was  arranged  by  the  ladies  of  the  town  under  the  auspices  of 
(he  Presbyterian  ladies  and  which  was  acknowledged  as  one  of  the  most  beautiful 
floral  exhibits  ever  made  in  Southern  California.  The  succeeding  year  a 
Kalendar  Kirmess  was  given,  lasting  three  days,  the  booths  representing  the 
months  and  the  whole  conception  most  artistically  designed  and  carried  out. 
In  1891  another  "  Spring  Festival  "  was  held  which  was  an  equally  rich  display 
of  Santa  Monica's  floral  wealth.  These  affairs  were  participated  in  by  the 


people  of  Santa  Monica  generally  and  attracted  many  visitors  from  Los  Angeles 
and  other  places.  Much  of  their  success  was  due  to  the  energy  and  executive 
ability  of  the  committee  of  which  Miss  Jennie  Vawter  was  chairman. 

The  new  church  is  of  the  Queen  Anne  style,  ceiled  and  wainscoted  within 
with  cedar,  lighted  with  stained  glass  windows  and  electrical  chandeliers,  and 
with  a  seating  capacity  of  250.  The  total  cost  was  about  $7,000,  of  which  over 
$1,000  was  contributed  by  Mr.  W.  D.  Vawter,  to  whose  encouragement  at  the 
outset  and  liberal  contributions,  the  success  of  the  undertaking  was  largely 
due.  It  was  built  under  the  supervision  of  a  committee  consisting  of  Messrs. 
W.  S.  Vawter,  Patrick  Robertson  and  E.  H.  Sweetser. 

In  the  summer  of  1907  a  fine  pipe  organ  was  placed  in  the  church  as  a 
memorial  gift  from  Mr.  Joseph  H.  Clark  to  the  memory  of  his  son,  Edward 
H.  Clerk.  It  was  built  by  the  Estey  Company  and  was  installed  at  a  cost 
of  $2,600. 

The  following  ministers  have  served  the  church  since  1875  as  pastors,  or 
as  stated  supplies:  I.  M.  Condit,  H.  V.  Noyes,  John  W.  Ellis,  H.  Mackay, 
Thos.  F.  Fotheringham,  Williel  O.  Thompson,  J.  W.  Healy,  Richmond  Logan, 
James  White,  Samuel  H.  Weller,  Enos  P.  Baker,  J.  B.  Stewart,  William  R. 
Henderson,  O.  F.  Wisner,  Amos  A.  Randall,  Henry  P.  Wilber.  The  following 
have  served  as  ruling  elders :  G.  H.  Clark,  J.  C.  Olmstead,  Geo.  A.  Armtsrong, 
William  E.  Case,  H.  H.  Dow,  George  D.  Rowan,  Andrew  J.  Viele,  John  M. 
Coyner,  James  E.  Ward,  C.  S.  Dales,  Clarkson  N.  Guyer,  T.  H.  Wells,  H.  J. 
White,  T.  E.  Cramer. 


July  28th,  1877,  the  Outlook  states,  saw  the  celebration  of  mass,  for  the 
first  time  in  the  new  town  of  Santa  Monica.  The  service  was  held  in  the  house 
of  Judge  Morgan,  Reverend  Father  Verdaguer,  the  beloved  "  Father  Peter  "  of 
the  Plaza  church,  Los  Angeles,  presiding.  Services  were  probably  held  at 
irregular  intervals  thereafter  until  May  4th,  1884,  when  the  Catholic  church  was 
opened  for  use,  although  it  was  not  completed  until  the  following  year.  On 
August  i8th,  1885,  the  bell  of  the  church  was  blessed  and  the  church  was 

In  May,  1886,  came  Father  Patrick  Hawe  as  pastor  of  the  church,  and  since 
that  date  Father  Hawe  has  been  the  mainspring  of  the  parish  and  the  church 
work  in  this  vicinity.  Under  his  supervision  was  built  the  parochial  house 
adjoining  the  church  and  the  addition  to  the  orginal  church  building  which 
was  dedicated  August  iQth,  1888,  by  Bishop  Mora.  In  1887  the  statue  of 
Saint  Monica  was  presented  to  the  church  by  Mrs.  Victor  Ponet,  of  Los 
Angeles.  Also  this  year  was  built  the  Catholic  church  at  Ballona,  now  Palms, 


St.  Augustine's — named  for  the  son  of  Saint  Monica  very  fittingly,  since  this 
mission  was  an  offshoot  of  Saint  Monica's  church. 

In  1899,  July  i6th,  a  small  band  of  Sisters  of  the  Holy  Name,  came  to 
Santa  Monica  to  establish  an  academy.  They  rented  a  private  house  on  Fourth 
street,  and  September  4th,  opened  their  school  with  nineteen  pupils.  The 
year  closed  with  fifty-two  childrn  under  the  charge  of  the  Sisters. 

September  26th,  1890,  the  ground  was  broken  for  the  building  of  the 
Academy  of  Holy  Names  on  the  corner  of  Third  and  Arizona  streets.  February 
22nd,  1901,  witnessed  the  dedication  of  the  new  building.  This  was  an  im 
pressive  ceremony  and  the  occasion  is  one  that  will  long  live  in  the  memory  of 
the  participants  and  witnesses.  The  civic  services  were  the  finest  ever  held  in 
Santa  Monica.  Under  the  management  of  the  grand  marshal,  J.  J.  Carrillo 
and  his  fifty  aides,  richly  caprisoned  as  Spanish  cabelleros,  the  parade  was 
viewed  in  front  of  the  academy.  It  consisted  of  a  number  of  old  soldiers  from 
the  Soldiers'  Home ;  a  float  representing  all  the  states  and  territories ;  two 
brass  bands ;  nine  societies  from  Los  Angeles ;  Santa  Monica  Board  of  Trustees 
and  fire  department,  and  the  children  from  the  academy,  the  Ballona,  Santa 
Monica  and  Canyon  Sunday  schools.  As  General  La  Grange,  and  the  city 
officials,  escorting  the  clergy,  left  their  carriages  the  home  band  played 
"  patriotic  songs  and  the  cannon  of  the  Soldiers'  Home  boomed,  while  the  flag 
unfurled  and  spilled  the  fragrant  roses  hidden  within  its  folds."  The  mayor 
of  Los  Angeles  welcomed  the  guests ;  Right  Reverend  Bishop  Montgomery 
delivered  the  oration.  Thus  was  the  school  inaugurated  in  its  beautiful  home. 

On  May  5th,  1903,  the  academy  was  honored  by  a  visit  from  Rev.  Arch 
bishop  Diomede  Falconi,  representative  in  this  country  of  the  Pope,  Leo  XIII. 
The  occasion  was  made  a  festal  day  and  the  distinguished  guest  was  paid  every 
honor,  not  only  by  the  clergy  and  laity  of  the  Catholic  church,  but  by  the  city 
officials  and  citizens  generally.  July  loth,  1903,  was  a  day  long  remembered 
in  the  annals  of  Santa  Monica.  It  was  given  up  to  the  entertainment  of  the 
Knights  of  Columbia,  who  had  that  year  held  their  annual  session  in  Los 
Angeles.  The  streets  and  buildings  were  brilliantly  decorated  and  the  popula 
tion  turned  out  to  welcome  the  guests  who,  in  turn,  gazed  with  admiration  upon 
the  chaums  of  fair  Santa  Monica.  The  day  was  still  further  marked  by  the 
inauguration  of  a  council  of  the  Knights  of  Columbus  in  this  city,  a  council 
which  has  flourished  and  is  now  a  powerful  ally  of  the  church. 

In  1904,  under  the  auspices  of  Bishop  Conaty,  now  head  of  this  diocese, 
the  Catholic  Teachers'  Institute  was  held  in  this  city,  and  since  that  date  these 
institutes  have  been  an  annual  feature  of  the  life  of  the  Sisters  who  are  engaged 
in  teaching.  As  guests  of  the  Academy  of  the  Holy  Name  they  spend  two 



weeks  each  summer  in  listening  to  the  instructions  and  lectures  of  distinguished 

But  perhaps  the  most  glorious  of  all  gala  days  in  the  annals  of  Saint 
Monica's  was  the  celebration  of  May  8th,  1904.  This  was  a  triple  festival,  for 
it  marked  the  twentieth  anniversary  of  the  founding  of  the  Church  of  Saint 
Monica's,  the  eighteenth  year  of  Father  Hawe's  service  to  this  parish  and  the 
dedication  of  the  church  of  St.  Clement,  of  Ocean  Park.  This  church  had  been 
started  by  Father  Hawe  ten  years  before  as  a  mission.  The  corner-stone  for 
the  handsome  building  was  laid  on  August  24th,  1903,  and  the  church  was 
finally  dedicated  August  2Oth,  1905.  The  Reverend  Michael  Hennessy  is  the 
rector  of  this  church. 

The  chapel  at  the  Soldiers'  Home  is  also  included  in  Father  Hawe's  parish, 
he  having  held  the  first  services  on  the  grounds  of  the  Home,  soon  after  it  was 
instituted  in  1889.  A  beautiful  building  has  been  erected  by  the  government, 
containing  two  chapels — one  for  the  use  of  the  Protestant  churches  and  one  for 
Catholic  services.  The  churches  now  included  in  the  parish  of  Saint  Monica 
are  four,  beside  the  academy.  The  entire  number  of  communicants  is  large. 

January  I5th,  1903,  Reverend  James  A.  O'Callaghan  came  to  Santa  Monica 
to  relieve  the  head  of  the  parish  and  assist  him  in  his  labors.  Father  O'Callag 
han  is  a  man  of  fine  education  and  of  superior  qualities  and  has  been  of  the 
greatest  value  to  the  parish.  In  1906  Father  Hawe  visited  the  home  of  his 
birth  and  also  visited  the  venerable  Father  Adam,  of  beloved  memory  through 
out  California.  During  his  stay  in  Europe  Father  Hawe  also  visited  Rome 
and  received  the  blessing  of  the  Pope.  He  is  again  welcomed  to  his  own  field 
where  he  guides  the  many  affairs  co-incident  with  so  large  and  important  a 

Plans  are  already  made  for  greatly  enlarging  the  work  of  the  Catholic 
church  in  Santa  Monica.  It  is  hoped  soon  to  begin  work  upon  a  cathedral 
which  shall  be  a  magnificent  expression  of  worship,  to  be  located  on  the  corner 
of  California  avenue  and  Fourth  street.  The  Christian  Brothers,  a  Catholic 
organization,  has  recently  secured  a  site  of  eleven  acres  between  California 
and  Nevada  avenues,  Ninth  and  Eleventh  streets.  Here  a  large  college  for 
boys  will  be  established. 


The  first  Episcopalian  service  held  in  this  city  was  an  Easter  service  in 
Roger's  Hall,  April  isth,  1876.  The  hall  was  suitably  decorated  for  the  occa 
sion  and  the  Rev.  J.  B.  Gray  officiated.  After  this  there  was  talk  of  forming 
an  Episcopal  society  here  and  a  number  expressed  themselves  willing  to  con 
tribute  to  a  building  fund  for  such  a  church ;  but  it  was  not  until  about  Novem 
ber,  1885,  that  services  were  regularly  held  and  a  Sunday  school  organized.  At 



that  time  the  Rev.  Henry  Scott  Jefferys,  of  Los  Angeles,  was  appointed  by 
Bishop  Kip  as  missionary  in  charge  of  the  work  and  at  once  proceeded  to  secure 
land  and  money  for  the  erection  of  an  Episcopal  church.  Senator  Jones  and 
Mrs.  Baker  donated  two  lots  on  Fourth  street  and  an  active  building  committee, 
consisting  of  Rev.  Jefferys,  Messrs.  Baxter  and  Tomkinson,  set  to  work  to  get 
the  needed  subscriptions.  At  the  end  of  the  first  year  of  Mr.  Jeffery's  labors, 
sixteen  adults  and  twenty-two  children  were  connected  with  the  mission. 

The  corner-stone  for  a  chapel  to  cost 
$3,000  was  laid  with  much  ceremony  on 
June  loth,  1887.  Bishop  Wingfield  acted 
for  the  Bishop  of  California  and  there 
were  present  beside  the  Bishop,  the  Rev. 
Elias  Birdsell,  rector  of  St.  Paul's  church, 
Los  Angeles ;  the  Rev.  A.  G.  C.  Trew,  of 
San  Gabriel;  the  Rev.  J.  D.  H.  Browne, 
rector  of  All  Saints'  church,  Pasadena ; 
the  Rev.  J.  B.  Britton,  a  retired  mission 
ary  and  the  missionary  in  charge.  In 
1888,  through  the  successful  labors  of 
Mr.  Jefferys  and  the  people  the  new 
church  was  opened  for  divine  w